Wolf Vostell was a German painter and sculptor, considered one of the early adopters of video art and installation art and pioneer of Happening and Fluxus. Techniques such as blurring and Dé-coll/age are characteristic of his work, as is embedding objects in concrete and the use of television sets in his works. Wolf Vostell was born in Leverkusen and put his artistic ideas into practice from 1950 onwards. In 1953, he began an apprenticeship as a lithographer and studied at the Academy of Applied Art in Wuppertal. Vostell created his first Dé-collage in 1954. In 1955-1956, he studied at the École Nationale Superieur des Beaux Arts in Paris and in 1957 he attended the Düsseldorf Academy of Arts. Vostell's philosophy was built around the idea that destruction is all around us and it runs through all of the twentieth century, he used the term Dé-coll/age, in 1954 to refer to the process of tearing down posters, for the use of mobile fragments of reality. Vostell’s working concept of décollage is as a visual force that breaks down outworn values and replaces them with thinking as a function distanced from media.
His first Happening, Theater is in the Street, took place in Paris in 1958, incorporated auto parts and a TV. In 1958, he took part in the first European Happening in Paris and he produced his first objects with television sets and car parts, he was impressed by the work of Karlheinz Stockhausen, which he encountered in 1964 in the electronic studios of the German radio station WDR, in 1959 he created his electronic TV Dé-coll/age. It marked the beginning of his dedication to the Fluxus Movement, which he co-founded in the early 1960s. Vostell was behind many Happenings in New York, Cologne and Ulm among others. In 1962, he participated in the Festum Fluxorum, an international event in Wiesbaden together with Nam June Paik, George Maciunas. In 1963 Wolf Vostell became a pioneer of Video art and Installation with his work 6 TV Dé-coll/age shown at the Smolin Gallery in New York, now in the collection of the Museo Reina Sofía in Madrid; the Smolin Gallery sponsored two innovative Wolf Vostell events on TV.
In 1967 his Happening Miss Vietnam dealt with the subject of the Vietnam war. In 1968, he founded Labor e. V. A group, to investigate acoustic and visual events, together with Mauricio Kagel, others. Wolf Vostell was the first artist in art history to integrate a television set into a work of art; this installation was created in 1958 under the title The black room is now part of the collection of the art museum Berlinische Galerie in Berlin. Early works with television sets are Transmigracion I-III from 1958 and Elektronischer Dé-coll/age Happening Raum an Installation from 1968. In 1974, his first major retrospective took place in the ARC 2 at the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, an expanded version of, shown at the Neue Nationalgalerie, in 1974. Vostell’s automobile-concrete-sculptures made from cars and concrete are to be found in Cologne Ruhender Verkehr from 1969, in Berlin Zwei Beton-Cadillacs in Form der nackten Maja from 1987 as well as VOAEX from 1976 in the Museo Vostell Malpartida in Malpartida de Cáceres and Concrete Traffic from 1970 in Chicago.
Vostell gained recognition for his drawings and objects, such as images of American B-52 bombers, published under the rubric "capitalist realism" and as a result of his inclusion of television sets with his paintings. Nam June Paik and Vostell were both participants in the Fluxus movement and the work of both artists involved a critique of the fetishization of television and the culture of consumption; the catalogue raisonné of his screen prints and posters has been published in the Nouvelles de l'estampe by Françoise Woimant and Anne Moeglin-Delcroix in 1982. In 1992, the town of Cologne honoured Vostell with a major retrospective of his work, his pieces were distributed over 6 exhibition venues: Stadtmuseum Köln, Kunsthalle Köln, Rheinisches Landesmuseum Bonn, Kunsthalle Mannheim, Schloss Morsbroich Leverkusen and Städtisches Museum Mülheim / Ruhr. Under the artistic direction of David Vostell, the documentary Vostell 60 - Rückblick 92 was created. Vostell's grave is at the Cementerio Civil de la Almudena in Madrid.
At more or less the same time, Vostell founded the Vostell Archive. With great fervour and strict consistency, Wolf Vostell collected photographs, artistic texts, private correspondence with colleagues such as Nam June Paik, Allan Kaprow, Dick Higgins and many others, as well as press cuttings, invitations to exhibitions and events or books and catalogues which document wolf Vostell's work and that of his contemporaries, his private library with more than 6000 books has formed part of the Archive. Wolf Vostell's extensive oeuvre makes up part of the archive. About 25000 documents from four decades make the Vostell Archive a treasure of art history. Since 2005 the archive has been housed in the Museo Vostell Malpartida and is available to art historians and authors. Korea Massaker, 1953, Museum Fluxus+, Potsdam Zyklus Guadalupe, 1958 Das schwarze Zimmer, 1958, Installation with TV, Berlinische Galerie, Berlin Transmigracion, I-III, 1958, Canvas with TV Das Theater ist auf der Straße, 1958, Happening Rue de Buci, 1960, Dé-coll/age Ihr Kandidat, 1961, Dé-coll/age, Haus der Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Coca-Cola, 1961, Dé-coll/age, Ludwig Museum, Köln Cityrama, 1961, Happe
Camille Pissarro was a Danish-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas. His importance resides in his contributions to both Post-Impressionism. Pissarro studied including Gustave Courbet and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, he studied and worked alongside Georges Seurat and Paul Signac when he took on the Neo-Impressionist style at the age of 54. In 1873 he helped establish a collective society of fifteen aspiring artists, becoming the "pivotal" figure in holding the group together and encouraging the other members. Art historian John Rewald called Pissarro the "dean of the Impressionist painters", not only because he was the oldest of the group, but "by virtue of his wisdom and his balanced and warmhearted personality". Paul Cézanne said "he was a father for me. A man to consult and a little like the good Lord," and he was one of Paul Gauguin's masters. Pierre-Auguste Renoir referred to his work as "revolutionary", through his artistic portrayals of the "common man", as Pissarro insisted on painting individuals in natural settings without "artifice or grandeur".
Pissarro is the only artist to have shown his work at all eight Paris Impressionist exhibitions, from 1874 to 1886. He "acted as a father figure not only to the Impressionists" but to all four of the major Post-Impressionists, Georges Seurat, Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin. Jacob Abraham Camille Pissarro was born on 10 July 1830 on the island of St. Thomas to Frederick and Rachel Manzano de Pissarro, his father held French nationality. His mother was from a French-Jewish family from the island of St. Thomas, his father was a merchant who came to the island from France to deal with the hardware store of a deceased uncle, Isaac Petit, married his widow. The marriage caused a stir within St. Thomas' small Jewish community because she was married to Frederick's uncle and according to Jewish law a man is forbidden from marrying his aunt. In subsequent years his four children attended the all-black primary school. Upon his death, his will specified that his estate be split between the synagogue and St. Thomas' Protestant church.
When Camille was twelve his father sent him to boarding school in France. He studied at the Savary Academy in Passy near Paris. While a young student, he developed an early appreciation of the French art masters. Monsieur Savary himself gave him a strong grounding in drawing and painting and suggested he draw from nature when he returned to St. Thomas, which he did when he was seventeen. However, his father preferred, he took every opportunity during those next five years at the job to practise drawing during breaks and after work. When Pissarro turned twenty-one, Danish artist Fritz Melbye living on St. Thomas, inspired him to take on painting as a full-time profession, becoming his teacher and friend. Pissarro chose to leave his family and job and live in Venezuela, where he and Melbye spent the next two years working as artists in Caracas and La Guaira, he drew everything he could, including landscapes, village scenes, numerous sketches, enough to fill up multiple sketchbooks. In 1855 he moved back to Paris where he began working as assistant to Anton Melbye, Fritz Melbye's brother.
In Paris he worked as assistant to Danish painter Anton Melbye. He studied paintings by other artists whose style impressed him: Courbet, Charles-François Daubigny, Jean-François Millet, Corot, he enrolled in various classes taught by masters, at schools such as École des Beaux-Arts and Académie Suisse. But Pissarro found their teaching methods "stifling," states art historian John Rewald; this prompted him to search for alternative instruction, which he received from Corot. His initial paintings were in accord with the standards at the time to be displayed at the Paris Salon, the official body whose academic traditions dictated the kind of art, acceptable; the Salon's annual exhibition was the only marketplace for young artists to gain exposure. As a result, Pissarro worked in the traditional and prescribed manner to satisfy the tastes of its official committee. In 1859 his first painting was exhibited, his other paintings during that period were influenced by Camille Corot. He and Corot both shared a love of rural scenes painted from nature.
It was by Corot that Pissarro was inspired to paint outdoors called "plein air" painting. Pissarro found Corot, along with the work of Gustave Courbet, to be "statements of pictorial truth," writes Rewald, he discussed their work often. Jean-François Millet was another whose work he admired his "sentimental renditions of rural life". During this period Pissarro began to understand and appreciate the importance of expressing on canvas the beauties of nature without adulteration. After a year in Paris, he therefore began to leave the city and paint scenes in the countryside to capture the daily reality of village life, he found the French countryside to be "picturesque," and worthy of being painted. It was still agricultural and sometimes called the "golden age of the peasantry". Pissarro explained the technique of painting outdoors to a student: "Work at the same time upon sky, branches, keeping everything going on an equal basis and unceasingly rework until you have got it. Paint generously and unhesitatingly, for it is best not to lose the first impression."Corot, would complete his own scenic paintings back in his studio where they would be revised to his precon
Alexander Porfyrovych Archipenko was a Ukrainian-born American avant-garde artist and graphic artist. Alexander Archipenko was born in Kiev, in 1887, to Porfiry Antonowych Archipenko and Poroskowia Vassylivna Machowa Archipenko. From 1902 to 1905 he attended the Kiev Art School. In 1906 he continued his education in the arts at Serhiy Svetoslavsky, that year had an exhibition there with Alexander Bogomazov, he moved to Moscow where he had a chance to exhibit his work in some group shows. Archipenko moved to Paris in 1908 and was a resident in the artist's colony La Ruche, among émigré Russian artists: Wladimir Baranoff-Rossine, Sonia Delaunay-Terk and Nathan Altman. After 1910 he had exhibitions at Salon des Indépendants, Salon d'Automne together with Aleksandra Ekster, Kazimir Malevich, Vadym Meller, Sonia Delaunay-Terk, Georges Braque, André Derain and others. In 1912 Archipenko had his first personal exhibition at the Museum Folkwang at Hagen in Germany, from 1912 to 1914 he was teaching at his own Art School in Paris.
Four of Archipenko's Cubist sculptures, including Family Life and five of his drawings, appeared in the controversial Armory Show in 1913 in New York City. These works were caricatured in the New York World. Archipenko moved to Nice in 1914. In 1920 he participated in Twelfth Biennale Internazionale dell'Arte di Venezia in Italy and started his own Art school in Berlin the following year. In 1922 Archipenko participated in the First Russian Art Exhibition in the Gallery van Diemen in Berlin together with Aleksandra Ekster, Kazimir Malevich, Solomon Nikritin, El Lissitzky and others. In 1923 he emigrated to the United States, participated in an exhibition of Russian Paintings and Sculpture, he became a US citizen in 1929. In 1933 he exhibited at the Ukrainian pavilion in Chicago as part of the Century of Progress World's Fair. Alexander Archipenko contributed the most to the success of the Ukrainian pavilion, his works were valued at $25,000 dollars. In 1936 Archipenko participated in an exhibition Cubism and Abstract Art in New York as well as numerous exhibitions in Europe and other places in the U.
S. He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1962. Alexander Archipenko died on February 1964, in New York City, he is interred at Woodlawn Cemetery in The New York City. Archipenko, along with the French-Hungarian sculptor Joseph Csaky, exhibited at the first public manifestations of Cubism in Paris. Archipenko departed from the neo-classical sculpture of his time, using faceted planes and negative space to create a new way of looking at the human figure, showing a number of views of the subject simultaneously, he is known for introducing sculptural voids, for his inventive mixing of genres throughout his career: devising'sculpto-paintings', experimenting with materials such as clear acrylic and terra cotta. The sculptor Ann Weaver Norton apprenticed with Archipenko for a number of years. Among the public collections holding works by Alexander Archipenko are: The Addison Gallery of American Art The Art Institute of Chicago The Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art Brigham Young University Museum of Art Chi-Mei Museum The Delaware Art Museum The Denver Art Museum The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco The Guggenheim Museum The Hermitage Museum The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden The Honolulu Museum of Art Indiana University Art Museum The Los Angeles County Museum of Art The Maier Museum of Art The Milwaukee Art Museum The Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston The Museum of Modern Art The National Museum of Serbia The Nasher Sculpture Center The National Gallery of Art National Museum Cardiff The North Carolina Museum of Art The Norton Simon Museum The Peggy Guggenheim Collection The Philadelphia Museum of Art The Phillips Collection The Portland Art Museum The Portland Museum of Art Salisbury House The San Antonio Art League Museum The San Diego Museum of Art The Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery The Smithsonian American Art Museum Städel Museum Tate Modern The Tel Aviv Museum of Art The Ukrainian Museum Von der Heydt-Museum Walker Art Center The Cleveland Cultural Gardens in Rockefeller Park Fundación D.
O. P. Museum de Fundatie Archipenko's statue of King Solomon, at the University of Pennsylvania campus, dominates the walk from 36th and Locust to Walnut, its creation began in 1964 when, shortly before he died, the artist completed a four–foot sculpture designed for enlargement. His wife oversaw its first casting. In 1968, the 14.5-foot 1.5-ton statue was produced. In 1985, it was given to the University by Mr and Mrs Jeffrey H. Loria and was installed at its present location. Cubist in form, it has been described as evoking "the feeling of smallness in the face of power that one must have felt standing before King
Theo van Doesburg
Theo van Doesburg was a Dutch artist, who practiced painting, writing and architecture. He is best known as the leader of De Stijl, he was married to artist and choreographer Nelly van Doesburg. Theo van Doesburg was born Christian Emil Marie Küpper on 30 August 1883, in Utrecht, the Netherlands, as the son of the photographer Wilhelm Küpper and Henrietta Catherina Margadant. After a short training in acting and singing, he decided to become a storekeeper, he always regarded his stepfather, Theodorus Doesburg, to be his natural father, so that his first works are signed with Theo Doesburg, to which he added the insertion "van". His first exhibition was in 1908. From 1912 onwards, he supported his works by writing for magazines, he considered himself to be a modern painter, at that time, although his early work is in line with the Amsterdam Impressionists and is influenced by Vincent van Gogh, both in style and subject matter. This changed in 1913 after reading Wassily Kandinsky's Rückblicke, in which he looks back at his life as a painter from 1903–1913.
It made him realize there was a higher, more spiritual level in painting that originates from the mind rather than from everyday life, that abstraction is the only logical outcome of this. It was in 1912 that Van Doesburg was criticizing Futurism in an art article in Eenheid no. 127, on 9 November 1912, because "The mimetic expression of velocity is diametrically opposed to the character of painting, the supreme origin of, to be found in inner life". On 6 November 1915, he wrote in the same journal: "Mondrian realizes the importance of line; the line has become a work of art in itself. The white canvas is solemn; each superfluous line, each wrongly placed line, any color placed without veneration or care, can spoil everything—that is, the spiritual". It was while reviewing an exposition for one of these magazines he wrote for, in 1915, that he came in contact with the works of Piet Mondrian, eight years older than he was, had by already gained some attention with his paintings. Van Doesburg saw in these paintings his ideal in painting: a complete abstraction of reality.
Soon after the exposition Van Doesburg got in contact with Mondrian, together with related artists Bart van der Leck, Antony Kok, Vilmos Huszár and Jacobus Oud they founded the magazine De Stijl in 1917. Although De Stijl was made up of many members, Van Doesburg was the "ambassador" of the movement, promoting it across Europe, he moved to Weimar in 1922, deciding to make an impression on the Bauhaus principal, Walter Gropius, in order to spread the influence of the movement. While Gropius accepted many of the precepts of contemporary art movements he did not feel that Doesburg should become a Bauhaus master. Doesburg installed himself near to the Bauhaus buildings and started to attract school students interested in the new ideas of Constructivism, De Stijl; the friendship between Van Doesburg and Mondrian remained strong in these years, although their primary means of communication was by letter. In 1923 Van Doesburg moved to Paris, together with his wife Nelly van Moorsel; because the two men got to see each other on a much more regular basis the differences in character became apparent: Mondrian was an introvert, while van Doesburg was more flamboyant and extravagant.
During 1924 the two men had disagreements, which led to a temporary split that year. The exact reason for the split has been a point of contention among art historians. Mondrian accepted some concepts of diagonals, such as in his "Lozenge" paintings, where the canvas was rotated 45 degrees, while still maintaining horizontal lines. In recent years, this theory has been challenged by art historians such as Carel Blotkamp, who cites the artist's different concepts about space and time. After the split, Van Doesburg launched a new concept for his art, characterized by the diagonal lines and which rivaled Mondrian's Neo-Plasticism. In 1929 the two men reconciled. Van Doesburg had other activities apart from painting and promoting De Stijl: he made efforts in architecture, designing houses for artists, together with Sophie Taeuber-Arp and Hans Arp he designed the decoration for the Aubette entertainment complex in Strasbourg. Together with El Lissitzky and Kurt Schwitters, Van Doesburg pioneered the efforts to an International of Arts in two congresses held in Düsseldorf and Weimar, in 1922.
A geometrically constructed alphabet Van Doesburg designed in 1919 has been revived in digital form as Architype Van Doesburg. This typeface anticipates similar experimentation by Kurt Schwitters in his typeface Architype Schwitters. In the mid 1920s, Van Doesburg worked together with Schwitters and the artist Kate Steinitz to produce a series of children's fairy-tale books that featured unusual typography, including Hahnepeter, Die Märchen vom Paradies, Die Scheuche. Van Doesburg kept a link with DADA, publishing the magazine Mécano under the heteronym of I. K. Bonset, he published Dada poetry under the same name in De Stijl. U
Jean Arp or Hans Arp was a German-French sculptor, painter and abstract artist in other media such as torn and pasted paper. Arp was born in Strasbourg, the son of a French mother and a German father, during the period following the Franco-Prussian War when the area was known as Alsace-Lorraine after France had ceded it to in 1871. Following the return of Alsace to France at the end of World War I, French law determined that his name become Jean. Arp would continue referring to himself as "Hans". In 1904, after leaving the École des Arts et Métiers in Strasbourg, he went to Paris where he published his poetry for the first time. From 1905 to 1907, Arp studied at the Kunstschule in Weimar, in 1908 went back to Paris, where he attended the Académie Julian. Arp was a founder-member of the Moderne Bund in Lucerne, participating in their exhibitions from 1911 to 1913. In 1912, he went to Munich, called on Wassily Kandinsky, the influential Russian painter and art theorist, was encouraged by him in his researches and exhibited with the Der Blaue Reiter group.
That year, he took part in a major exhibition in Zürich, along with Henri Matisse, Robert Delaunay and Kandinsky. In Berlin in 1913, he was taken up by Herwarth Walden, the dealer and magazine editor, at that time one of the most powerful figures in the European avant-garde. In 1915, he moved to Switzerland to take advantage of Swiss neutrality. Arp told the story of how, when he was notified to report to the German consulate in Zurich, he pretended to be mentally ill in order to avoid being drafted into the German Army: after crossing himself whenever he saw a portrait of Paul von Hindenburg, Arp was given paperwork on which he was told to write his date of birth on the first blank line. Accordingly, he wrote "16/9/87". Hans Richter, describing this story, noted that "they believed him." In 1916, Hugo Ball opened the Cabaret Voltaire, to become the center of Dada activities in Zurich for a group that included Arp, Marcel Janco, Tristan Tzara, others. In 1920, as Hans Arp, along with Max Ernst and the social activist Alfred Grünwald, he set up the Cologne Dada group.
However, in 1925, his work appeared in the first exhibition of the surrealist group at the Galérie Pierre in Paris. In 1926, Arp moved to the Paris suburb of Meudon. In 1931, he broke with the Surrealist movement to found Abstraction-Création, working with the Paris-based group Abstraction-Création and the periodical, Transition. Beginning in the 1930s, the artist expanded his efforts from collage and bas-relief to include bronze and stone sculptures, he produced several small works made of multiple elements that the viewer could pick up, rearrange into new configurations. Throughout the 1930s and until the end of his life, he published essays and poetry. In 1942, he fled from his home in Meudon to escape German occupation and lived in Zürich until the war ended. Arp visited New York City in 1949 for a solo exhibition at the Buchholz Gallery. In 1950, he was invited to execute a relief for the Harvard University Graduate Center in Cambridge and would be commissioned to do a mural at the UNESCO building in Paris.
In 1958, a retrospective of Arp's work was held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, followed by an exhibition at the Musée National d'Art Moderne, France, in 1962. Organized by the Minneapolis Institute of Arts and the Wurttembergischer Kunstverein of Stuttgart, a 150-piece exhibition titled "The Universe of Jean Arp" concluded an international six-city tour at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in 1986; the Musée d'art moderne et contemporain of Strasbourg houses many of his sculptures. Arp's career was distinguished with many awards including the Grand Prize for sculpture at the 1954 Venice Biennale, a sculpture prizes at the 1964 Pittsburgh International, the 1963 Grand Prix National des Arts, the 1964 Carnegie Prize, the 1965 Goethe Prize from the University of Hamburg, the Order of Merit with a Star of the German Republic. Arp and his first wife, the artist Sophie Taeuber-Arp, became French nationals in 1926. In the 1930s, they built a house at the edge of a forest. Influenced by the Bauhaus, Le Corbusier and Charlotte Perriand, Taeuber designed it.
She died in Zürich in 1943. After living in Zürich, Arp was to make Meudon his primary residence again in 1946. Arp married the collector Marguerite Hagenbach, his long-time companion, in 1959, he died in Basel, Switzerland. - "I hereby declare that on February 1916, Tristan Tzara discovered the word Dada. I was present with my twelve children...and I wore a brioche in my left nostril. I am convinced that this word has no importance and that only imbeciles and Spanish professors can be interested in dates. What interests us is the Dada spirit and we were all Dada before the existence of Dada.." - "Art is fruit growing out of man like the fruit out of a plant like the child out of the mother... Reason tells man to stand above nature and to be the measure of all things....through reason man became a tragic and ugly figure.." - "These paintings, these sculptures – these objects – should remain anonymous, in the great workshop of nature, like the clouds, the mountains, the seas, the animals, man himself.
Yes! Man should go back to nature! Artists should work together like the artists of the Middle Ages." -"Sculpture should walk on the tips of its toes, unpre
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti known as Dante Gabriel Rossetti, was a British poet, illustrator and translator, a member of the Rossetti family. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in 1848 with John Everett Millais. Rossetti was to be the main inspiration for a second generation of artists and writers influenced by the movement, most notably William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones, his work influenced the European Symbolists and was a major precursor of the Aesthetic movement. Rossetti's art was characterised by its medieval revivalism, his early poetry was influenced by John Keats. His poetry was characterised by the complex interlinking of thought and feeling in his sonnet sequence, The House of Life. Poetry and image are entwined in Rossetti's work, he wrote sonnets to accompany his pictures, spanning from The Girlhood of Mary Virgin and Astarte Syriaca, while creating art to illustrate poems such as Goblin Market by the celebrated poet Christina Rossetti, his sister. Rossetti's personal life was linked to his work his relationships with his models and muses Elizabeth Siddal, Fanny Cornforth and Jane Morris.
The son of émigré Italian scholar Gabriele Pasquale Giuseppe Rossetti and his wife Frances Mary Lavinia Polidori, Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti was born in London, on 12 May 1828. His family and friends called him Gabriel, but in publications he put the name Dante first in honour of Dante Alighieri, he was the brother of poet Christina Rossetti, critic William Michael Rossetti, author Maria Francesca Rossetti. His father was a Roman Catholic, at least prior to his marriage, his mother was an Anglican. During his childhood, Rossetti was home educated and attended King's College School, read the Bible, along with the works of Shakespeare, Sir Walter Scott, Lord Byron; the youthful Rossetti is described as "self-possessed, articulate and charismatic" but "ardent and feckless". Like all his siblings, he aspired to be a poet and attended King's College School, in its original location near the Strand in London, he wished to be a painter, having shown a great interest in Medieval Italian art. He studied at Henry Sass' Drawing Academy from 1841 to 1845, when he enrolled in the Antique School of the Royal Academy, which he left in 1848.
After leaving the Royal Academy, Rossetti studied under Ford Madox Brown, with whom he retained a close relationship throughout his life. Following the exhibition of William Holman Hunt's painting The Eve of St. Agnes, Rossetti sought out Hunt's friendship; the painting illustrated a poem by the little-known John Keats. Rossetti's own poem, "The Blessed Damozel", was an imitation of Keats, he believed Hunt might share his artistic and literary ideals. Together they developed the philosophy of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood which they founded along with John Everett Millais; the group's intention was to reform English art by rejecting what they considered to be the mechanistic approach first adopted by the Mannerist artists who succeeded Raphael and Michelangelo and the formal training regime introduced by Sir Joshua Reynolds. Their approach was to return to the abundant detail, intense colours, complex compositions of Quattrocento Italian and Flemish art; the eminent critic John Ruskin wrote: Every Pre-Raphaelite landscape background is painted to the last touch, in the open air, from the thing itself.
Every Pre-Raphaelite figure, however studied in expression, is a true portrait of some living person. For the first issue of the brotherhood's magazine, The Germ, published early in 1850, Rossetti contributed a poem, "The Blessed Damozel", a story about a fictional early Italian artist inspired by a vision of a woman who bids him combine the human and the divine in his art. Rossetti was always more interested in the medieval than in the modern side of the movement, working on translations of Dante and other medieval Italian poets, adopting the stylistic characteristics of the early Italians. Rossetti's first major paintings in oil display the realist qualities of the early Pre-Raphaelite movement, his Girlhood of Mary Virgin and Ecce Ancilla Domini portray Mary as a teenage girl. William Bell Scott saw Girlhood in progress in Hunt's studio and remarked on young Rossetti's technique: He was painting in oils with water-colour brushes, as thinly as in water-colour, on canvas which he had primed with white till the surface was a smooth as cardboard, every tint remained transparent.
I saw at once that he was not an orthodox boy. The mixture of genius and dilettantism of both men shut me up for the moment, whetted my curiosity. Stung by criticism of his second major painting, Ecce Ancilla Domini, exhibited in 1850, the "increasingly hysterical critical reaction that greeted Pre-Raphaelitism" that year, Rossetti turned to watercolours, which could be sold privately. Although his work subsequently won support from John Ruskin, Rossetti only exhibited thereafter. In 1850, Rossetti met an important model for the Pre-Raphaelite painters. Over the next decade, she became his muse, his pupil, his passion, they were married in 1860. Rossetti's incomplete picture Found, begun in 1853 and unfinished at his death, was his only major modern-life subject, it depicted a prostitute, lifted from the street by a country drover who recognises his old sweetheart. However, Rossetti preferred symbolic and mythological images to realistic ones,For many years, Rossetti worked on English translations of Italian poetry including Dante Alighi
Jörg Immendorff was a German painter, stage designer and art professor. He was a member of the art movement Neue Wilde. Immendorff was born in Lower Saxony, near Lüneburg on the west bank of the Elbe; when he was 11 years old, his father left the family. This traumatic experience has been used to explain Immendorff's feelings of inadequacy and emotional remoteness, he attended the boarding School Ernst-Kalkuhl Gymnasium as a student. At the age of sixteen he had his first exhibition in a jazz cellar in Bonn. Beginning in 1963, Immendorff studied at the Art Academy in Düsseldorf, he studied for three terms with the theater designer Teo Otto. After Otto threw him out of his class for refusing to let one of his paintings serve as stage-set decoration, Immendorff was accepted as a student by Joseph Beuys; the academy expelled him because of some of neo-dadaist actions. From 1969 to 1980, he worked as an art teacher at a public school, as a free artist, holding visiting professorships all over Europe.
In 1989, he became professor at the Städelschule in Frankfurt am Main and in 1996 he became professor at the Art Academy in Düsseldorf—the same school that had dismissed him decades earlier as a student. Jörg Immendorff worked in "grand cycles of paintings" that lasted years at a time and were political in nature. Notable cycles include LIDL, Maoist Paintings, Cafè Deutschland, The Rake's Progress; the first body of work that Immendorff gave a name to were his LIDL paintings, sculptures and documents, that he executed during 1968-1970. The name, "LIDL" was inspired by the sound of a child's rattle makes and much of his work from this period included the iconography of new beginnings and innocence. LIDL is comparable to Dadaist but unlike the Dadist movement it never became an established group but rather consisted of a variety of artists participating in actions and activities; the art-historian Pamela Kort wrote this of Immendorf's LIDL works: "LIDL ridiculed elitist art traditions, the cult of creative'genius', the precious aesthetic object.
The artist countered these hierarchies by assembling a body of pretentious iconographic motifs drawn from the make-believe world of the child - turtles, goldfish and polar bears - which he transformed into the'working material' of what he hoped would be a new functional art form." In January 1968 he appeared in front of the West German Parliament in Bonn with a wood block labeled “Lidl” tethered to his ankle and painted in the colors of the German flag. Best known is his Café Deutschland series of sixteen large paintings that were inspired by Renato Guttuso’s Caffè Greco. Since the 1970s, he worked with the painter A. R. Penck from Dresden. Immendorff was a member of the German art movement Neue Wilde. Immedorff created several stage designs, including two for the Salzburg Festival, he designed sets for The Rake's Progress. The latter inspired a series of paintings in which he cast himself as the rake. In 1984, he opened the bar La Paloma near the Reeperbahn in Hamburg St. Pauli and created a large bronze sculpture of Hans Albers there.
He contributed to the design of André Heller's avant-garde amusement park "Luna, Luna" in 1987. Immendorff created various sculptures. In 1997, he won the best endowed art prize in the world, the MARCO prize of the Museum of Contemporary Art in Monterrey, Mexico. In the following year he received the merit medal of the Federal Republic of Germany, he was a friend and the favorite painter of former German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, who chose Immendorff to paint the official portrait of Schröder for the Bundeskanzlerleramt. The portrait, completed by Immendorff's assistants, was revealed to the public in January 2007; these "painter monkeys" were a recurring theme in Immendorff's work, serving as an ironic commentary on the artist's business. In 2006, he selected 25 of his paintings for an illustrated Bible. In the foreword he described his belief in God. In 2000, Immendorff married his former student Oda Jaune; the two had daughter, born on August 13, 2001. In August 2003, Jörg Immendorff was caught in the luxury suite of a Düsseldorf hotel with seven prostitutes and some cocaine.
More cocaine was found in his studio. In interviews, he attempted to explain his actions with his terminal illness and as an expression of his "orientalism" that provided inspiration for his work, he complained about prostitutes "who don't understand that a good whore does not divulge anything about her clients." He cooperated with the prosecution, admitted to having taken cocaine since the early 1990s and supplied the name of his dealer. At the trial in July 2004, he admitted to having organized 27 similar orgies between February 2001 and August 2003, he was sentenced to 11 months on probation and was fined €150,000. The mild sentence was justified with his extensive confession, he had been suspended from his position