Kultorvet is a public square in the Old Town of Copenhagen, Denmark. Together with Købmagergade and the part of Frederiksborggade, it forms a pedestrian zone between Nørreport station and Amagertorv on Strøget. Kultorvet was created after the Copenhagen Fire of 1728 which destroyed a part of the city. It was initially known as Ny Nørre Torv oven for Rundetårn, the current, more easy-on-the-tongue name gradually took over, referring to the market trade which dominated the site. The original market square was considerably smaller but its area has gradually increased in connection with demolitions. A new building for Copenhagen Central Library was built on the east side of the square in 1957, kultorvet was pedestrianised and cleared of parking places in 1973 following the successful pedestrianisation of Strøget in the early 1960s. The square was refurbished between 2011 and 2013 together with the rest of the zone and Hauser Plads on the other side of the Library House. The new square was designed by Polyform, the 2013 renovation installed a large, circular water feature which doubles as a band stand for special events.
One of Copenhagens old telephone kiosks is found on the square and it was installed and operated by A/S Kjøbenhavns Telefonkiosker. On the square is Hanne Varmings bronze statue The Elder Mother, the statue takes its name after Hans Christian Andersens tale of the same name from 1851 but was inspired by a memory of the artists own great grand parents. Built in the 1730, No.14 on the corner with Sankt Gertruds Stræde is the building of the square that survives from its creation in the years after the Fire of 1728. 5,7, 9–11 and 15 all date from the 1810s, the Historicist building on the corner of Frederiksborggade was designed by Valdemar Ingemann and is from 1895. It was originally topped by a spire but it was dismantled after a few years The building on the corner of Købmagergade. Kultorvet on indenforvoldene. dk Renovation on Polyforms website
Luxury goods are often synonymous with superior goods and Veblen goods. Luxury goods are said to have high income elasticity of demand, as people become wealthier and this means, that should there be a decline in income its demand will drop. Income elasticity of demand is not constant with respect to income, although the technical term luxury good is independent of the goods quality, they are generally considered to be goods at the highest end of the market in terms of quality and price. Classic luxury goods include haute couture clothing and luggage, many markets have a luxury segment including, for example, yacht, bottled water, tea, watches, clothes and high fidelity. The hiring of full-time or live-in domestic servants is a luxury reflecting disparities of income, some financial services, especially in some brokerage houses, can be considered luxury services by default because persons in lower-income brackets generally do not use them. The three dominant trends in the luxury goods market are globalization and diversification.
Globalization is a result of the availability of these goods, additional luxury brands. Consolidation involves the growth of big companies and ownership of brands across many segments of luxury products, examples include LVMH, and Kering, which dominate the market in areas ranging from luxury drinks to fashion and cosmetics. Leading global consumer companies, such as Procter & Gamble, are attracted to the industry. The luxury goods market has been on a climb for many years. Apart from the setback caused by the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, the industry has performed well, particularly in 2000. In that year, the luxury goods market – which includes drinks, cosmetics, watches, luggage, handbags – was worth close to $170 billion. The United States has been the largest regional market for goods and is estimated to continue to be the leading personal luxury goods market in 2013. The largest sector in this category was luxury drinks, including premium whisky and this sector was the only one that suffered a decline in value.
In 2012, China surpassed Japan as the worlds largest luxury market, chinas luxury consumption accounts for over 25% of the global market. The Economist Intelligence Unit published a report on the outlook for luxury goods in Asia which explores the trends and forecasts for the luxury goods market across key markets in Asia. In 2014, the sector is expected to grow over the next 10 years because of 440 million consumers spending a total of 880 billion euros. Secular luxury manuscripts were commissioned by the wealthy and differed in the same ways from cheaper books
European Capital of Culture
The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong European dimension. An international panel of experts is in charge of assessing the proposals of cities for the title according to criteria specified by the European Union. Consequently, the beneficial socio-economic development and impact for the city are now considered in determining the chosen cities. The European Capital of Culture programme was called the European City of Culture and was conceived in 1983, by Melina Mercouri. Mercouri believed that at the time, culture was not given the attention as politics and economics. The European City of Culture programme was launched in the summer of 1985 with Athens being the first title-holder, during the German presidency of 1999, the European City of Culture programme was renamed the European Capital of Culture. 1 A new framework makes it possible for a city in a country or potential candidate for EU membership to hold the title every third year as of 2021.
This will be selected through a competition, meaning that cities from various countries may compete with each other. Association for Tourism and Leisure Education
Nyhavn is a 17th-century waterfront and entertainment district in Copenhagen, Denmark. Stretching from Kongens Nytorv to the front just south of the Royal Playhouse, it is lined by brightly coloured 17th and early 18th century townhouses and bars, cafes. The canal harbours many historical wooden ships, Nyhavn was constructed by King Christian V from 1670 to 1673, dug by Swedish prisoners of war from the Dano-Swedish War 1658–1660. It is a gateway from the sea to the old city at Kongens Nytorv. It was notorious for beer and prostitution, Danish author Hans Christian Andersen lived at Nyhavn for some 18 years. The first bridge across Nyhavn opened on 6 February 1875 and it was a temporary wooden footbridge. It was replaced by the current bridge in 1912, as ocean-going ships grew larger, Nyhavn was taken over by internal Danish small vessel freight traffic. After World War II land transport took over this role and small vessel traffic disappeared from the Port of Copenhagen, in the mid-1960s, the Nyhavn Society was founded with the aim of revitalising the area.
In 1977, Nyhavn was inaugurated as a ship and museum harbour by Copenhagen’s Lord Mayor Egon Weidekamp. In 1980 Nyhavn quay was pedestrianised, it had used as a parking area in the previous years which had coincided with a dwindling of harbour activities. Since it has become a spot for tourists and locals alike, serving the function of a square according to architects Jan Gehl. The northern side of Nyhavn is lined by brightly coloured townhouses built with wood, between 1845 and 1864, Hans Christian Andersen lived at No. 67, where a plaque now stands. From 1871-1875 Andersen lived at Nyhavn 18, which houses an Andersen-themed souvenir shop. The southern side of Nyhavn has lavish mansions lining the canal, Nyhavn Veteran Ship and Museum Harbour, occupying the inner section of Nyhavn, between the Nyhavn Bridge and Kongens Nytorv, is lined with old ships. P. Møller, while the side of the canal was put at the disposal of the Nyhavn Society and privately owned. Harbor ships include, Lightvessel XVII Gedser Rev – lightvessel built in Odense in 1895, in operation until 1972, acquired by the National Museum and now serving as a museum ship.
Mira – two-masted schooner built in Fåborg in 1898, considered one of the finest ships of the Danish small vessel traffic of the time, for many years it transported chalk from Stevns
Carlsberg is an area located straddling the border of Valby and Vesterbro districts in central Copenhagen, Denmark approximately 2.4 km from the City Hall Square. The area emerged when J. C. Jacobsen founded his brewery in the district in 1847. The first brewing took place on November 11,1847, and production took place continuously ever since, until October 30,2008, the Jacobsen House Brewery is however still located in the district and produces specialty beers. The entire brewery grounds spread over more than 30 hectares and is currently being transformed into a new city district in Copenhagen, the area is dominated by numerous historic and restored 19th- and early 20th-century buildings, many of which have lavish ornamentations, as well as two historic gardens. The buildings have served a wide array of functions, some of which are not immediately associated with the production of beer. These include a lighthouse, Italianate villas and a museum, after the decision was made to close the brewery, plans were launched to redevelop the area into a new district. A master plan for the area draws on inspiration from classical, dense city centers with short, winding streets, passageways and it will feature ten slim towers.
The planned district will aim at sustainability and an urban life. The plan won the master planning category at the 2009 World Architecture Festival, Carlsberg covers an area of 33 hectares and lies at the junction of four districts. It is bordered by Vesterbro to the east, Valby to the west, Frederiksberg Municipality to the north, in search of better water supplies and more space, J. C. Jacobsens brewery located at the current site in 1847, after receiving a license from the King, construction of the new brewery started in January 1847 and the first batch of beer was brewed on 10 November 1847. Carlsbergs main building, today known as the Carlsberg Academy was inaugurated in 1853, in 1857 the brewery was devastated by a fire but the buildings were rebuilt the same year. In 1870 the brewery was extended with a brewery, which was leased by J. C. Jacobsens son Carl Jacobsen after disagreements with his father, Jacobsen established the Carlsberg Foundation and the Carlsberg Laboratory. Jacobsen terminated his sons lease and Carl founds his own brewery on a neighbouring premises, with his fathers consent he named it Ny Carlsberg, while Carlsbergs name was changed to Gammel Carlsberg.
Jacobsen died and his Carlsberg Foundation inherited his brewery, over the next decades, the Carlsberg Breweries are continuously extended with new buildings. In 1892 the Dipylon building is added, in 1987 the Carlsberg Laboratory building, in 1902, Carl Jacobsen founded the Ny Carlsberg Foundation as a subsidy under the Carlsberg Foundation, resulting in common ownership. The breweries built a joint tapping plant in 1903 and in 1906 they were merged under the name Carlsberg Breweries
Factory tours, industrial heritage, creative art and crafts workshops are the object of cultural niches like industrial tourism and creative tourism. Many tourist attractions are landmarks, tourist attractions are created to capitalise on legends such as a supposed UFO crash site near Roswell, New Mexico and the alleged Loch Ness monster sightings in Scotland. Ghost sightings make tourist attractions, ethnic communities may become tourist attractions, such as Chinatowns in the United States and the black British neighbourhood of Brixton in London, England. In the US, owners and marketers of attractions advertise tourist attractions on billboards along the side of highways and roadways, tourist attractions often provide free promotional brochures and flyers in information centres, fast food restaurants and motel rooms or lobbies, and rest area. Such places are known as tourist traps. Within cities such transport tourist attractions as rides by boats and buses are very popular, novelty attractions are not limited to the American Midwest, but are part of Midwestern culture.
It may contain one or more tourist attractions and possibly some tourist traps, siem Reap town for example is a popular tourist destination in Cambodia, mainly owed to its proximity to Angkor temples. A tropical island resort is an island or archipelago that depends on tourism as its source of revenue, according to the World Tourism Organization, •698 million people travelled to a foreign country in 2000, spending more US$478 billion. Lists of tourist attractions Attractions at DMOZ
Pedestrian zones are areas of a city or town reserved for pedestrian-only use and in which most or all automobile traffic may be prohibited. Converting a street or an area to use is called pedestrianisation. However, pedestrianisation can sometimes lead to reductions in business activity, property devaluation, in some cases traffic in surrounding areas may increase, due to displacement rather than substitution of car traffic. Pedestrian zones have a variety of approaches to human-powered vehicles such as bicycles, inline skates, skateboards. Some have a ban on anything with wheels, others ban certain categories, others segregate the human-powered wheels from foot traffic. Many Middle Eastern kasbahs have no wheeled traffic, but use donkey-driven or hand-driven carts for freight transport, the idea of separating pedestrians from wheeled traffic is an old one, dating back at least to the Renaissance. However, the earliest modern implementation of the idea in cities seems to date from about 1800, separated shopping arcades were constructed throughout Europe in the 19th century, precursors of modern shopping malls.
The first pedestrianisation of an existing street seems to have taken place around 1929 in Essen and this was in a very narrow shopping street that could not accommodate both vehicular and pedestrian traffic. Two other German cities followed this model in the early 1930s, by 1955 twenty-one German cities had closed at least one street to traffic, although only four were true pedestrian streets, designed for the purpose. At this time pedestrianisation was not seen as a traffic restraint policy, pedestrianisation was common in the United States during the 1950s and 60s as downtown businesses attempted to compete with new suburban shopping malls. However, most of these initiatives were not successful in the long term, a car-free zone is different from a typical pedestrian zone, in that it implies a development largely predicated on modes of transport other than the car. A pedestrian zone may be more limited in scope, for example a single square or street being for pedestrians. A number of towns and cities in Europe have never allowed motor vehicles, archetypal examples are, which occupies many islands in a lagoon, divided by and accessed from canals.
The city has been car-free for more than three decades, motor traffic stops at the car park at the head of the viaduct from the mainland, and water transport or walking takes over from there. However, motor vehicles are allowed on the nearby Lido, mount Athos, an autonomous monastic state under the sovereignty of Greece, does not permit automobiles on its territory. Trucks and work-related vehicles only are in use there, the medieval city of Mdina in Malta does not allow automobiles past the city walls. It is known as the Silent City because of the absence of traffic in the city. Sark, an island in the English Channel, is a zone where only bicycles, carriages
Frederiksberg is a part of the Capital Region of Denmark. It is formally an independent municipality, Frederiksberg Municipality, but is treated as a part of Copenhagen. It occupies an area of less than 9 km2 and had a population of 103,192 in 2015, Frederiksberg is an enclave surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality and there is no clear border between the two. Some sources ambiguously refer to Frederiksberg as a quarter or neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg has its own mayor and municipal council, and is fiercely independent. Frederiksberg is considered to be an affluent, or posh, the town is characterised by its many green spaces, such as the Frederiksberg Gardens and Søndermarken. Some institutions and locations that are considered to be part of Copenhagen are actually located in Frederiksberg. For example, Copenhagen Zoo as well as stations of the Copenhagen Metro are located in Frederiksberg. The Copenhagen S-train system has stations in Frederiksberg, including Peter Bangs Vej station.
Frederiksbergs original name was Tulehøj, indicating that a thul lived there, the term is known from the Snoldelev rune stone. In Beowulf, Unferth holds the same title, in Håvamål, Odin himself is referred to as the old thul. Thula translates as song, like in the Rigsthula poem from the Edda, by 1443 the name Tulehøj was spelled Tulleshøy. It was regarded as Copenhagens border to the west, people lived here since the Bronze Age. Farming was not very successful, and in 1697 most of the burned down. This meant that the peasants were unable to pay taxes, in 1700-1703, King Frederik IV built a palace on top of the hill known as Valby Bakke. He named the palace Frederichs Berg, and the town at the foot of the hill consequently changed its name to Frederiksberg. A number of the houses were bought by wealthy citizens of Copenhagen who did not farm the land. The town changed slowly from a community to a merchant town, with craftsmen. During the summer rooms were offered for rent, and restaurants served food to the people of Copenhagen who had left the city for the open land
Christianshavn is a neighbourhood in Copenhagen, Denmark. Part of the Indre By District, it is located on artificial islands between the islands of Zealand and Amager and separated from the rest of the city centre by the Inner Harbour. It was founded in the early 17th century by Christian IV as part of his extension of the fortifications of Copenhagen, originally, it was laid out as an independent privileged merchants town with inspiration from Dutch cities but it was soon incorporated into Copenhagen proper. Dominated by canals, it is the part of Copenhagen with the most nautical atmosphere, students, artists and traditional families with children live side-by-side. Administratively, Christianshavn has been part of Indre By since 2007, Christianshavn covers an area of 3.43 km², and includes three minor islands to the north, jointly referred to as Holmen. It has a population of 10,140 and a density of 2,960 per km². To the south and east Christianshavn is defined by its old ramparts, to the west Christianshavn borders on the Inner Harbour that separates it from Slotsholmen and the rest of Copenhagens city centre.
In 1612, Christian IV initiated a programme to fortify Copenhagen. During the period 1618-1623, he erected earthen embarkments with five bastions in the area between Copenhagen and the island of Amager. At the same time the idea was hatched of creating a new merchant town in the area, in 1639 the little merchant and fortress town of Christianshavn was established. However, competition from Copenhagen soon proved too strong for the little town, the fortifications were further developed with six more bastions in the 1660s, and seven more bastions between 1682-1692. Additional reinforcements occurred between 1779–1791, and again in 1810-1813, even though the fortifications around the Inner City were being dismantled in the late 19th century, Christianshavns fortifications continued in use into the 20th century. Some areas were opened up in the late 1910s-1920s, and the areas were made public space in 1961. The fortifications are a part of the fortification system around the old part of Copenhagen.
Today the area around the fortifications is a park area, Christianshavn is a lively, primarily residential area. Where the canal and the street intersects, at the centre of Christianshavn. Along the eastern shoreline of the island runs Christianshavns Vold which now serves as the principal greenspace of the neighbourhood, on the other—Rampar Sidet—side of the canal, the area is dominated by historic residential buildings and institutions. Cultural institutions include Danish Architecture Centre and the North Atlantic House and it is in this area that the Church of Our Saviour and Christiania are found