The Straits Settlements were a group of British territories located in Southeast and East Asia. Established in 1826 as part of the territories controlled by the British East India Company, the Straits Settlements came under direct British control as a Crown colony on 1 April 1867; the colony was dissolved in 1946 as part of the British reorganisation of its dependencies following the end of the Second World War. The Straits Settlements consisted of the four individual settlements of Penang, Singapore and Dinding. Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands were added in 1886; the island of Labuan, off the coast of Borneo, was incorporated into the colony with effect from 1 January 1907, becoming a separate settlement within it in 1912. Most of the territories now form part of Malaysia, from which Singapore separated in 1965; the Cocos Islands were transferred to Australian control in 1955. Christmas Island was transferred in 1958, their administration was combined in 1996 to form the Australian Indian Ocean Territories.
The first settlement was the Penang territory, in 1786. This comprised Penang Island known as the'Prince of Wales Island'; this was extended to encompass an area of the mainland, which became known as Province Wellesley. The first grant was in 1800, followed by another in 1831. Further adjustments to Province Wellesley's border were made in 1859, with the Treaty of Pangkor in 1874. Province Wellesley, on the mainland opposite the island of Penang, was ceded to Great Britain in 1800 by the Sultan of Kedah, on its northern and eastern border; the boundary with Kedah was rectified by treaty with Siam in 1867. It was administered by a district officer, with some assistants, answering to the resident councillor of Penang. Province Wellesley consisted, for the most part, of a fertile plain, thickly populated by Malays, occupied in some parts by sugar-planters and others engaged in similar agricultural industries and employing Chinese and Tamil labour. About a tenth of the whole area was covered by low hills with thick jungle.
Large quantities of rice were grown by the Malay inhabitants, between October and February, there was snipe-shooting in the paddy fields. A railway from Butterworth, opposite Penang, runs into Perak, thence via Selangor and Negri Sembilan to Malacca, with an extension via Muar under the rule of the Sultan of Johor, through the last-named state to Johor Bharu, opposite the island of Singapore. Singapore became the site of a British trading post in 1819 after its founder, Stamford Raffles involved the East India Company in a dynastic struggle for the throne of Johore. Thereafter the British came to control the entire island of Singapore, developed into a thriving colony and port. In 1824 the Dutch conceded any rights they had to the island in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, by 1836 Singapore was the seat of government of the Straits Settlements; the Dutch colony of Malacca was ceded to the British in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 in exchange for the British possession of Bencoolen and for British rights in Sumatra.
Malacca's importance was in establishing an exclusive British zone of influence in the region, it was overshadowed as a trading post by Penang, Singapore. The Dindings — named after the Dinding River in present-day Manjung District — which comprised Pangkor Island, the towns of Lumut and Sitiawan on the mainland, were ceded by Perak to the British government under the Pangkor Treaty of 1874. Hopes that its excellent natural harbour would prove to be valuable were doomed to disappointment, the territory sparsely inhabited and altogether unimportant both politically and financially, was returned to and administered by the government of Perak in February 1935; the establishment of the Straits Settlements followed the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, by which the Malay archipelago was divided into a British zone in the north and a Dutch zone in the south. This resulted in the exchange of the British settlement of Bencoolen for the Dutch colony of Malacca and undisputed control of Singapore; the Settlements were Chinese in population, with a tiny but important European minority.
Their capital was moved from George Town, the capital of Penang, to Singapore in 1832. Their scattered nature proved to be difficult and, after the company lost its monopoly in the china trade in 1833, expensive to administer. During their control by the East India Company, the Settlements were used as penal settlements for Indian civilian and military prisoners, earning them the title of the "Botany Bays of India"; the years 1853 saw minor uprisings by convicts in Singapore and Penang. Upset with East India Company rule, in 1857 the European population of the Settlements sent a petition to the British Parliament asking for direct rule; when a "Gagging Act" was imposed to prevent the uprising in India spreading, the Settlements' press reacted with anger, classing it as something that subverted "every principle of liberty and free discussion". As there was little or no vernacular press in the Settlements, such an act seemed irrelevant: it was enforced and ended in less than a year. On 1 April 1867 the Settlements became a British Crown colony, making the Settlements answerable directly to the Colonial Office in London instead of the government of British India based in Calcutta.
Earlier, on 4 February 1867, Letters Patent had granted the Settlements a colonial constitution. This allocated much power to the Settlements' Governor, who administered the colony of the Straits Settlements with the aid of an Executive Council, composed wholly of official members, a l
Nee Sneham is a 2002 film directed by Paruchuri Murali and produced by M. S. Raju; the film stars Aarti Agarwal and Jatin Grewal. The film was a moderate hit and well received by family audiences; the screenplay and music tracks of the movie stood for the movie's success. The music given by R. P. Patnaik was critical for the movie. Uday Kiran was nominated for the second time for the Filmfare Best Actor Award for his excellent natural and emotional performance, it was remade in Bengali as Premi. The film opens with Sreenu playing a football cup final in Kolkata. Madhav and Sreenu are best friends, football players, neighbours. Subsequently, the team wins the cup. A mishap happens. Madhav escapes with minor injuries; this puts an end to his football career. Sreenu, recovering from the incident, convinces Madhav not to tell anyone about the cause of Sreenu's accident, he does this to save the two families from drifting apart. Remembering his sacrifice, Madhav works hard and becomes the captain of the team, a post once held by Sreenu.
Once, while visiting Goa for a match, Madhav falls in love with her. When Amrutha returns to her house, she finds her grandparents fixing her marriage with an NRI; the marriage breaks apart. Her heartbroken grandfather dies a few days and Amrutha holds Madhav responsible for all these incidents and starts hating him. Madhav tries to change her life by anonymously sending her gifts and money during her hardships. Amrutha tries to find the person, sending these to her. A few days during the festival of Holi, Amrutha mistakenly thinks Sreenu to be the sender of all the gifts and proposes him for marriage. Sreenu, not knowing about Madhav's love, agrees to the proposal. Madhav rushes to Sreenu's house. Madhav sacrifices his love for his best friend's happiness, he tries to burn the photos of him and Amrutha in Goa. His father gets to know the truth. Madhav decides to leave the town, he fakes a letter asking him to report to Delhi for national football team selection. Sreenu asks him to leave and to fulfill both of their dreams.
Madhav, instead of going to Delhi, flies to Mumbai. Meanwhile, Sreenu's father learns about the photograph and Amrutha is questioned about their relationship. Amrutha realises that it was Madhav, not Sreenu, who helped her. Sreenu and Amrutha leave for Mumbai; the film ends with Madhav getting together and Sreenu walking away with satisfaction. Music was composed by R. P. Patnaik. All songs were penned by Sirivennela Seetharama Sastry. Music was released by Aditya Music company. Idle Brain.com
Óscar Arpón Ochoa is a Spanish retired footballer who played as an attacking midfielder, a manager. He amassed La Liga totals of 141 games and five goals over the course of seven seasons, in representation of six clubs, including Barcelona, he added 230 matches and 18 goals in Segunda División, in a senior career which spanned 18 years overall. Born in Calahorra, La Rioja, Arpón made his professional debut in 1994–95 in the second division, with FC Barcelona B. In that season's La Liga, he appeared in three matches for the main squad, being promoted at the same time as Roger García. After a move to Real Betis where he appeared sparingly, Arpón lived his most fruitful years in the top flight with Racing de Santander, contributing for two consecutive mid-table positions for the Cantabrians. From on he resumed his career in the second level, with brief passages in the first. In August 2009, after a slow campaign with Gimnàstic de Tarragona, Arpón moved to division three, signing with modest UD Logroñés.
He retired three years after one season in amateur football with CA River Ebro in his native region, aged 37. Barcelona Supercopa de España: 1994Mallorca Supercopa de España: 1998Recreativo Copa del Rey: Runner-up 2002–03Salamanca Segunda División B: 2005–06 Óscar Arpón at BDFutbol Betisweb stats and bio Óscar Arpón at Soccerway