click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Stoneware

Stoneware is a rather broad term for pottery or other ceramics fired at a high temperature. A modern technical definition is a vitreous or semi-vitreous ceramic made from stoneware clay or non-refractory fire clay. Whether vitrified or not, it is nonporous. Across the world, it has been developed after earthenware and before porcelain, has been used for high-quality as well as utilitarian wares; as a rough guide, modern earthenwares are fired in a kiln at temperatures in the range of about 1,000°C to 1,200 °C. Reaching high temperatures was a long-lasting challenge, temperatures somewhat below these were used for a long time. Earthenware can be fired as low as 600°C, achievable in primitive pit firing, but 800 °C to 1,100 °C was more typical. Stoneware needs certain types of clays, more specific than those able to make earthenware, but can be made from a much wider range than porcelain. Stoneware is not recognised as a category in traditional East Asian terminology, much Asian stoneware, such as Chinese Ding ware for example, is counted as porcelain by local definitions.

Terms such as "porcellaneous" or "near-porcelain" may be used in such cases. One definition of stoneware is from the Combined Nomenclature of the European Communities, a European industry standard, it states: Stoneware, though dense and hard enough to resist scratching by a steel point, differs from porcelain because it is more opaque, only vitrified. It may be semi-vitreous, it is coloured grey or brownish because of impurities in the clay used for its manufacture, is glazed. In industrial ceramics, five basic categories of stoneware have been suggested: Traditional stoneware – a dense and inexpensive body, it can be of any colour and breaks with a conchoidal or stony fracture. Traditionally made of fine-grained secondary, plastic clays which can be used to shape large pieces. Fine stoneware – made from more selected and blended raw materials, it is used to produce art ware. Chemical stoneware – used in the chemical industry, when resistance to chemical attack is needed. Purer raw materials are used than for other stoneware bodies.

Ali Baba is a popular name for a large chemical stoneware jars of up to 5,000 litres capacity used to store acids. Thermal shock resistant stoneware – has additions of certain materials to enhance the thermal shock resistance of the fired body. Electrical stoneware – used for electrical insulators, although it has been replaced by electrical porcelain; the key raw material in stoneware is either occurring stoneware clay or non-refractory fire clay. The mineral kaolinite is present but disordered, although mica and quartz are present their particle size is small. Stoneware clay is accompanied by impurities such as iron or carbon, giving it a "dirty" look, its plasticity can vary widely. Non-refractory fire clay may be another key raw material. Fire clays are considered refractory, because they withstand high temperatures before melting or crumbling. Refractory fire clays have a high concentration of kaolinite, with lesser amounts of mica and quartz. Non-refractory fire clays, have larger amounts of mica and feldspar.

Formulations for stoneware vary although the vast majority will conform to: plastic fire clays, 0 to 100 percent. Stoneware can be twice-fired. Maximum firing temperatures can vary from 1100 °C to 1300 °C depending on the flux content. Temperatures will be between 1180 °C and 1280 °C, the higher end of which equate to Bullers Rings 38 to 40 or Seger cones 4 to 8. To produce a better quality fired glaze finish, twice-firing can be used; this can be important for formulations composed of carbonaceous clays. For these, biscuit firing is around 900 °C, glost firing 1180–1280 °C. Water absorption of stoneware products is less than 1 percent. Another type, Flintless Stoneware, has been identified, it is defined in the UK Pottery Special Regulations of 1950 as: "Stoneware, the body of which consists of natural clay to which no flint or quartz or other form of free silica has been added."Traditional East Asian thinking classifies pottery only into "low-fired" and "high-fired" wares, equating to earthenware and porcelain, without the intermediate European class of stoneware, the many local types of stoneware were classed as porcelain, though not white and translucent.

Methods of forming stoneware bodies include moulding and wheel throwing. Underglaze and overglaze decoration of many types can be used. Much tableware in stoneware is white-glazed and decorated, it is visually similar to porcelain or faience earthenware; the Indus Valley Civilization produced stoneware, with an industry of a nearly industrial-scale mass-production of stoneware bangles throughout the civilization's Mature Period. Early examples of stoneware have been found in China as an extension of higher temperatures achieved from early development of reduction firing, with large quantities produced from the Han dynasty onwards. In both medieval China and Japan, stoneware was common, several types became admired for their simple forms and subtle glaze effects. Japan did

Louis Navellier

Louis G. Navellier is Chairman and Founder of Navellier & Associates in Reno, which manages $2.5 billion in assets. Navellier writes four investment newsletters focused on growth investing: Emerging Growth, Blue Chip Growth, Quantum Growth and Global Growth, can be seen giving his market outlook and analysis on Bloomberg, Fox News and CNBC. Navellier was born in Berkeley, California, he was one of the eight in his family to attend college, going to the School of Business & Economics at Cal State Hayward, now Cal State East Bay. He graduated in 1978 at the age of 20 with a B. S. in Finance, got his MBA in 1979. While at Cal State, Navellier took part in a research project in which the goal was to mimic the S&P 500’s performance. During this project Navellier discovered some methods beating the market using quantitative and fundamental analysis. Navellier is the founder, the chairman, of Navellier & Associates, in Reno, Nevada. Navellier and his team of about 11 professional analysts and staff manage over $2.5 billion in private accounts and no-load mutual funds for individual investors and institutions.

Navellier manages thousands of personal portfolios, as well as the Navellier no-load mutual funds. TheStockAdvisors.com, an independent investment website, calls Navellier "the one advisor whose track record sits at the top of the long-term performance ratings." Navellier travels the country hosting seminars for individual investors. In 1980, Navellier began publishing a monthly newsletter for individual investors. In 1997 he partnered with publisher InvestorPlace Media, LLC to launch The Blue Chip Growth Letter, which applied the investment strategy used in MPT Review to blue chip stocks. In January 2005 Navellier and InvestorPlace Media re-launched MPT Review, renaming it Emerging Growth; the Hulbert Financial Digest rated the Emerging Growth newsletter as the number one performer in the 20-year category from 1985–2005, among 32 surviving newsletters. Hulbert estimated that from 1985 through 2008, following the advice of that newsletter would have resulted in a gain of about 2,156% according to The Hulbert Financial Digest.

During the same time period the S&P 500 index had an increase of about 869%. He and InvestorPlace Media publish the Quantum Growth and Global Growth newsletters. Mr. Navellier employs a three-step disciplined, bottom-up stock selection process, focusing on quantitative analysis, fundamental analysis, optimization of the securities selected for the portfolio. In 1980, Mr. Navellier began publishing his research in his stock advisory newsletter, the MPT Review. Since 1987, he has been active in the management of individual portfolios, mutual funds, institutional portfolios. Most of the funds have lagged their benchmarks over the past year, according to the navellier.com website. Louis Navellier has been covered by a wide range of international media. In addition to appearing on CNBC, The Nightly Business Report, Wall Street Week, he has been featured in Barron's, Fortune, Investor's Business Daily, Smart Money, The Wall Street Journal. Most he was profiled in Kenneth A. Stern's book Secrets of the Investment All-Stars in the interview "Louis Navellier, A Man Who Has Beat Them All."

He is featured in Alan R. Ackerman's Investing Under Fire: Winner Strategies from the Masters for Bulls and the Bewildered. In October 2007, Navellier's book, The Little Book That Makes You Rich, was released, it is part of the John Sons "Little Book, Big Profits" series. On Jan. 23, 2009, Louis Navellier launched an exchange-traded fund, the RevenueShares Navellier Overall A-100 Fund. This ETF searched a database of nearly 5,000 stocks for the best companies according to Navellier's top fundamental factors such as sales growth, earnings growth and cash flow; the ETF holdings were rebalanced quarterly. In honor of the new fund, Louis Navellier rang the opening bell on Wall Street for New York Stock Exchange on Friday, February 13, 2009. However, the new fund underperformed the stock market, was liquidated in 2016. In 2017, the SEC charged Navellier for fraud for falsifying the firm’s track record in marketing materials, he denies the charges. Navellier and his wife and three children split their time between their residences in Florida and Nevada.

He is a collector of high performance automobiles. Navellier began serving as a trustee of the Cal State East Bay Education Foundation in December 2007, he has pledged to give Cal State $500,000. Company profile Portfolio Grader The Little Book That Makes You Rich

Lütje Hörn

Lütje Hörn is an uninhabited East Frisian Island in the North Sea. It belongs to Germany and is located 3 to 4 kilometres southeast of Borkum in the East Frisian Randzelwatt. Lütje Hörn is an unincorporated area of Leer district in Lower Saxony. Lütje Hörn was first mentioned in 1576 as Hooghe Hörn in a sailing guide. Since 1859 the island has been shown in topographical maps on the mudflats southeast of Borkum. In contrast to all other East Frisian islands, Lütje Horn is aligned in a north-south direction; this is due to the location of the island in the eastern channel of the Ems. Since the first documentary records the location of the island has moved about two kilometres further to the southeast. In just under 40 years, between 1961 and 1999, the island shifted about 600 metres east and 150 metres south; this corresponds to a speed of four metres per year southwards. Between 1999 and 2005, the island continued to migrate eastwards by another 100 metres. Due to erosion Lütje Horn has continuously lost surface area.

The size of the island was still stable in the first half of last century: in 1891 it had an area of 61 hectares and, in 1937, 54 hectares. In 1957 the high-water free area was still 58 hectares, including about one acre of large dunes; the storm surge of February 1962 caused a significant loss of land and dune erosion, further losses were incurred by the winter storm surges of 1989/1990. In 1987, the area above the mean high-water mark was only 23 hectares, a few years it had reduced to just 11 hectares. According to the Lower Saxon Department for Water and Nature Conservation, Lütje Horn had a flood-free area of 6.5 hectares in summer 2006. The island can only be visited with the approval of the National Park Administration, because it belongs to Zone I of the Wadden Sea National Parks and is a bird protection island. There are no buildings on the island. Media related to Lütje Hörn at Wikimedia Commons

Thottal Poo Malarum

Thottal Poo Malarum is a 2007 Indian Tamil romance film written and directed by P. Vasu, starring his son Sakthi Vasu and Gowri Munjal, two newcomers, in lead roles. Rajkiran, Nassar and Santhanam played supporting roles; the music was composed by Yuvan Shankar Raja. The film became an average grosser. Ravi Thyagarajan, a happy-go-lucky youngster, falls in love with Anjali, his college mate. Anjali's mother Periya Naayagi, a rich and arrogant entrepreneur, tries to play spoilsport in their romance, she arranges for her daughter's wedding with the son of her brother and a dreaded but kindhearted gangster named Varadharaja Vandaiyar in Mumbai. Ravi goes to Mumbai, he manages to gain an entry into Vandiyar's family. Having won their confidence, Ravi sets himself on a mission to marry Anjali. For the music of the film, P. Vasu teamed up with composer Yuvan Shankar Raja for the first time; the soundtrack was released on 23 June 2007 by Kamal Haasan. It features 6 tracks.'Kavignar' Vaali wrote the lyrics for all the songs, except for "Kadatharen Naan Unnai", whose lyrics were written by Snehan.

Indiaglitz described the album as "rocking" and a "delight for music-lovers". The song "Arabu Naade" became immensely popular and became a chartbuster song. TSV Hari of Rediff.com described the film as "very ordinary fare," adding that "Sakthi deserved better." M Bharat Kumar of The News Today called it a "mediocre offering" with "predictable sequences," noting that "the son seems to have delivered the goods well, while the father has failed as a director." However, IndiaGlitz described it as a "feel-good youthful entertainer" with an "intelligent screenplay and pacy narration", "sure to appease film-buffs." The dialogue "Varum Aanaa Varaadha" spoken by Ennatha Kannaiyya became popular. Thottal Poo Malarum on IMDb Thottal Poo Malarum songs at Raaga

The Christmas Candle

The Christmas Candle is a 2013 British-American Christmas drama film directed by John Stephenson. It is based on Max Lucado's novel The Christmas Candle; the film is an Impact and Big Book Media Production presented by Pinewood Pictures being distributed by Rick Santorum's film production company EchoLight Studios in the US and by Pinewood Pictures in the UK. It is Susan Boyle's debut on the big screen. Boyle contributes an original song to the film, "Miracle Hymn", it was shot in the Isle of Man. Locations included Stanway House, Tudor House in the Worcestershire village of Broadway, the Wiltshire village of Biddestone, including the White Horse pub. Studio work was completed on the Isle of Man in the Mountain View Media Village studios in Lezayre. In the fictional village of Gladbury, every twenty-five years an angel visits the candlemaker and bestows a miracle upon whomever lights the Christmas Candle; the whole town believes in the candle except Rev. David Richmond, it is 1890 and the Haddingtons make candles and the town and church use them.

It is the Christmas season and the pastor preaches the Advent themes and lights a candle each Sunday. He tries to convince the town folk to not candle miracles; the angel marks a special candle. Who lights that candle will receive a miracle. Mrs. Haddington wants to keep the candle for herself to have her son to live in Gladbury; the magic candle is misplaced but Bea passes out candles to a boy who can't talk, a woman who wants to find her husband, a blind man and twenty-six other candles to people who all have individual needs. The preacher wants people to pray to God and not seek change in a candle. Reverend Richmond at his own expense has the church wired with new and modern lightbulbs as a further example for folk to not rely upon candles. At a church service he has the candles extinguished and the lights turned on, it goes wrong. The bulbs explode and a fire is started. A man dies in the ensuing panic. Few parishioners attend next Sunday. Christmas Eve service comes and the candle miracle is to be revealed.

Many people think that they had received the blessed candle for Mrs. Haddington passed out many candles and not just one; the boy can talk, a man got a job, a woman's debts were forgiven, a man's beloved cat is saved, the woman is engaged and the blind man could see just before he died. The minister thinks; the Christmas candle has not yet been lit. The Pastor had sent for pregnant Ruth to come to Gladbury, her wagon has wrecked and the candle is lighted and she is rescued. It turns out that the Haddington's son is the father of Ruth's child and, in that way, he does indeed return to town; the minister's faith is restored in miracles. The Christmas Candle makes use of the Bible and the main character, the pastor, quotes Jesus from the Gospels while focusing on the Advent season; the viewpoint of the movie is a mixture of Protestant and Roman Catholic theology, where the main character is struggling to find his lost faith. The film received 18% positive reviews on the aggregator Rotten Tomatoes; the New York Daily News described it as a "Dickens-meets-Sunday-school movie", that it was "as artless as the setup muddled".

The New York Post referred to it as a "throwback, made-for-TV-style film" with a "cheesy climax". The Arizona Republic judged it as "resolutely stiff and hollow". Rare positive reviews included The Portsmouth News, which gave the film 4 stars writing "Boyle's performance is endearing and her stunning vocal talent continues to dazzle while the gentle chemistry between Matheson and Barks complements the piece without upstaging the film's central ideas." The Los Angeles Times wrote, "Hammy histrionics of a Hallmark movie are present, but its message of community and faith shines brighter." The Dove Foundation awarded 5 Doves as a "Family-Approved" film. The film expanded from five to over 390 venues for its second week. Official website The Christmas Candle on IMDb

Sd.Kfz. 247

The Sd. Kfz. 247 was an armored command car used by the German Armed Forces during World War II. Before the war, 10 six-wheeled models were built; the proper name was schwerer geländegängiger gepanzerter Personenkraftwagen. The Sd. Kfz. 247 had an open-topped, thinly armored body mounted on a wheeled chassis. It was unarmed, its armor was intended to stop 7.92-millimetre armor-piercing bullets at ranges over 30 metres. Photographic evidence shows some Ausf. B vehicles were retro-fitted with a star-shaped radio antenna mounted inside the crew compartment, an additional armor plate bolted to the lower glacis of the hull. Krupp built ten Ausf. A models on the chassis of its L 2 H 143 6 × 4 truck in 1937, its 4-cylinder air-cooled gasoline flat engine 3.5-litre Krupp M 305 65 horsepower, gave it a top speed of 70 kilometres per hour and a range of 350 kilometres. Like all of the other vehicles that used the Ausf. A had limited cross-country mobility, drivers being advised to stay on roads and trails, it weighed 5.2 tonnes, was 1.96 metres wide and 1.7 metres tall.

Daimler-Benz built 58 of these in 1941—1942 on a 4 × 4 heavy-car chassis. The front-mounted engine was an 8-cylinder, 3.823-litre Horch 3.5 petrol engine, giving it a road speed of 80 kilometres per hour. It had a maximum range of 400 kilometres. Chamberlain, Peter. Encyclopedia of German Tanks of World War Two: A Complete Illustrated Directory of German Battle Tanks, Armoured Cars, Self-propelled Guns, Semi-tracked Vehicles, 1933–1945. London: Arms and Armour Press. ISBN 1-85409-214-6. Jentz, Thomas L.. Panzerspaehwagen: Armored Cars Sd. Kfz.3 to Sd. Kfz.263. Panzer Tracts. No. 13. Boyds, Maryland: Panzer Tracts. ISBN 0-9708407-4-8. Replika Sd. Kfz. 247B World War II vehicles Panzers of the Reich Photo gallery of a Sd. Kfz. 247 Ausf. B detailed data for the Ausf. A