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Strathclyde Partnership for Transport

The Strathclyde Partnership for Transport is a passenger transport executive responsible for planning and coordinating regional transport the public transport system, in the Strathclyde area of western Scotland. This includes responsibility for operating the third oldest in the world; the principal predecessor to SPT was the Greater Glasgow Passenger Transport Executive set up in 1972 to take over the Glasgow Corporation's public transport functions and to co-ordinate public transport in the Clyde Valley. In the 1980s it was replaced by the Strathclyde Passenger Transport Executive, under the overall direction of Strathclyde Regional Council. Section 40 of the Local Government etc. Act 1994 created a new statutory corporation, the Strathclyde Passenger Transport Authority, which took over "all of the functions, property, rights and obligations of Strathclyde Regional Council as Passenger Transport Authority" on 1 April 1996; the Executive was reincorporated as a body consisting of councillors drawn from the 12 Council Areas which succeeded Strathclyde Region:- Argyll and Bute West Dunbartonshire East Dunbartonshire North Lanarkshire South Lanarkshire City of Glasgow South Ayrshire East Ayrshire North Ayrshire Inverclyde Renfrewshire East Renfrewshireand nine transport experts appointed by the Scottish Executive: On 1 April 2006 - following the passing of the Transport Act 2005 - Strathclyde Passenger Transport Executive, along with the WESTRANS voluntary regional transport partnership, were replaced by the Strathclyde Partnership for Transport.

The new national agency Transport Scotland was created at the same time. At this latest reorganisation SPT gained responsibility for planning for all regional transport though it lost a number of specific powers relating to rail franchising and concessionary fares. There will be no change in its major operational functions. SPT has the following main responsibilities: Developing a regional transport strategy for west central Scotland Planning of public transport investment Operation of the Glasgow Subway Operation and maintenance of bus stations, bus stops, travel centres and other support infrastructure Provision of some subsidised bus services, where no commercial services exists Provision of dial-a-bus and ring'n'ride services Issuing ZoneCard tickets, dividing the revenue between participating transport providers Until 1986 SPT was directly responsible for running the municipal bus services in Glasgow, owned both the buses and the necessary supporting infrastructure; the Transport Act 1985 deregulated the bus industry and SPT was subsequently forced to sell off its bus operations.

The main bus operator in Glasgow is now First Glasgow, although SPT owns the city's Buchanan Bus Station, the largest bus station in Scotland. The Greater Glasgow Passenger Transport Executive, the forerunner of SPTE, started operations in 1973, taking over the entire municipal owned and operated bus, Underground railway, services of Glasgow Corporation Transport, in existence from 1894 to 1973, they used a new livery, a variation of the previous GCT colours of green and cream. The new livery had Verona green on the lower panels, yellow between decks, white was used for window surrounds, the roof. A stylised "GG" logo was applied to the forward yellow side panels. At bus stops, pennants had GG branding along with Scottish Bus Group branding on bus stops that were used by the SBG; the orange and black colour scheme used on in the 1980s to 1990s was a special livery for a small fleet of cut down single deck Leyland Atlanteans that operated the Glasgow Central to Queen Street rail link service.

As GCT had done, the GGPTE continued to buy large numbers of Leyland Atlantean double-decker buses, they were by far the most numerous type of bus in service, but GGPTE introduced new bus types such as the Scania-MCW Metropolitan, the front-engined, Scottish-built, Volvo Ailsa. At the start of the 1980s GGPTE was replaced by SPTE who introduced "Fast Fare", an exact fare payment policy, still being used today by SPTE's successors. Revised liveries were introduced, with the green and yellow replacing most of the white on some buses, matt black lower deck window surrounds applied to many others, the latter became the livery applied to new buses. Logos changed, stylised "Trans-Clyde" lettering was displayed below the "GG" logo, which SPTE was using on rail services and the Underground at the time; the "GG" logo was discontinued, "Trans-Clyde" was used alone although a Volvo Citybus prototype was branded in the same livery with "Strathclyde" instead. Bus Stop pennants was replaced with "Trans-Clyde" branding.

In the "Trans-Clyde" era Coach & Tour stock was painted white with a two tone brown stripe pattern and single deck buses was painted white with a verona green skirt and yellow painted above the green. In 1983 SPTE changed their colours to orange and black, the "Trans-Clyde" name was dropped and replaced with "Strathclyde Transport" branding with the Strathclyde Regional Council Scotland map logo, the typeface used on the former "Trans-Clyde" brand name was used. Bus stop pennants were given "Strathclyde Transport" branding by having a sticker placed on top of the old "Trans-Clyde" name; the name lasted until 1986 due to deregulation of the bus industry, The orange and black colour scheme was kept and "Strathclyde's Buses" branding was used. New bus stop pennants were given with Strathclyde Transport branding but without Scottish Bus Group branding


Dutsin-Khutor is a rural locality in Vedensky District, Chechnya. Municipally, Dutsin-Khutor is incorporated into Selmentauzenskoye rural settlement, it is one of the three settlements included in it. Dutsin-Khutor is located between the Abazulgol rivers, it is 40 kilometres south-west of Vedeno. The nearest settlements to Dutsin-Khutor are Zony in the west, Ulus-Kert in the north-west, Makhkety and Selmentauzen in the east. In 1944, after the genocide and deportation of the Chechen and Ingush people and the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was abolished, the village of Dutsin-Khutor was renamed, settled by people from the neighboring republic of Dagestan. From 1944 to 1958, it was a part of the Vedensky District of the Dagestan ASSR. In 1958, after the Vaynakh people returned and the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was restored, the village regained its old name, Dutsin-Khutor. 1990 Census: 343 2002 Census: 0 2010 Census: 388 2019 estimate:? At the 2002 census, Dutsin-Khutor had been abandoned due to the Chechen wars. However, by 2010, the population was higher than the 1990 census.

According to the 2010 census, the majority of residents of Dutsin-Khutor were ethnic Chechens


Wicklow is the county town of County Wicklow in Ireland. Located south of Dublin on the east coast of the island, it has a population of 10,584 according to the 2016 census; the town is to the east of the N11 route between Wexford. Wicklow is linked to the rail network, with Dublin commuter services now extending to the town. Additional services connect with Arklow and Rosslare Europort, a main ferry port. There is a commercial port importing timber and textiles; the River Vartry is the main river. Wicklow town forms a rough semicircle around Wicklow harbour. To the immediate north lies'The Murrough', a popular grassy walking area beside the sea, the eastern coastal strip; the Murrough is a place of growing commercial use, so much so that a road by-passing the town directly to the commercial part of the area commenced construction in 2008 and was completed in summer of 2010. The eastern coastal strip includes Wicklow bay, a crescent shaped stone beach 10 km in length. Ballyguile Hill is to the southwest of the town.

Much of the housing developments of the 1970s and 1980s occurred in this area, despite the considerable gradient from the town centre. The land rises into rolling hills to the west, going on to meet the Wicklow Mountains in the centre of the county; the dominant feature to the south is the rocky headlands of Bride's Head and Wicklow Head, the easternmost mainland point of the Republic of Ireland. On a clear day it is possible to see the Snowdonia mountain range in Wales. Similar to much of the rest of northwestern Europe, Wicklow experiences a maritime climate with cool summers, mild winters, a lack of temperature extremes; the average maximum January temperature is 9.2 °C, while the average maximum August temperature is 21.2 °C. On average, the sunniest month is May; the wettest month is October with 118.9 mm of rain and the driest month is April with 60.7 mm. With the exceptions of October and November, rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year with rainfall falling within a narrow band of between 60 and 86 mm for any one month.

However, a considerable spike occurs in October and November each of which records double the typical rainfall of April. Wicklow is sheltered locally by Ballyguile hill and, more distantly by the Wicklow mountains; this sheltered location makes it one of the warmest places in Ireland. It receives only about 60% the rainfall of the west coast. In addition because Wicklow is protected by the mountains from southwesterly and westerly winds, it enjoys higher average temperatures than much of Ireland, its average high in August of 21.2 °C is a full 1 °C higher than the highest average month in Dublin, only 50 km to the north. While its location is favorable for protection against the prevailing westerly and southwesterly winds that are common to much of Ireland, Wicklow is exposed to easterly winds; as these winds come from the northern European landmass Wicklow can, along with much of the east coast of Ireland, experience sharp temperature drops in winter for short periods. Since 1995, the town has undergone significant change and expansion reflecting the simultaneous growth in the Irish economy.

Considerable residential development has taken place to the west of the town along Marlton Road. More housing developments have been concentrated to the northwest of the town towards the neighbouring village of Rathnew; the completion of the Ashford/Rathnew bypass in 2004 has meant that Wicklow is now linked to the capital, lying 42 km to the north, by dual carriageway and motorway. These factors have led to a steady growth in population of Wicklow and its surrounding townlands while its importance as a commuter town to Dublin increases. Earlier spellings of the town's name include Wykinglo in 1173, Wygingelow in 1185, Wykinglo in 1192, Wykinglowe in 1355; the Swedish toponymist Magne Oftedal criticises the usual explanation that the name comes from Old Norse Vikingr and Old Norse ló, to say "the Vikings' meadow" or "Viking's meadow". He notices that -lo was never used outside Norway and Scandinavia. Furthermore, this word is never combined with a male name or a general word meaning "a category of person".

Moreover, "Viking" never appears in toponymic records. For him, the first element can be explained as Uikar- or Uik- "bay" in Old Norse and the intermediate N of the old forms is a mistake by the clerks. However, all recorded forms show this N; that is the reason why Liam Price says it is a Norwegian place-name and A. Sommerfelt gives it as a former Vikinga-ló and understands it as "the Vikings' meadow"; the Irish patronymics Ó hUiginn and Mac Uiginn could bring a key for the meaning "Meadow of a man called Viking". Wykinglo was the usual name used by the Viking sailors and the traders who travelled around the Anglo-Scandinavian world; the Normans and Anglo-Normans who conquered Ireland preferred the non-Gaelic placename. The origin of the Irish name Cill Mhantáin bears no relation to the name Wicklow, it has an interesting folklore of its own. Saint Patrick and some followers are said to have tried to land on Travailahawk beach, to the south of the harbour. Hostile locals attacked them. Manntach, as he became known, was undeterred and returned to the town founding a church.

Hence Cill Mhantáin, meaning "church of the toothless one". Although its anglicised spelling Kilmantan was used for a time, it fell out of u


Seaham is a small town in County Durham, situated 6 miles south of Sunderland and 13 miles east of Durham. Its parish church is one of the 20 oldest surviving churches in the UK; the town grew from the late 19th century onwards as a result of investments in its harbour and coal mines. The town is twinned with the German town of Gerlingen; the original village of Seaham has all but vanished. The parish church, St Mary the Virgin, has a late 7th century Anglo Saxon nave resembling the church at Escomb in many respects, is one of the 20 oldest surviving churches in the UK; until the early years of the 19th century, Seaham was a small rural agricultural farming community whose only claim to fame was that the local landowner's daughter, Anne Isabella Milbanke, was married at Seaham Hall to Lord Byron, on 2 January 1815. Byron began writing his Hebrew Melodies at Seaham and they were published in April 1815, it would seem. As he wrote in a letter to a friend: The marriage was short-lived, producing as its only child the mathematician Ada Lovelace, but it was long enough to have been a drain on the Milbanke estate.

The area's fortunes changed when the Milbankes sold out in 1821 to the 3rd Marquess of Londonderry, who built a harbour, in 1828, to facilitate transport of goods from locally encouraged industries. However, this harbour proved inadequate to deal with the millions of tonnes of coal and the 6th Marquess commissioned engineers Patrick Meik and Charles Meik to reclaim land and extend and deepen the dock, it was opened in 1905. The harbour is of particular interest because it consists of a series of interconnecting locks, rather than the more typical two wall construction; as early as 1823, the 3rd Marquess had approached the architect John Dobson with a view to his drawing up plans for a town to be built around the harbour. Dobson did so, but the planned approach foundered for lack of funds, the town instead grew in a more piecemeal fashion. To begin with, the town was itself called Seaham Harbour. In 1928, production started at the last town colliery to be opened, Vane Tempest. By 1992, all three pits had closed, a process accelerated by the British miners' strike and cheap coal imports from Eastern Europe.

The pit closures hit the local economy hard, Seaham sank into a depressed state in the 1980s and 1990s. Seaham Colliery suffered an underground explosion in 1880 which resulted in the loss of over 160 lives, including surface workers and rescuers. Many local families were affected by the tragic loss of eight men and one boy in the'Seaham Lifeboat Disaster', when the RNLI lifeboat, the George Elmy, foundered on 17 November 1962. To commemorate the event, the new coast road was named George Elmy Lifeboat Way. An electoral ward with the same name exists; the population of this ward taken at the 2011 census was 8419. Seaham has fine beaches and transport links to the eastern coast. From 2001 most of the Durham coastline was designated as a "heritage coast" and Seaham beach was restored. In 2002 the Turning the Tide project won, jointly with the Eden Project, the prize for Outstanding Achievement in Regeneration in the annual Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors awards. Seaham Hall is now spa. In homage to the town's link to Lord Byron, the new multimillion-pound shopping complex, which now includes an Asda supermarket as well as Argos and Wilko stores, is named Byron Place.

It aims to revitalise the area, using the successful redevelopment of the central shopping district of neighbouring town Peterlee as a benchmark. Asda opened on 3 September 2007 and the rest of the shopping centre opened in November 2007. In 2006, a survey conducted by Halifax revealed that Seaham is the top property price increase hotspot in England and Wales as average prices rose by 172% since 2003; the average price of £117,266 is still, well below the national average. It is believed this surge has been helped by regeneration work in the area, in particular the new housing estate East Shore Village, built on the site of the former Vane Tempest colliery. Today, the town has a population of around 22,000, is served by Seaham railway station, which lies on the Durham Coast Line, running from Middlesbrough to Newcastle, via Hartlepool and Sunderland. Local bus services operated by Arriva North East and Go North East provide access to the nearby towns of Murton and Houghton-le-Spring, as well as further afield to Sunderland, Newcastle upon Tyne, Darlington, Stockton-on-Tees and Middlesbrough.

Seaham has one secondary school, without a sixth-form, called Seaham High school, before 2016 known as Seaham school of Technology. The rich mining history of the town was highlighted in the 2000 film Billy Elliot, set during the 1984–85 UK miners' strike in the fictional County Durham town of Everington but which displayed characteristics particular to East Durham pit communities such as Seaham and Easington Colliery. Both towns feature as locations in the film, notably Dawdon Miners' Club, into which Elliot's dad runs when he learns his son has won an audition at dance school. Elliot's "angry dance" scene takes place in Dawdon between Embleton Street and Stavordale Street West; the opening scene in Alien 3 was filmed on Blast Beach, at Dawdon, released 1993. The town has served as a location for the BAFTA nominated film

Lil B.I.G. Pac

Lil B. I. G. Pac is the fourth mixtape by American rapper Kodak Black, it was released on June 11, 2016, by Dollaz N Dealz Entertainment and Sniper Gang. The mixtape features guest appearances from rappers Gucci Mane, Boosie Badazz and PnB Rock; the cover art for Lil B. I. G. Pac features Kodak Black portrayed as a toddler, adapted from album cover of rapper The Notorious B. I. G.’s debut studio album Ready to Die, with a baby bottle said to contain Purple drank and a bandana tied around his head like American rapper Tupac. Lil B. I. G. Pac received decent reviews from critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream publications, the album received an average score of 64, based on 6 reviews

Al Birr Foundation

The Al Birr Foundation is one of the organizations pinpointed by a team led by Mark Denbeaux that were used to justify the continued extrajudicial detention of captives held in the United States Guantanamo Bay detainment camps, in Cuba. Denbeaux is a Professor at Seton Hall University's School of law, he and his son, Joshua Denbeaux, serve as pro bono lawyers for two Guantanamo captives. They lead a team of Seton Hall law student who compiled a series of reports, based on the documents that the US Department of Defense has released; the second report, entitled: "Inter- and Intra-Departmental Disagreements About Who Is Our Enemy" documents that most of the organization that Guantanamo intelligence analysts used to justify the continued detention of Guantanamo captives were not listed on the Department of Homeland Security's list of terrorist organizations. The Al Birr Foundation is listed, by name, in an appendix entitled: "Defense Department list of terrorist organizations other than the Taliban or al Qaeda".

The continued detention of a Guantanamo captive named Saed Khatem Al Malki was justified, in part, by an alleged association with the Al Birr Foundation. One of the allegations Al Malki faced during his Combatant Status Review Tribunal was: "The detainee has given conflicting statements as to the nature of his involvement with the Al Birr Foundation, his stated reason for travel to Afghanistan."Al Malki denied that he had given conflicting statements. He confirmed, he clarified that he had not worked for the Al Birr Foundation himself, but he had worked with another Arab he met in Afghanistan, who had worked for the foundation. He asserted he had left Afghanistan before the attacks of 9-11, he condemned the attacks of 9-11. He suggested that the confusion may have arisen because he kept being assigned new interrogators, who were unfamiliar with his file