Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
India Government Mint, Kolkata
The India Government Mint, Kolkata was first established in 1757, was located in a building next to the Black Hole in the old fort – where the GPO stands today. It was used to produce coins with the mint name Murshidabad; the second Calcutta Mint was established with the modern machinery brought in 1790 from England. It was located at the site of Gillet Ship building Establishment, taken over by the Stamp and Stationary Committee in 1833; the coins issued from this mint continued to bear mint name Murshidabad. In March 1824, the foundation of the third Calcutta Mint was laid on Strand Road and was opened for production from 1 August 1829; until 1835 the coins issued at this mint continued to be in the name of the Murshidabad Mint. The imposing frontage of the building of the third Mint was based on a design of the Temple of Athena in Athens, Greece known as the Parthenon; the operative blocks were hidden out of view by the magnificent frontage. This mint was named as "Old Silver Mint"; the foundation for this mint was laid March 1824, production began 1 August 1829.
The coinage production capacity was varying between 300,000 and 600,000 pieces per day. In 1860 an annexe known as the "Copper Mint" was built to the north of the Silver Mint for the exclusive production of copper coins; the silver and copper mints both used to function and produce coins of bronze and gold. Both these mints were well equipped with the coining presses supplied by Boulton and Watt of Soho, England. Apart from minting of coins another important function of the Kolkata Mint was the manufacturing of medals and decorations during the British regime; the production of medals continues to this day. After the closure of this mint in 1952 the building fell after years of neglect; the Kolkata Municipal Corporation declared this building a heritage building. A proposal to restore this building and convert its vast spaces into a museum was put up, on 10 July 2008 pre-qualification bids were received from eight developers; the project will be a public-private partnership between the Security Printing and Minting Corporation, under the finance ministry, owner of the mint, the winning bidder.
In the late 1930s foundation work for a new mint was completed at New Alipore and construction was to have completed by early 1942. However World War II brought all construction to a halt, it was completed in early 1950s. The Alipore Mint was opened by Finance Minister of Government of India Shree C. D. Deshmukh on 19 March 1952; the full operation for the coinage and preparation of medals and badges started in Alipore Mint from this date. In addition to production of coins for domestic use produces coins for other nations. Indian rupee Indian coinage India Government Mint Mumbai Mint India Government Mint, Kolkata
North Borneo was a British protectorate located in the northern part of the island of Borneo. The territory of North Borneo was established by concessions of the Sultanates of Brunei and Sulu in 1877 and 1878 to a German-born representative of Austria-Hungary, a businessman and diplomat, von Overbeck. Overbeck had purchased a small tract of land in the western coast of Borneo in 1876 from an American merchant Joseph William Torrey, had promoted the territory in Hong Kong since 1866. Overbeck transferred all his rights to Alfred Dent before withdrawing in 1879. In 1881, Dent established the North Borneo Provisional Association Ltd to manage the territory, granted a royal charter in the same year; the following year, the Provisional Association was replaced by the North Borneo Chartered Company. The granting of royal charter worried both the neighbouring Spanish and Dutch authorities and as a result the Spanish began to stake their claim to northern Borneo. A protocol known as the Madrid Protocol was signed in 1885 to recognise Spanish presence in the Philippine archipelago, in return establishing the definite border of Spanish influence beyond northern Borneo.
To avoid further claims from other European powers, North Borneo was made a British protectorate in 1888. North Borneo produced timber for export; as the population was too small to serve the economy, the British sponsored various migration schemes for Chinese workers from Hong Kong and China to work in the European plantations, for Japanese immigrants to participate in the economic activities of North Borneo. The starting of World War II with the arrival of Japanese forces however brought an end to protectorate administration, with the territory placed under a military administration and designated as a crown colony. North Borneo was founded in 1877–1878 through a series of land concessions in northern Borneo from the Sultanate of Brunei and Sulu to an Austrian-German businessman and diplomat, von Overbeck. A former American Trading Company of Borneo territory in the western coast of northern Borneo had passed to Overbeck, requiring him to go to Brunei to renew the concession of the land he bought from Joseph William Torrey.
William Clark Cowie played an important role as a close friend of the Sultanate of Sulu in helping Overbeck to buy additional land in the eastern coast of Borneo. Meanwhile, the Sultanate of Bulungan's influence reached Tawau in eastern southern coast, but came under the influence of the more dominating Sulu Sultanate. Following his success in buying large tract of lands from both the western and eastern part of northern Borneo, Overbeck went to Europe to promote the territory in Austria-Hungary and Italy as well as in his own country of Germany, but none showed any real interest. Only Great Britain, which had sought to control trade routes in the Far East since the 18th century, responded; the interest of the British was strengthened by their presence in Labuan since 1846. As a result, Overbeck received a financial support from the British Dent brothers and diplomatic and military support from the British government. Following the entrance of support from the British side, a clause was included in the treaties that the ceded territories could not be given to another party without the permission of the British government.
Unable to attract the interest of the governments of Austria and Germany, Overbeck withdrew in 1879. The Provisional Association applied to Queen Victoria for a royal charter, granted on 1 November 1881. William Hood Treacher was appointed as the first governor, Kudat at the northern tip of Borneo was chosen as the Provisional Association administration capital; the granting of royal charter had worried both Dutch and the Spanish, who feared that Britain might threatening the position of their colony. In May 1882, the Provisional Association was replaced by the newly formed North Borneo Chartered Company with Alcock acting as the first President and Dent becoming the company managing director; the administration is not considered as a British acquisition of the territory, but rather as a private enterprise with government guidelines to protect the territory from being encroached upon by other European powers. Under Governor Treacher, the company gained more territories on the western coast from the Sultanate of Brunei.
The company subsequently acquired further sovereign and territorial rights from the sultan of Brunei, expanding the territory under control to the Putatan river, the Padas district, the Kawang river, the Mantanani Islands and additional minor Padas territories. At the early stage of the administration, there was a claim in northern Borneo from the Spanish authorities in the Philippines when an attempt to raise the Spanish flag over Sandakan was met interference by a British warship. To prevent further conflict and ending the Spanish claim to northern Borneo, an agreement known as the Madrid Protocol was signed in Madrid between the United Kingdom and Spain in 1885, recognising the Spanish presence in the Philippine archipelago; as the company did not wish to be involved in further foreign affairs issues, North Borneo was made a protectorate on 12 May 1888. In 1890, Labuan was incorporated into the administration of North Borneo
The Straits Settlements were a group of British territories located in Southeast Asia. Established in 1826 as part of the territories controlled by the British East India Company, the Straits Settlements came under direct British control as a Crown colony on 1 April 1867; the colony was dissolved in 1946 as part of the British reorganisation of its Southeast Asian dependencies following the end of the Second World War. The Straits Settlements consisted of the four individual settlements of Penang, Singapore and Dinding. Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands were added in 1886; the island of Labuan, off the coast of Borneo, was incorporated into the colony with effect from 1 January 1907, becoming a separate settlement within it in 1912. Most of the territories now form part of Malaysia, from which Singapore separated in 1965; the Cocos Islands were transferred to Australian control in 1955. Christmas Island was transferred in 1958, their administration was combined in 1996 to form the Australian Indian Ocean Territories.
The first settlement was the Penang territory, in 1786. This comprised Penang Island known as the'Prince of Wales Island'; this was extended to encompass an area of the mainland, which became known as Province Wellesley. The first grant was in 1800, followed by another in 1831. Further adjustments to Province Wellesley's border were made in 1859, with the Treaty of Pangkor in 1874. Province Wellesley, on the mainland opposite the island of Penang, was ceded to Great Britain in 1800 by the Sultan of Kedah, on its northern and eastern border; the boundary with Kedah was rectified by treaty with Siam in 1867. It was administered by a district officer, with some assistants, answering to the resident councillor of Penang. Province Wellesley consisted, for the most part, of fertile plain, thickly populated by Malays, occupied in some parts by sugar-planters and others engaged in similar agricultural industries and employing Chinese and Tamil labour. About a tenth of the whole area was covered by low hills with thick jungle.
Large quantities of rice were grown by the Malay inhabitants, between October and February, there was snipe-shooting in the paddy fields. A railway from Butterworth, opposite Penang, runs into Perak, thence via Selangor and Negri Sembilan to Malacca, with an extension via Muar under the rule of the Sultan of Johor, through the last-named state to Johor Bharu, opposite the island of Singapore. Singapore became the site of a British trading post in 1819 after its founder, Stamford Raffles involved the East India Company in a dynastic struggle for the throne of Johore. Thereafter the British came to control the entire island of Singapore, developed into a thriving colony and port. In 1824 the Dutch conceded any rights they had to the island in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, by 1836 Singapore was the seat of government of the Straits Settlements; the Dutch colony of Malacca was ceded to the British in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 in exchange for the British trading post of Bencoolen and for British rights in Sumatra.
Malacca's importance was in establishing an exclusive British zone of influence in the region, it was overshadowed as a trading post by Penang, Singapore. The Dindings —named after the Dinding River in present-day Manjung District— which comprised Pangkor Island, the towns of Lumut and Sitiawan on the mainland, were ceded by Perak to the British government under the Pangkor Treaty of 1874. Hopes that its excellent natural harbour would prove to be valuable were doomed to disappointment, the territory sparsely inhabited and altogether unimportant both politically and financially, was returned to and administered by the government of Perak in February 1935; the establishment of the Straits Settlements followed the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, by which the Malay archipelago was divided into a British zone in the north and a Dutch zone in the south. This resulted in the exchange of the British settlement of Bencoolen for the Dutch colony of Malacca and undisputed control of Singapore; the Settlements were Chinese in population, with a tiny but important European minority.
Their capital was moved from George Town, the capital of Penang, to Singapore in 1832. Their scattered nature proved to be difficult and, after the company lost its monopoly in the china trade in 1833, expensive to administer. During their control by the East India Company, the Settlements were used as penal settlements for Indian civilian and military prisoners, earning them the title of the "Botany Bays of India"; the years 1853 saw minor uprisings by convicts in Singapore and Penang. Upset with East India Company rule, in 1857 the European population of the Settlements sent a petition to the British Parliament asking for direct rule; when a "Gagging Act" was imposed to prevent the uprising in India spreading, the Settlements' press reacted with anger, classing it as something that subverted "every principle of liberty and free discussion". As there was little or no vernacular press in the Settlements, such an act seemed irrelevant: it was enforced and ended in less than a year. On 1 April 1867 the Settlements became a British Crown colony, making the Settlements answerable directly to the Colonial Office in London instead of the government of British India based in Calcutta.
Earlier, on 4 February 1867, Letters Patent had granted the Settlements a colonial constitution. This allocated much power to the Settlements' Governor, who administered the colony of the Straits Settlements with the aid of an Executive Coun
A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold. Three types can be distinguished: specie and exchange. In the gold specie standard the monetary unit is associated with the value of circulating gold coins, or the monetary unit has the value of a certain circulating gold coin, but other coins may be made of less valuable metal; the gold bullion standard is a system in which gold coins do not circulate, but the authorities agree to sell gold bullion on demand at a fixed price in exchange for the circulating currency. The gold exchange standard does not involve the circulation of gold coins; the main feature of the gold exchange standard is that the government guarantees a fixed exchange rate to the currency of another country that uses a gold standard, regardless of what type of notes or coins are used as a means of exchange. This creates a de facto gold standard, where the value of the means of exchange has a fixed external value in terms of gold, independent of the inherent value of the means of exchange itself.
Most nations abandoned the gold standard as the basis of their monetary systems at some point in the 20th century, although many hold substantial gold reserves. A 2012 survey of leading economists showed that they unanimously reject that a return to the gold standard would benefit the average American; the gold specie standard arose from the widespread acceptance of gold as currency. Various commodities have been used as money. Chemically, gold is of all major metals the one most resistant to corrosion; the use of gold as money began thousands of years ago in Asia Minor. During the early and high Middle Ages, the Byzantine gold solidus known as the bezant, was used throughout Europe and the Mediterranean. However, as the Byzantine Empire's economic influence declined, so too did the use of the bezant. In its place, European territories chose silver as their currency over gold, leading to the development of silver standards. Silver pennies based on the Roman denarius became the staple coin of Mercia in Great Britain around the time of King Offa, circa 757–796 CE.
Similar coins, including Italian denari, French deniers, Spanish dineros, circulated in Europe. Spanish explorers discovered silver deposits in Mexico in 1522 and at Potosí in Bolivia in 1545. International trade came to depend on coins such as the Spanish dollar, the Maria Theresa thaler, the United States trade dollar. In modern times, the British West Indies was one of the first regions to adopt a gold specie standard. Following Queen Anne's proclamation of 1704, the British West Indies gold standard was a de facto gold standard based on the Spanish gold doubloon. In 1717, Sir Isaac Newton, the master of the Royal Mint, established a new mint ratio between silver and gold that had the effect of driving silver out of circulation and putting Britain on a gold standard. A formal gold specie standard was first established in 1821, when Britain adopted it following the introduction of the gold sovereign by the new Royal Mint at Tower Hill in 1816; the United Province of Canada in 1854, Newfoundland in 1865, the United States and Germany in 1873 adopted gold.
The United States used the eagle as its unit, Germany introduced the new gold mark, while Canada adopted a dual system based on both the American gold eagle and the British gold sovereign. Australia and New Zealand adopted the British gold standard, as did the British West Indies, while Newfoundland was the only British Empire territory to introduce its own gold coin. Royal Mint branches were established in Sydney and Perth for the purpose of minting gold sovereigns from Australia's rich gold deposits; the gold specie standard came to an end in the United Kingdom and the rest of the British Empire with the outbreak of World War I. From 1750 to 1870, wars within Europe as well as an ongoing trade deficit with China drained silver from the economies of Western Europe and the United States. Coins were struck in smaller and smaller numbers, there was a proliferation of bank and stock notes used as money. In the 1790s, the United Kingdom suffered a silver shortage, it ceased to mint larger silver coins and instead issued "token" silver coins and overstruck foreign coins.
With the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the Bank of England began the massive recoinage programme that created standard gold sovereigns, circulating crowns, half-crowns and copper farthings in 1821. The recoinage of silver after a long drought produced a burst of coins; the United Kingdom struck nearly 40 million shillings between 1816 and 1820, 17 million half crowns and 1.3 million silver crowns. The 1819 Act for the Resumption of Cash Payments set 1823 as the date for resumption of convertibility, reached by 1821. Throughout the 1820s, small notes were issued by regional banks; this was restricted in 1826. In 1833 however, Bank of England notes were made legal tender and redemption by other banks was discouraged. In 1844, the Bank Charter Act established that Bank of England notes were backed by gold and they became the legal standard. According to the strict interpretation of the gold standard, this 1844 act marked the establishment of a full gold standard for British money. In the 1780s, Thomas Jefferson, Robert Morris and Alexander Hamilton recommended to Congress the value of a decimal system.
This system would apply to monies in the United States. The question was what type of standard: silver or both; the United States adopted a silver standard based on the Spanish milled dollar i
Company rule in India
Company rule in India refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian subcontinent. This is variously taken to have commenced in 1757, after the Battle of Plassey, when Mir Jafar, the new Nawab of Bengal enthroned by Robert Clive, became a puppet in the Company's hands. By 1818, with the defeat of the Marathas, followed by the pensioning of the Peshwa and the annexation of his territories, British supremacy in India was complete; the East India Company was a private company owned by stockholders and reporting to a board of directors in London. Formed as a monopoly on trade, it took on governmental powers with its own army and judiciary, it turned a profit, as employees diverted funds into their own pockets. The British government had little control, there was increasing anger at the corruption and irresponsibility of Company officials or "nabobs" who made vast fortunes in a few years. Pitt's India Act of 1784 gave the British government effective control of the private company for the first time.
The new policies were designed for an elite civil service career that minimized temptations for corruption. Company officials lived in separate compounds according to British standards; the Company's rule lasted until 1858, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, it was abolished. With the Government of India Act 1858, the British government assumed the task of directly administering India in the new British Raj; the English East India Company was founded in 1600, as The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies. It gained a foothold in India with the establishment of a factory in Masulipatnam on the Eastern coast of India in 1611 and the grant of the rights to establish a factory in Surat in 1612 by the Mughal emperor Jahangir. In 1640, after receiving similar permission from the Vijayanagara ruler farther south, a second factory was established in Madras on the southeastern coast. Bombay island, not far from Surat, a former Portuguese outpost gifted to England as dowry in the marriage of Catherine of Braganza to Charles II, was leased by the Company in 1668.
Two decades the Company established a presence on the eastern coast as well. Since, during this time other companies—established by the Portuguese, Dutch and Danish—were expanding in the region, the English Company's unremarkable beginnings on coastal India offered no clues to what would become a lengthy presence on the Indian subcontinent; the Company's victory under Robert Clive in the 1757 Battle of Plassey and another victory in the 1764 Battle of Buxar, consolidated the Company's power, forced emperor Shah Alam II to appoint it the diwan, or revenue collector, of Bengal and Orissa. The Company thus became the de facto ruler of large areas of the lower Gangetic plain by 1773, it proceeded by degrees to expand its dominions around Bombay and Madras. The Anglo-Mysore Wars and the Anglo-Maratha Wars left it in control of large areas of India south of the Sutlej River. With the defeat of the Marathas, no native power represented a threat for the Company any longer; the expansion of the Company's power chiefly took two forms.
The first of these was the outright annexation of Indian states and subsequent direct governance of the underlying regions, which collectively came to comprise British India. The annexed regions included the North-Western Provinces, Delhi and Sindh. Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Kashmir, were annexed after the Anglo-Sikh Wars in 1849–56. In 1854 Berar was annexed, the state of Oudh two years later; the second form of asserting power involved treaties in which Indian rulers acknowledged the Company's hegemony in return for limited internal autonomy. Since the Company operated under financial constraints, it had to set up political underpinnings for its rule; the most important such support came from the subsidiary alliances with Indian princes during the first 75 years of Company rule. In the early 19th century, the territories of these princes accounted for two-thirds of India; when an Indian ruler, able to secure his territory, wanted to enter such an alliance, the Company welcomed it as an economical method of indirect rule, which did not involve the economic costs of direct administration or the political costs of gaining the support of alien subjects.
In return, the Company undertook the "defense of these subordinate allies and treated them with traditional respect and marks of honor." Subsidiary alliances created the princely states, of the Muslim nawabs. Prominent among the princely states were: Cochin, Travancore, Mysore, Cis-Sutlej Hill States, Central India Agency and Gujarat Gaikwad territories and Bahawalpur; the area encompassed by modern India was fractured following the decline of the Mughal Empire in the first half of the 18th century 1757: 24 Parganas of the Sundarbans annexed to Clive after the Battle of Plassey. 1760: Northern Circars a
Edward VIII was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire, Emperor of India, from 20 January 1936 until his abdication on 11 December the same year, after which he became the Duke of Windsor. Edward was the eldest son of King George Queen Mary, he was created Prince of Wales on his sixteenth birthday, nine weeks after his father succeeded as king. As a young man, he served in the British Army during the First World War and undertook several overseas tours on behalf of his father. Edward became king on his father's death in early 1936. However, he showed impatience with court protocol, caused concern among politicians by his apparent disregard for established constitutional conventions. Only months into his reign, he caused a constitutional crisis by proposing to Wallis Simpson, an American who had divorced her first husband and was seeking a divorce from her second; the prime ministers of the United Kingdom and the Dominions opposed the marriage, arguing a divorced woman with two living ex-husbands was politically and unacceptable as a prospective queen consort.
Additionally, such a marriage would have conflicted with Edward's status as the titular head of the Church of England, which at the time disapproved of remarriage after divorce if a former spouse was still alive. Edward knew the British government, led by Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, would resign if the marriage went ahead, which could have forced a general election and would ruin his status as a politically neutral constitutional monarch; when it became apparent he could not marry Wallis and remain on the throne, Edward abdicated. He was succeeded by his younger brother, George VI. With a reign of 326 days, Edward is one of the shortest-reigning monarchs in British history. After his abdication, he was created Duke of Windsor, he married Wallis in France on 3 June 1937. That year, the couple toured Germany. During the Second World War, he was at first stationed with the British Military Mission to France, but after private accusations that he held Nazi sympathies he was appointed Governor of the Bahamas.
After the war, Edward spent the rest of his life in retirement in France. Edward and Wallis remained married until his death in 1972. Edward was born on 23 June 1894 at White Lodge, Richmond Park, on the outskirts of London during the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria, he was the eldest son of the Duchess of York. His father was the son of the Princess of Wales, his mother was the eldest daughter of the Duchess of Teck. At the time of his birth, he was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind his grandfather and father, he was baptised Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David in the Green Drawing Room of White Lodge on 16 July 1894 by Edward White Benson, Archbishop of Canterbury. The names were chosen in honour of Edward's late uncle, known to his family as "Eddy" or Edward, his great-grandfather King Christian IX of Denmark; the name Albert was included at the behest of Queen Victoria for her late husband Albert, Prince Consort, the last four names – George, Andrew and David – came from the patron saints of England, Scotland and Wales.
He was always known to his close friends by his last given name, David. As was common practice with upper-class children of the time and his younger siblings were brought up by nannies rather than directly by their parents. One of Edward's early nannies abused him by pinching him before he was due to be presented to his parents, his subsequent crying and wailing would lead the Duchess to send him and the nanny away. The nanny was discharged. Edward's father, though a harsh disciplinarian, was demonstrably affectionate, his mother displayed a frolicsome side with her children that belied her austere public image, she was amused by the children making tadpoles on toast for their French master, encouraged them to confide in her. Edward was tutored at home by Helen Bricka; when his parents travelled the British Empire for nine months following the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, young Edward and his siblings stayed in Britain with their grandparents, Queen Alexandra and King Edward VII, who showered their grandchildren with affection.
Upon his parents' return, Edward was placed under the care of two men, Frederick Finch and Henry Hansell, who brought up Edward and his brothers and sister for their remaining nursery years. Edward was kept under the strict tutorship of Hansell until thirteen years old. Private tutors taught him French. Edward took the examination to enter the Royal Naval College and began there in 1907. Hansell had wanted Edward to enter school earlier. Following two years at Osborne College, which he did not enjoy, Edward moved on to the Royal Naval College at Dartmouth. A course of two years, followed by entry into the Royal Navy, was planned. A bout of mumps may have made him infertile. Edward automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay on 6 May 1910 when his father ascended the throne as George V on the death of Edward VII, he was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester a month on 23 June 1910, his 16th birthday. Preparations for his future as king began in earnest, he was withdrawn from his naval course before his formal graduation, served as midshipman for three months aboard the battleship Hindustan immediately entered Magdalen College, for which, in the opinion of his biogra