Isotta Fraschini is an Italian motors brand historically known for the production of cars as well as trucks, and engines for marine and aviation use. The company went bankrupt in 1999, in 2000, a new company was founded, under the name of Isotta Fraschini Milano. Isotta Fraschini currently has offices in Milan and Bari, the firm was named for its founders, Cesare Isotta and Vincenzo Fraschini, as Società Milanese Automobili Isotta, Fraschini & C. on 27 January 1900. The motto was Import, repair cars, prior to establishing their own company in 1904, Isotta and Fraschini assembled Renaults. The first automobile bearing this marque featured an engine with an output of 24 horsepower. The car, driven by Vincenzo Fraschini, appeared in several races, in 1905, Isotta Fraschini gained notoriety in the Coppa Florio, where they entered a Tipo D with a 17. 2-litre 100 horsepower engine. For a short time in 1907, Isotta Fraschini merged with French automobile company Lorraine-Dietrich, the firm started making race cars using this same 100 horsepower engine, establishing the companys reputation and giving its name considerable cachet.
It was one of the first cars with four-wheel brakes and they were among the early pioneers of overhead cam, with an engine designed by Giustino Cattaneo. Isotta Fraschini introduced their Tipo 8, the first production automobile to be powered by an engine, at the Paris Salon in 1919. With the growth of the middle class in North America in the 1920s. Early film stars Clara Bow and Rudolph Valentino drove Isotta Fraschinis, a 1929 Tipo 8A Castagna Transformable is featured in the 1950 film Sunset Boulevard and another appears in the 1934 film Death Takes a Holiday with Fredric March. An Isotta makes a appearance in the 1946 film Without Reservations with John Wayne. Also, an Isotta Fraschini was gigolo Lindsay Marriotts car in Raymond Chandlers classic Farewell, My Lovely that was made into a motion picture starring Dick Powell and Claire Trevor. The grille of the Isotta with the lightning bolt insignia is seen parked in a ravine, an oversized Isotta is the vehicle of choice for Dick and Nicole Diver in F.
Scott Fitzgeralds 1933 novel Tender is the Night. Seriously affected by the crisis of the 1930s and by the disruptions of World War II. Only five of the last model, the Monterosa, were produced, the plants were converted to produce marine engines. The company was left on the register and in 1955 it was merged with engine manufacturer Breda Motori. The company started to produce buses again and in 1960s built a new diesel engine factory in Bari
Compared to OHV pushrod systems with the same number of valves, the reciprocating components of the OHC system are fewer and have a lower overall mass. Though the system drives the camshafts may be more complex, most engine manufacturers accept that added complexity as a trade-off for better engine performance. The fundamental reason for the OHC valvetrain is that it offers an increase in the ability to exchange induction. Another performance advantage is gained as a result of the better optimised port configurations made possible with overhead camshaft designs, with no intrusive pushrods, the overhead camshaft cylinder head design can use straighter ports of more advantageous cross-section and length. The OHC design allows for higher speeds than comparable cam-in-block designs. The higher engine speeds thus allowed increases power output for a given torque output, in earlier OHC systems, including inter-war Morrises and Wolseleys, oil leaks in the lubrication systems were an issue. Single overhead camshaft is a design in which one camshaft is placed within the cylinder head, in the SOHC design, the camshaft operates the valves directly, traditionally via a bucket tappet, or via an intermediary rocker arm. SOHC cylinder heads are less expensive to manufacture than double overhead camshaft cylinder heads.
Timing belt replacement can be easier since there are fewer camshaft drive sprockets that need to be aligned during the replacement procedure, SOHC designs offer reduced complexity compared to overhead valve designs — when used for multivalve cylinder heads, in which each cylinder has more than two valves. Exhaust and inlet manifolds were both on the side of the engine block. This did, offer excellent access to the spark plugs, in the early 1980s, Toyota and Volkswagen Group used a directly actuated, SOHC parallel valve configuration with two valves for each cylinder. The Toyota system used hydraulic tappets, the Volkswagen system used bucket tappets with shims for valve clearance adjustment. Honda used a similar system in their motorcycles, using the term Unicam for the concept. This system uses one camshaft for each bank of cylinder heads, with the cams operating directly onto the valve and indirectly, through a short rocker arm. This allows a compact, light valvetrain to operate valves in a combustion chamber.
The Unicam valve train was first used in single cylinder dirt bikes, a dual overhead camshaft valvetrain layout is characterised by two camshafts located within the cylinder head, one operating the intake valves and the other one operating the exhaust valves. This design reduces valvetrain inertia more than is the case with a SOHC engine, a DOHC design permits a wider angle between intake and exhaust valves than do SOHC engines. This can allow for a less restricted airflow at higher engine speeds, DOHC with a multivalve design allows for the optimum placement of the spark plug which, in turn, improves combustion efficiency
Charron, Girardot et Voigt
Charron, Girardot et Voigt was a French motor manufacturer founded by the racing cyclists and motorists Fernand Charron, Léonce Girardot and Carl Voigt. They opened one of the first French car dealerships in 1897, on Avenue de la Grande Armée in Paris, C. G. V. showed their first car in 1901. In 1904, they produced 216 cars with 4 cylinder engines, C. G. V. became Automobiles Charron in 1906 when both Léonce Girardot and Carl Voigt left, and it continued trading until 1930
Filmo is a series of 16-mm and 8-mm movie equipment made by the Bell & Howell Company. The line included cameras and accessories, the Filmo camera series started with the 1923 Filmo 70, beginning a series of models built on the same basic body that was to continued for more than half a century. It was based on Bell & Howells brilliantly designed 1917 prototype for a 17. 5mm camera intended for amateur use. When invited into Kodaks 16mm plans in 1920, the company was quick to see the advantages, the Filmo 70 was the first spring motor-driven 16mm camera. In 1925 the Eyemo, a hand-held 35mm camera based on the design of the Filmo 70 was offered and it was spring driven, but could be hand-cranked as well. Bell & Howell introduced the first 16mm turret camera with its Model C in 1927. When Kodak introduced 8mm film in 1932, Bell & Howell was slow to take up the new format, the first 8mm Filmo was offered in 1935 as a single run 8mm film camera, the Filmo 127-A called STRAIGHT EIGHT. However, STRAIGHT EIGHT did not appeal to the market as well as double-8, production of Filmos around this body type continued into the 1950s.
The 16mm Filmo cameras all take 16-mm film on a 100 ft Daylight spool although some versions can take 400 ft external magazines, spring wind is standard, although some Filmos have provisions for attachment of a 12V DC or AC motor. A crystal-sync motor was developed for the Eyemo and adapted to the Filmo, the Camera is configured for C mount lenses and starting in 1927, was equipped with a three lens turret. Early turret models used a variable drum finder or sets of separate finder lenses matched to each focal length on cameras. Early versions were designed for two speeds, either 8 and 16 frame/s, or 16 and 32 frame/s, with one option for a 12-16-24 frame/s 3-speed camera and this produced an extreme slow-motion effect and was used for motion analysis. The Model 70-E was a version of the Model D. The camera was built to the most precise standards in the industry and ruggedly built, it was standard equipment for U. S. Filmo Operating and Repair Manuals Filmo History Bell & Howell movie cameras
Automobiles Ettore Bugatti was a French car manufacturer of high-performance automobiles, founded in 1909 in the German city of Molsheim, Alsace by Italian-born Ettore Bugatti. Bugatti cars were known for their beauty and for their many race victories. Famous Bugattis include the Type 35 Grand Prix cars, the Type 41 Royale, the Type 57 Atlantic and the Type 55 sports car. The death of Ettore Bugatti in 1947 proved to be the end for the marque, no more than about 8,000 cars were made. The company struggled financially, and released one last model in the 1950s, in the 1990s, an Italian entrepreneur revived it as a builder of limited production exclusive sports cars. Today, the name is owned by German automobile manufacturing group Volkswagen, the company was known both for the level of detail of its engineering in its automobiles, and for the artistic manner in which the designs were executed, given the artistic nature of Ettores family. During the war Ettore Bugatti was sent away, initially to Milan and to Paris and he exhibited three light cars, all of them closely based on their pre-war equivalents, and each fitted with the same overhead camshaft 4-cylinder 1, 368cc engine with four valves per cylinder.
Smallest of the three was a Type 13 with a body and using a chassis with a 2,000 mm wheelbase. The others were a Type 22 and a Type 23 with wheelbases of 2,250 and 2,400 mm respectively, the company enjoyed great success in early Grand Prix motor racing, in 1929 a privately entered Bugatti won the first ever Monaco Grand Prix. Racing success culminated with driver Jean-Pierre Wimille winning the 24 hours of Le Mans twice, Bugatti cars were extremely successful in racing. The little Bugatti Type 10 swept the top four positions at its first race, the 1924 Bugatti Type 35 is probably the most successful racing car of all time, with over 2,000 wins. The Type 35 was developed by Bugatti with master engineer and racing driver Jean Chassagne who drove it in the car’s first ever Grand Prix in 1924 Lyon, Bugattis swept to victory in the Targa Florio for five years straight from 1925 through 1929. Louis Chiron held the most podiums in Bugatti cars, and the modern marque revival Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S.
named the 1999 Bugatti 18/3 Chiron concept car in his honour. But it was the racing success at Le Mans that is most remembered—Jean-Pierre Wimille and Pierre Veyron won the 1939 race with just one car. In the 1930s, Ettore Bugatti got involved in the creation of a racer airplane and this would be the Bugatti 100P, which never flew. It was designed by Belgian engineer Louis de Monge who had already applied Bugatti Brescia engines in his Type 7.5 lifting body, Ettore Bugatti designed a successful motorised railcar, the Autorail Bugatti. The death of Ettore Bugattis son, Jean Bugatti, on 11 August 1939 marked a point in the companys fortunes. Jean died while testing a Type 57 tank-bodied race car near the Molsheim factory, World War II left the Molsheim factory in ruins and the company lost control of the property
Duesenberg Model J
The Duesenberg Model J is a luxury automobile made by Duesenberg. Intended to compete with the most luxurious and powerful cars in the world, it was introduced in 1928, the Model J, available with a supercharger after 1932, was sold until 1937. E. L. Cord told Fred Duesenberg to design an automobile that would be the best in the world, the biggest and most expensive car ever made. The car was intended to compete with the biggest, most powerful, and most luxurious European cars of the era, including Hispano-Suiza, Isotta-Fraschini, Mercedes-Benz, after Cords takeover, the new company was renamed Duesenberg, Inc. Fred would continue in the new organization with the title of president in charge of engineering. According to the expert Marshall Merkes, Cord did not want Augie around, all Duesenberg racing cars produced after 1926 were built by Augie in an enterprise that functioned separately, and in a building apart from the main Duesenberg plant. He was responsible for a number of engineering achievements like the superchargers he developed for both the Auburn and Cord motorcars, the newly revived Duesenberg company set about to produce the Model J, which debuted December 1 at the New York Car Show of 1928.
In Europe, it was launched at the Salon de lautomobile de Paris of 1929. The first and — at the time of the New York presentation — only example made of the series, by the time the Great Depression hit in October 1929, the Duesenberg Company had only built some 200 cars. An additional 100 orders were filled in 1930, the Model J fell short of the original goal to sell 500 cars a year. The straight eight model J motor was based on the successful racing engines of the 1920s and though designed by Duesenberg they were manufactured by Lycoming. In normally aspirated form, it produced 265 horsepower from dual overhead camshafts and it was capable of a top speed of 119 mph, and 94 mph in 2nd gear. Other cars featured an engine but none of them surpassed its power. It was both the fastest and most expensive American automobile on the market, the chassis on most model Js were the same, as was the styling of such elements as fenders, radiator and instrument panel. Bodywork for these Duesenbergs came from both the US and Europe, and the cars were some of the largest, most beautiful.
However, other coachworks were made by Duesenberg branches in Chicago, New York City, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and Denver, for the in-house bodies Duesenberg used the name of La Grande. The chassis cost $8,500, the cost for most completed vehicles was between $13,000 and $19,000, at a time when the average U. S. physician earned less than $3,000 a year. The J was generally available with one of two wheelbases, the chassis had a 142.5 in wheelbase while the long chassis had a 153.5 in ) wheelbase
Mercedes-Benz is a global automobile manufacturer and a division of the German company Daimler AG. The brand is known for vehicles, coaches. The headquarters is in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, the slogan for the brand is the best or nothing and Mercedes-Benz was one of the top growing brands in 2014 with 18% growth. The Mercedes automobile was first marketed in 1901 by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, emil Jellinek, an Austrian automobile entrepreneur who worked with DMG created the trademark in 1902, naming the 1901 Mercedes 35 hp after his daughter Mercedes Jellinek. The first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926, following the merger of Karl Benzs, on 28 June 1926, Mercedes Benz was formed with the merger of Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimlers two companies. Gottlieb Daimler was born on 17 March 1834 in Schorndorf, after training as a gunsmith and working in France, he attended the Polytechnic School in Stuttgart from 1857 to 1859. After completing various activities in France and England, he started work as a draftsman in Geislingen in 1862.
At the end of 1863, he was appointed inspector in a machine tool factory in Reutlingen. Throughout the 1930s, Mercedes-Benz produced the 770 model, a car that was popular during Germanys Nazi period, Adolf Hitler was known to have driven these cars during his time in power, with bulletproof windshields. Most of the models have been sold at auctions to private buyers. One of them is currently on display at the War Museum in Ottawa, the pontiffs Popemobile has often been sourced from Mercedes-Benz. In 1944,46,000 forced laborers were used in Daimler-Benzs factories to bolster Nazi war efforts, the company paid $12 million in reparations to the laborers families. Mercedes-Benz has introduced many technological and safety innovations that became common in other vehicles. Mercedes-Benz is one of the best-known and established automotive brands in the world, for information relating to the famous three-pointed star, see under the title Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft including the merger into Daimler-Benz.
As part of the Daimler AG company, the Mercedes-Benz Cars division includes Mercedes-Benz, mercedes-AMG became a majority owned division of Mercedes-Benz in 1999. The company was integrated into DaimlerChrysler in 1999, and became Mercedes-Benz AMG beginning on 1 January 1999, Daimlers ultra-luxury brand Maybach was under Mercedes-Benz cars division until 2013, when the production stopped due to poor sales volumes. It now exists under the Mercedes-Maybach name, with the models being ultra-luxury versions of Mercedes cars, Daimler coorporates with BYD Auto to make and sell a battery-electric car called Denza in China. In 2016, Daimler announced plans to sell Mercedes-Benz branded all-electric battery cars in China, beside its native Germany, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are manufactured or assembled in, Since its inception, Mercedes-Benz had maintained a reputation for its quality and durability
The straight-six engine or inline-six engine is an internal combustion engine with the cylinders mounted in a straight line along the crankcase with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft. The bank of cylinders may be oriented at any angle, and where the bank is inclined to the vertical, the straight-six layout is the simplest engine layout that possesses both primary and secondary mechanical engine balance, resulting in much less vibration than engines with fewer cylinders. In automobiles, the design is used for engine displacements ranging from approximately 2 to 5 litres. It is used for smaller engines but these, although very smooth running. Since the length of an engine is proportional to the number of cylinders in one bank. Pre-World War II engines could be large by modern standards — such as the Rolls Royce Silver Ghosts 7.4 L engine and the 824 cu in of the 1910s Peerless, Pierce. They were used in a variety of including the de Havilland Dragon Rapide. The largest are used to ships, and use fuel oil.
The straight-six can be viewed as a modular component of larger motors which stack several straight-sixes together, e. g. flat- or V-12s, W-18s. Straight-six engines were introduced earlier than V6 engines. While the first straight-six was manufactured in 1903 by Spyker, it was not until 1950 that a production V6 was introduced, V6s had intrinsic vibration problems not present in the straight-six. The poor secondary harmonic balance of four-cylinder engines is largely addressed with the use of balance shafts although it can never match the in-line six, TVR used a straight-six configuration exclusively in their final cars before their demise. In a reversal of trends, Mercedes-Benz announced a return to inline-6 engines in October 2016. This was a part of a trend toward higher efficiency engines with fewer cylinders, manufacturers began to replace V8 engines with straight-6 engines and V6 engines with straight-4 engines, while V8 engines became smaller. Straight-sixes continue to be used in medium to large trucks, Ford is one notable exception using a V8 in medium duty trucks.
GM pickup trucks abandoned the straight-six in 1984 for the 4.3 V6, in 2002, General Motors introduced the Vortec 4200 as part of the modular straight-four, straight-five and straight-six GM Atlas engine line. It was used in their sport utility vehicles. Jeep abandoned the straight-six in 2006 with the 2006 Jeep Wrangler being the last vehicle, Ram Trucks continues to offer straight-six engines in its heavy duty pickup truck and chassis cab models, although only V6 and V8 engines are available in the smaller versions
In a reciprocating piston engine, the connecting rod or conrod connects the piston to the crank or crankshaft. Together with the crank, they form a mechanism that converts reciprocating motion into rotating motion. Connecting rods may convert rotating motion into reciprocating motion, before the development of engines, they were first used in this way. As a connecting rod is rigid, it may transmit either a push or a pull, earlier mechanisms, such as chains, could only pull. In a few two-stroke engines the connecting rod is required to push. Today, connecting rods are best known through their use in internal combustion piston engines and these are of a distinctly different design from earlier forms of connecting rods, used in steam engines and steam locomotives. The earliest evidence for a connecting rod appears in the late 3rd century AD Roman Hierapolis sawmill and it appears in two 6th century Eastern Roman saw mills excavated at Ephesus and Gerasa. The crank and connecting rod mechanism of these Roman watermills converted the motion of the waterwheel into the linear movement of the saw blades.
In Renaissance Italy, the earliest evidence of a − albeit mechanically misunderstood − compound crank, a sound understanding of the motion involved is displayed by the painter Pisanello who showed a piston-pump driven by a water-wheel and operated by two simple cranks and two connecting-rods. The first steam engines, Newcomens atmospheric engine, was single-acting, its piston only did work in one direction and their output rocked back and forth, rather than rotating continuously. Steam engines after this are usually double-acting, their internal pressure works on each side of the piston in turn. This requires a seal around the rod and so the hinge between the piston and connecting rod is placed outside the cylinder, in a large sliding bearing block called a crosshead. In a steam locomotive, the pins are usually mounted directly on one or more pairs of driving wheels. The connecting rods, run between the pins and crossheads, where they connect to the piston rods. Crossheads or trunk guides are used on large diesel engines manufactured for marine service.
The connecting rods of smaller steam locomotives are usually of rectangular cross-section but, on small locomotives, stephen Lewin, who built both locomotive and marine engines, was a frequent user of round rods. Gresleys A4 Pacifics, such as Mallard, had an alloy steel connecting rod in the form of an I-beam with a web that was only 0.375 in thick. On Western Rivers steamboats, the rods are properly called pitmans
A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft. Most banks are set at an angle to each other, some at a narrower angle, with 45°, 60°. In its simplest form, the V8 is basically two parallel inline-four engines sharing a common crankshaft, since the 1920s, most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations. This results in an engine that is smoother than a V6, most racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs. In 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light and he called it the Antoinette after the young daughter of his financial backer. From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of competition speedboats, the aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte dAzur and decided to try it on his 14-bis aircraft.
Its early 24 hp at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg of weight was interesting, Santos-Dumont ordered a larger and more powerful version from Levavasseur. He changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp with 86 kg of weight and its power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years. Levavasseur eventually produced its own line of V8 equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII, hubert Latham piloted the V8 powered Antoinette IV and Antoinette VII in July 1909 on two failed attempts to cross the English Channel. However, in 1910, Latham used the VII with the engine to become the first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet. Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines, notably the one first flown successfully by Henry Farman in 1908, the V8 engine configuration became popular in France from 1904 onward, and was used in a number of aircraft engines introduced by Renault, and Buchet among others.
Some of these found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a car to beat the world speed record. They came up with two racing car built on a common crankcase and camshaft. The result was monstrous engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in, victor Hemery fixed that record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph. Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc V8 car from 1905 to 1906, in 1907 The Hewitt Motor Company built a large 5 passenger Touring Car. It was equipped with a hefty V8 engine that developed 50/60 horsepower and had a bore of 4 inches, the Hewitt was the first American Automobile to be equipped with a V8 engine. De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc automobile V8 in 1910 and it was produced only in small quantities, but inspired a number of manufacturers to follow suit
Overhead valve engine
An overhead valve engine is an engine in which the valves are placed in the cylinder head. This was an improvement over the flathead engine, where the valves were placed in the block next to the piston. Overhead camshaft engines, while overhead valve by definition, are usually categorized apart from other OHV engines. Lifters or tappets are located in the block between the camshaft and pushrods. By contrast, overhead camshaft design avoids the use of pushrods by putting the camshaft directly above the valves in the cylinder head, in 1900, Marr was hired as chief engineer at the Buick Auto-Vim and Power Company in Detroit, where he worked until 1902. Marr said he got the idea of overhead valves when making the small tricycle engine, marrs engine employed pushrod-actuated rocker arms, which in turn pushed valves parallel to the pistons, and this is still in use today. This contrasts with previous designs which use of side valves. Marr left Buick briefly to start his own company in 1902, the Marr Auto-Car.
The OHV engine was patented in 1902 by Buicks second chief engineer Eugene Richard, at the Buick Manufacturing Company, precursor to the Buick Motor Company. The worlds first production overhead valve engine was put into the first production Buick automobile, the 1904 Model B, the engine was designed by Marr and David Buick. Eugene Richard of the Buick Manufacturing Company was awarded US Patent #771,095 in 1904 for the valve in head engine. Arthur Chevrolet was awarded US Patent #1,744,526 for an adapter that could be applied to an existing engine, in 1949, Oldsmobile introduced the Rocket V8. It was the first high-compression I-head design, and is the archetype for most modern pushrod engines, general Motors is the worlds largest pushrod engine producer, producing both I4, V6 and V8 pushrod engines. Nowadays, automotive use of side-valves has virtually disappeared, and valves are almost all overhead, most are now driven more directly by the overhead camshaft system. Few pushrod-type engines remain in production outside of the United States market and this is in part a result of some countries passing laws to tax engines based on displacement, because displacement is somewhat related to the emissions and fuel efficiency of an automobile.
This has given OHC engines a regulatory advantage in those countries, however, in 2002, Chrysler introduced a new pushrod engine, a 5. 7-litre Hemi engine. The new Chrysler Hemi engine presents advanced features such as variable displacement technology and has been an option with buyers. The Hemi was on the Wards 10 Best Engines list for 2003 through 2007, Chrysler produced the worlds first production variable-valve OHV engine with independent intake and exhaust phasing
Chandler Motor Car
The Chandler Motor Car Company produced automobiles in the United States of America during the 1910s and 1920s. It was incorporated in 1913, with Frederick C. Chandler as President and with its factory in Cleveland, Chandler was a former designer for the Lozier Motor Company, a top end luxury automobile manufacturer. Chandler and several other Lozier executives left the company to form his company, Chandler concentrated on producing a good quality motor-car within the price range of middle class Americans. Chandlers were well received in the marketplace, in 1920, Chandler had a line of 6 cars, ranging from $1995 to $3595. This grew to ten by 1922, ranging from $1495 to $2375, like many other medium-price carmakers, in the middle 1920s Chandler introduced a lower-priced companion car called the Cleveland. In 1924, they introduced the Traffic Transmission, a gearbox that reduced the need for extra clutching when downshifting. This was several years before General Motors offered the Synchro-Mesh transmission, chandlers peak year was 1927, when they sold 20,000 cars.
Hopes for continued growth of the led to overexpansion by the company the following year. In 1929, Chandler Motor Company was purchased by its expanding competitor Hupp Motor Car Company for its factory and manufacturing facilities, and the brand was discontinued. Chandler, like most cars built before all-steel bodies became the standard in the mid-1930s. Chandler Light Weight Model 19 Touring 1919 Chandler Opera Coupe,1919 Chandler Metropolitan Sedan,1922 List of defunct United States automobile manufacturers