Isotta Fraschini was an Italian luxury car manufacturer, company produced trucks, engines for marine and aviation use. Founded in Milan, Italy, in 1900 by Cesare Isotta and the brothers Vincenzo and Oreste Fraschini, in 1955 it was merged with engine manufacturer Breda Motori and was renamed F. A. Isotta Fraschini e Motori Breda; the company went bankrupt in 1999. In 2000, a new company was founded as a subsidiary of Fincantieri, under the name of Isotta Fraschini Motori based in Bari; the firm was named for its founders, Cesare Isotta and Vincenzo Fraschini, as Società Milanese Automobili Isotta, Fraschini & C. on 27 January 1900. The motto was "Import, repair cars". Prior to establishing their own company in 1904, Isotta and Fraschini assembled Renaults; the first automobile bearing this marque featured a four-cylinder engine with an output of 24 horsepower. The car, driven by Vincenzo Fraschini, appeared in several races. In 1905, Isotta Fraschini gained notoriety in the Coppa Florio, where they entered a Tipo D with a 17.2-litre 100 horsepower engine.
For a short time in 1907, Isotta Fraschini merged with French automobile company Lorraine-Dietrich. The firm started making race cars using this same 100 horsepower engine, establishing the company's reputation and giving its name considerable cachet, it was one of the first cars with four-wheel brakes, following their invention by Arrol-Johnston of Scotland in 1909. They were among the early pioneers of overhead cam, with an engine designed by Giustino Cattaneo. Isotta Fraschini introduced their Tipo 8, the first production automobile to be powered by a straight-eight engine, at the Paris Salon in 1919 and began delivering them to customers in 1920. With the growth of the wealthy middle class in North America in the 1920s, Isotta Fraschini marketed deluxe limousines to the new American aristocracy. Early film stars Clara Rudolph Valentino drove Isotta Fraschinis. A 1929 Tipo 8A Castagna Transformable is featured in the 1950 film Sunset Boulevard and another appears in the 1934 film Death Takes a Holiday with Fredric March.
An Isotta Fraschini makes a featured appearance in the 1946 film Without Reservations with John Wayne and Claudette Colbert. An Isotta Fraschini was gigolo Lindsay Marriott's car in Raymond Chandler's book Farewell, My Lovely, made into the motion picture Murder, My Sweet, starring Dick Powell and Claire Trevor; the grille of the Isotta Fraschini with the lightning bolt insignia is seen parked in a ravine, right before Lindsay Marriott gets zapped to death. An oversized Isotta Fraschini is the vehicle of choice for Dick and Nicole Diver in F. Scott Fitzgerald's 1933 novel Tender is the Night. Affected by the economic crisis of the 1930s and by the disruptions of World War II, Isotta Fraschini stopped making cars after the war. Only five of the last model, the Monterosa, were produced; the plants were converted to produce marine engines. The company was left on the company register and in 1955 it was merged with engine manufacturer Breda Motori and named F. A. Isotta Fraschini e Motori Breda; the company started to produce trolley buses again and in 1960s built a new diesel engine factory in Bari.
In the 1980s, the company was renamed Isotta Fraschini Motori SpA and it became part of Fincantieri group, with administrative headquarters in the old factory in Bari. In the 1990s, attempts to revive the automotive industry of Isotta Fraschini were made. Concept-car coupe and roadster Isotta Fraschini T8 were built in 1996, concept-car roadster Isotta Fraschini T12 was built in 1998; the company never went into production and closed for bankruptcy in 1999. Isotta Fraschini A.120 R. C.40 – Isotta Fraschini L.121 R. C.40 – Isotta Fraschini L.170 Isotta Fraschini L.180 I. R. C. C.15/40 inverted W-18 Isotta Fraschini L.180 I. R. C. C.45 inverted W-18 Isotta Fraschini Asso 80Isotta Fraschini Asso 80 R. I. Isotta Fraschini Asso 120 R. C.40 Isotta Fraschini Asso 200 Isotta Fraschini Asso 250 misidentification or variant of Asso 200 Isotta Fraschini Asso 500 Isotta Fraschini Asso 500 AQ Isotta Fraschini Asso 750 Isotta Fraschini Asso 750 R Isotta Fraschini Asso 750 R. C. Isotta Fraschini Asso 750 R. C.35 Isotta Fraschini Asso IX Isotta Fraschini Asso IX R.
C.45 Isotta Fraschini Asso 1000 Isotta Fraschini Asso Caccia Isotta Fraschini Asso XI Isotta Fraschini Asso Isotta Fraschini Beta Isotta Fraschini Beta R. C.10 Isotta Fraschini GammaIsotta Fraschini Gamma R. C.15I Isotta Fraschini Gamma R. C.35IS Isotta Fraschini Delta Isotta Fraschini ZetaIsotta Fraschini Zeta R. C.25/60 Isotta Fraschini Zeta R. C.35 Isotta Fraschini Zeta R. C.42 Isotta Fraschini Astro 7 C.21 Isotta Fraschini Astro 7 C.40 Isotta Fraschini Astro 14 C.40 Isotta Fraschini Astro 14 R. C.40 Isotta Fraschini V.4 Isotta Fraschini V.5 Isotta Fraschini V.6 Isotta Fraschini 245hp Isotta Fraschini K.14 Isotta Fraschini 80 R Isotta Fraschini 80 T Runabout 1901–1902 Tipo FENC 1908 Tipo KM 1910-1914 Tipo IM 1913 Tipo 8 1919-1924 Tipo 8A 1924-1931 Tipo 8B 1931-1936 Tipo 8C Monterosa 1948-1949 T8 1996 T12 1998 Tipo D 1905 Tipo FE 1908 D80 1934–1955 D65 1940–1955 TS 40F1 F1 Isotta Fraschini is today represented by the following three economic entities. Intrepida Fides, The Isotta Fraschini Foundation, acronym coined by Gabriele D'Annunzio, with registered office in Milan.
Isotta Fraschini Milano s.r.l. with registered office in Milan, active in the field of vehicles, as well as production and marketing of luxury goods. Isotta Fraschini Motori S.p. A.: with registered office in Bari. An engineering firm specializing in diesel products marine engines, industrial engines, rail traction engines, but providing civ
Overhead camshaft abbreviated to OHC, is a valvetrain configuration which places the camshaft of an internal combustion engine of the reciprocating type within the cylinder heads and drives the valves or lifters in a more direct manner compared with overhead valves and pushrods. Compared with OHV pushrod systems with the same number of valves, the reciprocating components of the OHC system are fewer and have a lower overall mass. Though the system that drives the camshafts may be more complex, most engine manufacturers accept that added complexity as a trade-off for better engine performance and greater design flexibility; the fundamental reason for the OHC valvetrain is that it offers an increase in the engine's ability to exchange induction and exhaust gases. Another performance advantage is gained as a result of the better optimised port configurations made possible with overhead camshaft designs. With no intrusive pushrods, the overhead camshaft cylinder head design can use straighter ports of more advantageous cross-section and length.
The OHC design allows for higher engine speeds than comparable cam-in-block designs, as a result of having lower valvetrain mass. The higher engine speeds thus allowed increases power output for a given torque output. Disadvantages of the OHC design include the complexity of the camshaft drive, the need to re-time the drive system each time the cylinder head is removed, the accessibility of tappet adjustment if necessary. In earlier OHC systems, including inter-war Morrises and Wolseleys, oil leaks in the lubrication systems were an issue. Single overhead camshaft is a design. In an inline engine, this means there is one camshaft in the head, whilst in an engine with more than one cylinder head, such as a V engine or a horizontally-opposed engine – there are two camshafts, one per cylinder bank. In the SOHC design, the camshaft operates the valves traditionally via a bucket tappet. SOHC cylinder heads are less expensive to manufacture than double overhead camshaft cylinder heads. Timing belt replacement can be easier since there are fewer camshaft drive sprockets that need to be aligned during the replacement procedure.
SOHC designs offer reduced complexity compared with overhead valve designs when used for multivalve cylinder heads, in which each cylinder has more than two valves. An example of an SOHC design using shim and bucket valve adjustment was the engine installed in the Hillman Imp, a small, early-1960s two-door saloon car with a rear-mounted aluminium-alloy engine based on the Coventry Climax FWMA race engines. Exhaust and inlet manifolds were both on the same side of the engine block; this did, offer excellent access to the spark plugs. In the early 1980s, Toyota and Volkswagen Group used a directly actuated SOHC parallel valve configuration with two valves for each cylinder; the Toyota system used hydraulic tappets. The Volkswagen system used bucket tappets with shims for valve-clearance adjustment; the multivalve Sprint version of the Triumph Slant-4 engine used a system where the camshaft was placed directly over the inlet valves, with the same cams that opened the intake valves directly opening the exhaust valves via rocker arms.
Honda used a similar valvetrain system in their motorcycles, using the term "Unicam" for the concept. This system uses one camshaft for each bank of cylinder heads, with the cams operating directly onto the inlet valve, indirectly, through a short rocker arm, on the exhaust valve; this allows a light valvetrain to operate valves in a flat combustion chamber. The Unicam valve train was first used in single cylinder dirt bikes and has been used on the Honda VFR1200 since 2010. A dual overhead camshaft valvetrain layout is characterised by two camshafts located within the cylinder head, one operating the intake valves and the other one operating the exhaust valves; this design reduces valvetrain inertia more than is the case with an SOHC engine, since the rocker arms are reduced in size or eliminated. A DOHC design exhaust valves than in SOHC engines; this can give a less restricted airflow at higher engine speeds. DOHC with a multivalve design allows for the optimum placement of the spark plug, which in turn improves combustion efficiency.
Engines having more than one bank of cylinders with two camshafts in total remain SOHC and "twin cam" unless each cylinder bank has two camshafts. Although the term "twin cam" is used to refer to DOHC engines, it is imprecise, as it includes designs with two block-mounted camshafts. Examples include the Harley-Davidson Twin Cam engine, Riley car engines from 1926 to the mid 1950s, Triumph motorcycle parallel-twins from the 1930s to the 1980s, Indian Chief and Scout V-twins from 1920 to the 1950s; the terms "multivalve" and "DOHC" do not refer to the same thing: not all multivalve engines are DOHC and not all DOHC engines are multivalve. Examples of DOHC engines with two valves per cylinder include the Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, the Jaguar XK6 engine and the Lotus Ford Twin Cam engine. Most recent DOHC engines are multivalve, with between five valves per cylinder. More than two overhead camshafts are not known to have been tried in a production engine. However, MotoCzysz has designed a motorcycle engine with a triple overhead camshaft configuration, with the intake ports descending through the cylind
Charron, Girardot et Voigt
Automobiles Charron, Girardot & Voigt SA was a French motor manufacturer founded by the racing cyclists and motorists Fernand Charron, Léonce Girardot and Carl Voigt. They opened one of the first French car dealerships in 1897, on Avenue de la Grande Armée in Paris and raced Panhard et Levassors in the major motoring events. Automobiles Charron, Girardot et Voigt SA showed their first car in 1901. In 1904, they produced 216 cars with 4 cylinder engines. Automobiles Charron, Girardot et Voigt SA became Automobiles Charron in 1906 when both Léonce Girardot and Carl Voigt left, it continued trading until 1930. In May 1905 Madame Camille du Gast competed in the trans-Mediterranean race from Algiers to Toulon, having built the 13 metres steel hulled Camille for the event, fitted with a 90 horse power Charron, Girardot et Voigt engine. Charron Harald Linz, Halwart Schrader: Die große Automobil-Enzyklopädie. BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, München 1986, ISBN 3-405-12974-5
Filmo is a series of 16-mm and 8-mm movie equipment made by the Bell & Howell Company. The line included cameras and accessories; the Filmo camera series started with the 1923 Filmo 70, beginning a series of models built on the same basic body, to continued for more than half a century. It was based on Bell & Howell's brilliantly designed 1917 prototype for a 17.5mm camera intended for amateur use. When invited into Kodak's 16mm plans in 1920, the company was quick to see the advantages and set about redesigning the 17.5mm camera for 16mm film. The Filmo 70 was the first spring motor-driven 16mm camera. In 1925 the Eyemo, a hand-held 35mm camera based on the design of the Filmo 70 was offered, it was spring driven, but could be hand-cranked as well. Bell & Howell introduced the first 16mm turret camera with its Model C in 1927. A beautifully ornate and much more compact 16mm camera, the Filmo 75, marketed as a "watch-thin" ladies' camera, was offered in 1928, followed in 1931 by a nearly identical counterpart designated as the Filmo Field Camera, offered in a plain covering, but available with the ornate decorations of the Model 75, in that form indistinguishable from the earlier version except for the nameplate.
When Kodak introduced 8mm film in 1932, Bell & Howell was slow to take up the new format, when it did so, it was not in the form of the Kodak standard. The first 8mm Filmo was offered in 1935 as a single run 8mm film camera, the Filmo 127-A called STRAIGHT EIGHT. However, STRAIGHT EIGHT did not appeal to the market as well as double-8, so the design was modified for double-8 as the 134-A in 1936. Production of Filmos around this body type continued into the 1950s; the 16mm Filmo cameras all take 16-mm film on a 100 ft Daylight spool although some versions can take 400 ft external magazines. Spring wind is standard, although some Filmos have provisions for attachment of a 12V DC or AC motor. A crystal-sync motor was developed for the Eyemo and adapted to the Filmo. In 1927, the camera was equipped with a three-lens turret. Early turret models used a variable drum finder or sets of separate finder lenses matched to each focal length on cameras. Early versions were designed for two speeds, either 8 and 16 frame/s, or 16 and 32 frame/s, with one option for a 12-16-24 frame/s 3-speed camera.
Starting with the Model D in 1927, most versions could shoot a range of speeds up to 64 frames per second, although there was a superspeed version, the 70-B, designed to run at a single speed of 128 frame/s. This was used for motion analysis; the Model 70-E was a turretless version of the Model D, with a shorter range of speeds. The camera was built to the most precise standards in the industry, is still popular with student filmmakers. Durable and ruggedly built, it was standard equipment for U. S. military combat cameramen from World War II thru Vietnam, the workhorse silent news-gathering camera for TV stations from the 1950s through the 1970s, when electronic news gathering on video tape began to replace 16mm film. Most varieties are common, but special models like the Model 70-B, the 70-DB ) are quite rare, the Filmo 70-AC Morgana Color System camera, while advertised is unknown in any extant examples and may never have gone past the prototype stage. Filmo Operating and Repair Manuals Filmo History Bell & Howell movie cameras
Automobiles Ettore Bugatti was a French car manufacturer of high-performance automobiles, founded in 1909 in the then-German city of Molsheim, Alsace by the Italian-born industrial designer Ettore Bugatti. The cars were known for their many race victories. Famous Bugattis include the Type 35 Grand Prix cars, the Type 41 "Royale", the Type 57 "Atlantic" and the Type 55 sports car; the death of Ettore Bugatti in 1947 proved to be the end for the marque, the death of his son Jean Bugatti in 1939 ensured there was not a successor to lead the factory. No more than about 8,000 cars were made; the company struggled financially, released one last model in the 1950s, before being purchased for its airplane parts business in 1963. In the 1990s, an Italian entrepreneur revived it as a builder of limited production exclusive sports cars. Today, the name is owned by the Volkswagen Group. Founder Ettore Bugatti was born in Milan and the automobile company that bears his name was founded in 1909 in Molsheim located in the Alsace region, part of the German Empire from 1871 to 1919.
The company was known both for the level of detail of its engineering in its automobiles, for the artistic manner in which the designs were executed, given the artistic nature of Ettore's family. During the war Ettore Bugatti was sent away to Milan and to Paris, but as soon as hostilities had been concluded he returned to his factory at Molsheim. Less than four months after the Versailles Treaty formalised the transfer of Alsace from Germany to France, Bugatti was able to obtain, at the last minute, a stand at the 15th Paris motor show in October 1919, he exhibited three light cars, all of them based on their pre-war equivalents, each fitted with the same overhead camshaft 4-cylinder 1,368cc engine with four valves per cylinder. Smallest of the three was a "Type 13" with a racing body and using a chassis with a 2,000 mm wheelbase; the others were a "Type 22" and a "Type 23" with wheelbases of 2,400 mm respectively. The company enjoyed great success in early Grand Prix motor racing: in 1929 a entered Bugatti won the first Monaco Grand Prix.
Racing success culminated with driver Jean-Pierre Wimille winning the 24 hours of Le Mans twice. Bugatti cars were successful in racing; the little Bugatti Type 10 swept the top four positions at its first race. The 1924 Bugatti Type 35 is one of the most successful racing cars; the Type 35 was developed by Bugatti with master engineer and racing driver Jean Chassagne who drove it in the car’s first Grand Prix in 1924 Lyon. Bugattis swept to victory in the Targa Florio for five years straight from 1925 through 1929. Louis Chiron held the most podiums in Bugatti cars, the modern marque revival Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S. named the 1999 Bugatti 18/3 Chiron concept car in his honour. But it was the final racing success at Le Mans, most remembered—Jean-Pierre Wimille and Pierre Veyron won the 1939 race with just one car and meagre resources. In the 1930s, Ettore Bugatti got involved in the creation of a racer airplane, hoping to beat the Germans in the Deutsch de la Meurthe prize; this would be the Bugatti 100P.
It was designed by Belgian engineer Louis de Monge who had applied Bugatti Brescia engines in his "Type 7.5" lifting body. Ettore Bugatti designed a successful motorised railcar, the Autorail Bugatti; the death of Ettore Bugatti's son, Jean Bugatti, on 11 August 1939 marked a turning point in the company's fortunes. Jean died. World War II left the Molsheim factory in the company lost control of the property. During the war, Bugatti planned a new factory at a northwestern suburb of Paris. After the war, Bugatti designed and planned to build a series of new cars, including the Type 73 road car and Type 73C single seat racing car, but in all Bugatti built only five Type 73 cars. Development of a 375 cc supercharged car was stopped when Ettore Bugatti died on 21 August 1947. Following Ettore Bugatti's death, the business declined further and made its last appearance as a business in its own right at a Paris Motor Show in October 1952. After a long decline, the original incarnation of Bugatti ceased operations in 1952.
Bugattis are noticeably focused on design. Engine blocks were hand scraped to ensure that the surfaces were so flat that gaskets were not required for sealing, many of the exposed surfaces of the engine compartment featured guilloché finishes on them, safety wires had been threaded through every fastener in intricately laced patterns. Rather than bolt the springs to the axles as most manufacturers did, Bugatti's axles were forged such that the spring passed through a sized opening in the axle, a much more elegant solution requiring fewer parts, he famously described his arch competitor Bentley's cars as "the world's fastest lorries" for focusing on durability. According to Bugatti, "weight was the enemy". Relatives of Harold Carr found a rare 1937 Bugatti Type 57S Atalante when cataloguing the doctor's belongings after his death in 2009. Carr's Type 57S is notable because it was owned by British race car driver Earl Howe; because much of the car's original equipment is intact, it can be restored without relying on replacement parts.
On 10 July 2009, a 1925 Bugatti Brescia Type 22 which had lain at the bottom of Lake Maggiore on the border of Switzerland and Italy for 75 years was recovered from the lake. The Mullin Mu
Duesenberg Model J
The Duesenberg Model J is a luxury automobile made by Duesenberg. Intended to compete with the most luxurious and powerful cars in the world, it was introduced in 1928, the year before the stock market crash that led to the Great Depression; the Model J, available with a supercharger after 1932, was sold until 1937. E. L. Cord, the owner of Auburn Automobile, other transportation firms, bought the Duesenberg Motor Corporation on October 26, 1926 for the brothers' engineering skills and brand name, he intended to produce a car to rival the size and luxury of top European brands such as Hispano-Suiza, Isotta Fraschini and Rolls-Royce. After Cord's takeover, the new company was renamed "Duesenberg, Inc." Fred would continue in the new organization with the title of vice president in charge of engineering and experimental work. Fred's brother August, who had played an important role in the development of the Model A and its variant, the rare X, had nothing to do with the initial design of the J and had no formal connection with Duesenberg, Inc. until later.
According to the expert Marshall Merkes, "Cord did not want Augie around." However, all Duesenberg racing cars produced after 1926 were built by Augie in an enterprise that functioned separately, in a building apart from the main Duesenberg plant. He was responsible for a number of engineering achievements like the superchargers developed for both the Auburn and Cord motorcars; the newly revived Duesenberg company set about to produce the Model J, which debuted December 1 at the New York Car Show of 1928. In Europe, it was launched at the "Salon de l'automobile de Paris" of 1929; the first and — at the time of the New York presentation — only example made of the series, the J-101, was a LeBaron sweep panel dual cowl phaeton, finished in silver and black. By the time the Great Depression hit in October 1929, the Duesenberg Company had only built some 200 cars. An additional 100 orders were filled in 1930. Thus, the Model J fell short of the original goal to sell 500 cars a year; the straight eight model J motor was based on the company's successful racing engines of the 1920s and though designed by Duesenberg they were manufactured by Lycoming, another company owned by Cord.
In aspirated form, it produced 265 horsepower from dual overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder. It was capable of a top speed of 119 mph, 94 mph in 2nd gear. Other cars featured a bigger engine but none of them surpassed its power, it was both the fastest and most expensive American automobile on the market. As was common practice among the luxury car brands, only the chassis and engine were displayed, the body and interior trim of the car would be custom-made by a third-party coachbuilder to the owner's specifications; the chassis on most model Js were the same, as was the styling of such elements as fenders, radiator and instrument panel. About half the model Js built by Duesenberg had coachworks devised by the company's chief body designer, Gordon Buehrig, executed under the name La Grande by company branches in Chicago, New York City, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and Denver, as well as by smaller dealers; the rest were designed and made by independent US coachbuilders such as Derham, Judkins, Le Baron, Rollston, Walker and Willoughby, Fernandez et Darrin, Gurney Nutting and others in Europe.
The chassis cost $8,500. At a time when the average U. S. physician earned less than $3,000 a year, most completed vehicles fell between $13,000 and $19,000, with two American-bodied J's reaching $25,000.) Figures for prices charged by deluxe coachbuilders in Europe are not available, but it is possible they were higher than the more costly American built models. The J was available with either with a short 142.5 in wheelbase chassis or long 153.5 in ). Special orders included a few extended to 160 in and over; the dash included mechanically timed lights that reminded the driver when to change the oil and inspect the battery. Most engine and chassis were made in 1929 and 1930, but due to the Depression, high price, etc. ended up sold and bodied throughout subsequent years. Thus the year for a given Model J refers to the latter. A series of minor modifications were carried out during the model's production life; the first major change was to replace the four-speed gearbox, which proved unable to handle the engine's power, with an unsynchronised three-speed gearbox, subsequently fitted to all Duesenbergs.
Unlike all American manufacturers, Duesenberg did not switch to a synchronised gearbox in the mid-1930s, which made the Model J difficult to drive and outdated by the latter years of its run. The factory closed in 1937. A Duesenberg marketing slogan was, "The only car that could pass a Duesenberg was another Duesenberg—and, with the first owner's consent." Reinforcing this claim was the powerful 320 hp supercharged "SJ" model Developed on the 142.5 in wheelbaseby Fred Duesenberg and introduced in May 1932.. It reputed to be capable of 104 miles per hour in second gear and have a top speed of 135–140 mph in third. Zero-to-60 mph times of around eight seconds and 0–100 mph in 17 seconds were reported for the SJ in spite of the unsynchronized transmissions, at a time when the best cars of the era were not to reach 100 mph. Duesenbergs weighed around two and a half tons; the SJ's supercharger was located beside the engine.
Mercedes-Benz is a German global automobile marque and a division of Daimler AG. The brand is known for luxury vehicles, buses and trucks; the headquarters is in Baden-Württemberg. The name first appeared in 1926 under Daimler-Benz. In 2018, Mercedes-Benz was the biggest selling premium vehicle brand in the world, having sold 2.31 million passenger cars. Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft's 1901 Mercedes and Karl Benz's 1886 Benz Patent-Motorwagen, regarded as the first gasoline-powered automobile; the slogan for the brand is "the best or nothing". Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Karl Benz's creation of the first petrol-powered car, the Benz Patent Motorwagen, financed by Bertha Benz and patented in January 1886, Gottlieb Daimler and engineer Wilhelm Maybach's conversion of a stagecoach by the addition of a petrol engine that year; the Mercedes automobile was first marketed in 1901 by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft. Emil Jellinek, an Austrian automobile entrepreneur who worked with DMG, created the trademark in 1902, naming the 1901 Mercedes 35 hp after his daughter Mercedes Jellinek.
Jellinek was a businessman and marketing strategist who promoted "horseless" Daimler automobiles among the highest circles of society in his adopted home, which, at that time, was a meeting place for the "Haute Volée" of France and Europe in winter. His customers included other well-known personalities, but Jellinek's plans went further: as early as 1901, he was selling Mercedes cars in the New World as well, including US billionaires Rockefeller, Astor and Taylor. At a race in Nice in 1899, Jellinek drove under the pseudonym "Monsieur Mercédès", a way of concealing the competitor's real name as was normal and regularly done in those days; the race ranks as the hour of birth of the Mercedes-Benz brand. In 1901, the name "Mercedes" was registered by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft worldwide as a protected trademark; the first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926, following the merger of Karl Benz's and Gottlieb Daimler's companies into the Daimler-Benz company on 28 June of the same year.
Gottlieb Daimler was born on 17 March 1834 in Schorndorf. After training as a gunsmith and working in France, he attended the Polytechnic School in Stuttgart from 1857 to 1859. After completing various technical activities in France and England, he started working as a draftsman in Geislingen in 1862. At the end of 1863, he was appointed workshop inspector in a machine tool factory in Reutlingen, where he met Wilhelm Maybach in 1865. Throughout the 1930s, Mercedes-Benz produced the 770 model, a car, popular during Germany's Nazi period. Adolf Hitler was known to have driven these cars during his time in power, with bulletproof windshields. Most of the surviving models have been sold at auctions to private buyers. One of them is on display at the War Museum in Ottawa, Ontario; the pontiff's Popemobile has been sourced from Mercedes-Benz. In 1944, 46,000 forced laborers were used in Daimler-Benz's factories to bolster Nazi war efforts; the company paid $12 million in reparations to the laborers' families.
Mercedes-Benz has introduced many technological and safety innovations that became common in other vehicles. Mercedes-Benz is one of the best-known and established automotive brands in the world. For information relating to the famous three-pointed star, see under the title Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, including the merger into Daimler-Benz; as part of the Daimler AG company, the Mercedes-Benz Cars division includes Mercedes-Benz and Smart car production. Mercedes-AMG became a majority owned division of Mercedes-Benz in 1999; the company was integrated into DaimlerChrysler in 1999, became Mercedes-Benz AMG beginning on 1 January 1999. Daimler's ultra-luxury brand Maybach was under Mercedes-Benz cars division until 2013, when the production stopped due to poor sales volumes, it now exists under the Mercedes-Maybach name, with the models being ultra-luxury versions of Mercedes cars, such as the 2016 Mercedes-Maybach S600. Daimler cooperates with BYD Auto to sell a battery-electric car called Denza in China.
In 2016, Daimler announced plans to sell. Beside its native Germany, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are manufactured or assembled in: Since its inception, Mercedes-Benz has maintained a reputation for its quality and durability. Objective measures looking at passenger vehicles, such as J. D. Power surveys, demonstrated a downturn in reputation in these criteria in the late 1990s and early 2000s. By mid-2005, Mercedes temporarily returned to the industry average for initial quality, a measure of problems after the first 90 days of ownership, according to J. D. Power. In J. D. Power's Initial Quality Study for the first quarter of 2007, Mercedes showed dramatic improvement by climbing from 25th to 5th place and earning several awards for its models. For 2008, Mercedes-Benz's initial quality rating improved to fourth place. On top of this accolade, it received the Platinum Plant Quality Award for its Mercedes’ Sindelfingen, Germany assembly plant. J. D. Power's 2011 US Initial Quality and Vehicle Dependability Studies both ranked Mercedes-Benz vehicles above average in build quality and reliability.
In the 2011 UK J. D. Power Survey, Mercedes cars were rated above average. A 2014 iSeeCars.com study for Reuters found Mercedes to have the lowest vehicle recall rate. Mercedes-Benz offers a full range of light commercial and heavy commercial equipment. Vehicles are manufactured in multiple countries worldwide; the Smart marque of city cars are produced by Daimler AG