Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
Lake Lanier is a reservoir in the northern portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. It was created by the completion of Buford Dam on the Chattahoochee River in 1956, is fed by the waters of the Chestatee River; the lake encompasses 38,000 acres or 59 square miles of water, 692 miles of shoreline at normal level, a "full summer pool" of 1,071 feet above mean sea level. Named for American poet Sidney Lanier, it was built and is operated by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers for flood control and water supplies, it is patrolled by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, as well as local law enforcement. The states of Georgia and Florida all have rights to the water of the reservoir, as it feeds rivers going through those areas; the Corps of Engineers has responsibilities to regulate flow for water use. In addition, it has to ensure that water is available to fulfill such federal mandates as under the Endangered Species Act, to support downstream species; the rapid suburbanization of the Atlanta region, in particular, has increased water consumption by private homeowners for lawns and gardens.
During droughts of the 21st century, Lake Lanier reached record lows, regional actions have been needed to reduce area water usage. The lake is in Hall, Dawson and Lumpkin counties, split about 60%, 30%, 5%, 4%, 1% filling the valley into numerous small arms and fingers; the former thalweg of the Chestatee and the Chattahoochee south of it form the county line between Hall and a corner of Gwinnett to the east, Dawson and Forsyth counties to the west. One of the main purposes of the lake is flood control of the Chattahoochee River downstream protecting metro Atlanta. Since the construction of Buford Dam, there have been only three major flooding events on the downstream section; the most severe flooding event was following a two-year drought. The lake's original purposes were to provide hydroelectricity and flood control of the Chattahoochee River, water supply for the city of Atlanta; the $1 billion project was approved, with ground breaking in 1950. 700 families were moved from the area after their properties were bought by the USCOE, in order to flood the area and create the lake.
A stretch of Georgia Highway 53 had to be abandoned. Gainesville's Looper Speedway was condemned and abandoned. More than $2 million had been spent by the Corps on preliminary construction when the House Committee on Appropriations refused to provide more funds in June 1951. During that summer Atlanta mayor William Hartsfield traveled to Washington numerous times pressing southern Democratic Senators Richard Russell, Jr. and Walter F. George to restore funding to ensure Atlanta's water supply during droughts. Hartsfield returned to Washington in 1955 to lobby for $11 million more for the dam, which had a target date of 1956, again stressing the importance of an adequate water supply for his growing city. Congress approved the funds, the dam was completed and opened on schedule. Lake Lanier began filling in 1956, in 1957, 20 miles downstream, Morgan Falls Dam was raised to regulate the flow from Buford Dam and regulate the flow of water to Atlanta. In early fall of 1958, the region had two solid months of drought, which would have left the Chattahoochee and its tributaries nearly dry, if not for the construction of Buford Dam and the reserve of Lake Lanier.
Since the 1990s, the Corps of Engineers, Florida and Alabama have all been fighting for use of the water held in Lake Lanier. Federal law mandates that when a river flows between two or more states, each state has a right to an equal share of the water. Additionally, laws such as the Endangered Species Act require that water be available to preserve and support the threatened or endangered species that live in or around Chattahoochee River and Apalachicola Bay. Pertinent information on the reservoir, power plant, etc. can be found on the Mobile District Corps of Engineers web site. Historic operational information on lake elevations, discharges and power generation for all the Corps projects on the ACF are available. In June 2006, the USACE revealed that the new lake gauge at the dam, replaced in December 2005, was not properly calibrated, yielding a lake level reading nearly two feet higher than the actual level; because of this, nearly twenty-two billion U. S gallons of excess water had been released.
This was above the planned excess releases to support the successful spawning of gulf sturgeon in the Apalachicola River and to protect several species of oysters in Apalachicola Bay from excessive saltwater intrusion. Georgia Governor Sonny Perdue said that the Corps had created a "manmade drought", because most of the state was having dry conditions; this came at a time when outdoor water-use restrictions were being put in place by local governments. The high rate of suburban growth in the area resulted in a high rate of water consumption to care for the many lawns which had replaced forests; because of the error in managing Lake Lanier, the governor's office declared a drought and enacted a ban on outdoor water use from 10AM to 4PM, in addition to the permanent weekly odd/even address system. Other local counties imposed further restrictions or total bans, based on each water system's conditions. Outdoor watering was banned as the state suffered its worst drought in its recorded history. On October 16, 2007, Governor Perdue gave the USACE until the evening of October 17 to come up with a plan for the continued release of water for Florida wildlife.
Senator Johnny Isakson s
Lake Wallenpaupack is a freshwater lake in northeastern Pennsylvania. It is the third largest lake in Pennsylvania measuring 52 miles of shoreline, 13 miles in length, 60 feet deep at points, has a surface area in excess of 5,700 acres, it was created in 1926 by the Pennsylvania Power & Light Company for hydroelectric purposes as well as flood control. It is located near the Borough of Hawley, forms part of the boundary between Pike and Wayne counties. See map; the Lenape Indians named the area "Wallenpaupack" which means "The Stream of Swift and Slow Water." William Penn owned the land and deeded it to his son Thomas Penn. Upon his death it went to the Penn estate, which sold 12,000 acres in 1793 to James Wilson, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. In order to create the lake, PP&L constructed a dam on Wallenpaupack Creek at Wilsonville and a levee named the Tafton Dike; the project took 2,700 men from 1924 to 1926 to complete and seven months for the reservoir to fill after the dam was closed off.
Land to be flooded was purchased by PP&L from about 100 owners at about $20 an acre and most of the property was razed or moved. Some house foundations remained, as the valley was flooded the water was so clear that one could see the foundations under the water. Trees were cut but stumps were not removed. In all, 17 miles of roads and utility poles were rerouted, Purdytown cemetery had to be relocated; the former town of Wilsonville, named after James Wilson, now lies under the water near the dam. Water travels 3.5 miles in a 13-foot diameter steel pipe to power two turbines which combined can generate 44 megawatts of power. Discharge is into the Lakawaxen River. PP&L managed the 3,300 acres of land around the lake until June 2015. While homeowners have access rights, they must apply for permits for things such as landscaping to installing exterior lights and cannot cut down vegetation to improve their view of lake without a permit — a provision to keep the man-made lake's shore natural looking when viewed from the water and to minimize erosion.
PP&L knows every rock and tree on this shoreline, they are good stewards of the lake The lakes' surface area is 5,700 acres. It was created by the construction of the Tafton Dike at the east end; the largest inflow into Lake Wallenpaupack is Wallenpaupack Creek, at the west end of the lake. The dividing line between the lake and the creek is the Ledgedale Road bridge. East Wallenpaupack Creek extends south through Newfoundland and into the northern edge of Monroe County. West Wallenpaupack Creek extends to Lake Henry. Streams directly entering the lake include Waynewood, Goose Pond, Strohs and Beach House creeks, Stony, Spring Hill and Mill brooks; because the lake exists to generate hydroelectic power, every spring the water level is allowed to rise to a target elevation of 1,187 feet for June 1st during the summer and early fall, progressively lower until it reaches 1,179 feet. Late fall and into early spring the water level is maintained at 1181-82 feet. Snowpack melt is used to raise the water level during May.
People with waterfront property move their private docks out as the water recedes. Docks and buoys must be removed from the lake to above the high water line by December 1 and not placed back in the lake until after ice is gone. A legal point: homeowners have access rights but not privacy rights - anyone can walk along the shoreline below the high water line. Fences or other barriers are not allowed. In June 2014 PP&L announced. Plans called for a spin-off to a newly created company Talen Energy formed from the generation assets of PP&L and Riverstone Holdings. On June 1, 2015 Talen Energy became the official owner of Wallenpaupack Hydroelectric Project generation plant and therefore control, under the FERC license, of Lake Wallenpaupack. In order to comply with a FERC regulation, on October 8, 2015 Talen Energy announced plans to sell the Lake Wallenpaupack hydroelectric project to Brookfield Renewable Partners L. P of Toronto, Canada; the sale was completed on April 1, 2016. Brookfield maintains website information about its management of Lake Wallenpaupack.
An integral part of the Lake Region of the Pocono Mountains, Lake Wallenpaupack is a recreation attraction in the tri-state area in the summertime. The lake provides boating and fishing access in the summer, as well as snowmobiling, ice skating and ice fishing in the winter. A notable activity during the winter months on Lake Wallenpaupack is its annual "Ice Tee Golf Tournament", which takes place on the frozen lake; the tournament is a 9-hole competition. The last weekend of August hosts Wally Lake Fest, a three-day weekend of events scattered on and around the lake and in the neighboring town of Hawley, including the live music Wallypalooza held on docks floating in front of the Tafton Dike, its wooded shoreline provides opportunities for hiking and viewing wildlife, including whitetail deer and black bear. Lake fish include smallmouth bass, largemouth bass, rock bass, walleye, northern pike, rainbow trout, brown trout, lake trout and yellow perch. Walleye, striped bass and hybrid striped bass have been stocked in the lake.
The lake is 13 miles long, has 52 miles of shoreline, is about 60 feet deep at its maximum depth. There are four islands, all open to the public for daytime visits
Saint Lawrence River
The Saint Lawrence River is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America. The Saint Lawrence River flows in a north-easterly direction, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean and forming the primary drainage outflow of the Great Lakes Basin, it traverses the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario, is part of the international boundary between Ontario and the U. S. state of New York. This river provides the basis for the commercial Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Saint Lawrence River begins at the outflow of Lake Ontario and flows adjacent to Gananoque, Morristown, Massena, Montreal, Trois-Rivières, Quebec City before draining into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the largest estuary in the world. The estuary begins at the eastern tip of just downstream from Quebec City; the river becomes tidal around Quebec City. The Saint Lawrence River runs 3,058 kilometres from the farthest headwater to the mouth and 1,197 km from the outflow of Lake Ontario; these numbers include the estuary. The farthest headwater is the North River in the Mesabi Range at Minnesota.
Its drainage area, which includes the Great Lakes, the world's largest system of freshwater lakes, is 1,344,200 square kilometres, of which 839,200 km2 is in Canada and 505,000 km2 is in the United States. The basin covers parts of Ontario and Quebec in Canada, parts of Illinois, Minnesota, New York, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin, nearly the entirety of the state of Michigan in the United States; the average discharge below the Saguenay River is 16,800 cubic metres per second. At Quebec City, it is 12,101 m3/s; the average discharge at the river's source, the outflow of Lake Ontario, is 7,410 m3/s. The Saint Lawrence River includes Lake Saint-Louis south of Montreal, Lake Saint Francis at Salaberry-de-Valleyfield and Lac Saint-Pierre east of Montreal, it encompasses four archipelagoes: the Thousand Islands chain near Alexandria Bay, New York and Kingston, Ontario. Other islands include Île d'Orléans near Quebec City and Anticosti Island north of the Gaspé, it is the second longest river in Canada.
Lake Champlain and the Ottawa, Saint-Maurice, Saint-François and Saguenay rivers drain into the Saint Lawrence. The Saint Lawrence River is in a seismically active zone where fault reactivation is believed to occur along late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic normal faults related to the opening of the Iapetus Ocean; the faults in the area comprise the Saint Lawrence rift system. According to the United States Geological Survey, the Saint Lawrence Valley is a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian division, containing the Champlain and Northern physiographic section. However, in Canada, where most of the valley is, it is instead considered part of a distinct Saint Lawrence Lowlands physiographic division, not part of the Appalachian division at all; the Norse explored the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in the 11th century and were followed by fifteenth and early sixteenth century European mariners, such as John Cabot, the brothers Gaspar and Miguel Corte-Real. The first European explorer known to have sailed up the Saint Lawrence River itself was Jacques Cartier.
At that time, the land along the river was inhabited by the St. Lawrence Iroquoians; because Cartier arrived in the estuary on Saint Lawrence's feast day, he named it the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The Saint Lawrence River is within the U. S. and as such is that country's sixth oldest surviving European place-name. The earliest regular Europeans in the area were the Basques, who came to the St Lawrence Gulf and River in pursuit of whales from the early 16th century; the Basque whalers and fishermen traded with indigenous Americans and set up settlements, leaving vestiges all over the coast of eastern Canada and deep into the Saint Lawrence River. Basque commercial and fishing activity reached its peak before the Armada Invencible's disaster, when the Spanish Basque whaling fleet was confiscated by King Philip II of Spain and destroyed; the whaling galleons from Labourd were not affected by the Spanish defeat. Until the early 17th century, the French used the name Rivière du Canada to designate the Saint Lawrence upstream to Montreal and the Ottawa River after Montreal.
The Saint Lawrence River served as the main route for European exploration of the North American interior, first pioneered by French explorer Samuel de Champlain. Control of the river was crucial to British strategy to capture New France in the Seven Years' War. Having captured Louisbourg in 1758, the British sailed up to Quebec the following year thanks to charts drawn up by James Cook. British troops were ferried via the Saint Lawrence to attack the city from the west, which they did at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham; the river was used again by the British to defeat the French siege of Quebec under the Chevalier de Lévis in 1760. In 1809, the first steamboat to ply its trade on the St. Lawrence was built and operated by John Molson and associates, a scant two years after Fulton's steam-powered navigation of the Hudson River; the Accommodation with ten passengers made her maiden voyage from Montreal to Quebec City in 66 hours, for 30 of which she was at anch
Lake Texoma is one of the largest reservoirs in the United States, the 12th largest US Army Corps of Engineers' lake, the largest in USACE Tulsa District. Lake Texoma is formed by Denison Dam on the Red River in Bryan County and Grayson County, about 726 miles upstream from the mouth of the river, it is located at the confluence of the Washita Rivers. The project was completed in 1944; the damsite is about 5 miles northwest of Denison, 15 miles southwest of Durant, Oklahoma. Lake Texoma is the most developed and most popular lake within the USACE Tulsa District, attracting around 6 million visitors a year. Oklahoma has more of the lake within its boundaries than Texas. Lake Texoma's two main sources are Washita River from the north. Other notable sources include Big Mineral Creek, Little Mineral Creek, Buncombe Creek, Rock Creek, Glasses Creek. Lake Texoma drains into the Red River at the Denison Dam. Normal elevation of the conservation pool varies from 615 to 619 ft National Geodetic Vertical Datum depending on the time of year.
The flood control pool extends to elevation 645 ft NGVD. The lake has crested the dam's spillway at a height of 640 ft five times: once in 1957, again in 1990, 2007, May 24, 2015, most on June 18, 2015; the lake's highest elevation was recorded on May 6, 1990, at 644.76 feet. This record was broken on May 29, 2015, the lake crested on June 1, 2015, at a new record elevation of 645.72 feet. The top of Denison Dam is at 670 feet; the Red River that formed Lake Texoma is a saltwater river due to salt deposits left over from a 250 million year old former sea, in the current Texas-Oklahoma border region. As time passed, that sea evaporated, leaving salt deposits — sodium chloride. Rock and silt buried the deposits, but the salt continues to leech through natural seeps in tributaries above Lake Texoma, sending as much as 3,450 tons of salt per day flowing down the Red River; the problem with the water in the Red River is much of it is too salty and requires costly treatment, if it is usable at all. Due to this phenomenon striped bass, a saltwater fish, thrive in Lake Texoma.
Lake Texoma is home to the only self-sustaining population of striped bass in Texas. Lake Texoma is situated on the border between the states of Oklahoma and Texas in the Oklahoma counties of Bryan, Marshall and Love, the Texas counties of Grayson and Cooke, it has a surface area of 93,000 acres, a conservation water volume of 2,525,568 acre⋅ft, a flood-control volume of 5,194,163 acre⋅ft. Notable cities surrounding the lake in Texas are Denison and Gainesville. In Oklahoma, the most notable city is Durant. Other towns and cities near the lake in Bryan County, include Cartwright, Calera and Mead. In Marshall County, Oklahoma and Kingston are the nearest cities with many notable communities near the lake including Enos, Little City, Kingston, Woodville, McBride and the unsubmerged portion of Aylesworth. Most of Aylesworth was submerged under the water of the lake. Other towns and cities in Texas include Gordonville, Fink and Preston. Several small islands on Lake Texoma are accessible only by means of water transportation.
Some of the island names include, in order from west to east, West Island, Wood Island, Hog Island, Treasure Island, Little Island, North Island. Lake Texoma features 54 USACE-managed parks; the northern and southern reaches of the lake each terminate within a national wildlife refuge. According to the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, George Moulton, a businessman from Denison, first talked publicly about damming the Red River at Baer's Ferry in 1925, he began lobbying the Chambers of Commerce in Durant. Congressman Sam Rayburn became interested in the project in the early 1930s, helped bring Federal funding and the Corps of Engineers to make Lake Texoma a reality. Denison Dam and Lake Texoma were authorized for construction by the Flood Control Act approved June 28, 1938, for flood control and generation of hydroelectric power; the dam and outlet works were started in August 1939 and completed in February 1944. By 1942, much of the labor on the facilities was provided by German prisoners of war.
These men were members of the Afrika Korps, captured by the U. S. Army in North Africa, they were the first POWs used in labor camps by the U. S, they were housed in camps near Tishomingo and Powell, Oklahoma. At that time, Denison Dam was the largest rolled, earthfilled dam in the United States; the project was put into operation for flood control in January 1944. The first hydroelectric turbine was placed in operation in March 1945, while a second unit became operational in September 1949; the town of Woodville, was submerged by the lake. The site was exposed by a severe drought in 2011. Most of the town of Aylesworth was submerged by the construction of the lake. Lake Texoma is the only lake in the contiguous United States to have its own independent government known as Lake Texoma Indian Territory. North of Gainesville, Texas Camp Howze was constructed for military training. German prisoners were sent there; some were used to clearcut the timber below the flood line for Lake Texoma. The lake was pristine until flood waters rose above the clear cut line in 1957.
The lake attracted worldwide media attention in June 2015 when water was drained following a flood, causing a vortex with 2.5-m-wide hole to form. Lake Texoma's popularity is attributed to its sheer size and proximity to the Dallas
Possum Kingdom Lake
Possum Kingdom Lake, is a reservoir on the Brazos River located in Palo Pinto County Texas. It was the first water supply reservoir constructed in the Brazos River basin; the lake has an area of 17,000 acres with 310 miles of shoreline. It holds 750,000 acre feet of water with 550,000 acre feet available for water supply; the Lake was created from the Morris Sheppard Dam, a project of the Brazos River Authority and the Works Progress Administration. Construction was begun in 1936 and completed in 1941; the dam is 190 feet high. The construction is unique with buttressed arched wings on either side of the nine spillway gates rather than the usual filled concrete, it has two 11,250 kilowatt generators which were used during peak demand periods that are no longer in use. Morris Sheppard was in 1938 one of Texas' United States Senators; the dam was named for him in honor of his efforts in obtaining funding for the project. The lake is located; the canyon thus formed provided a favorable site for impoundment of the reservoir and accounts for the unusual depth of the lake and the resulting clarity of the water.
There are several stories about the origin of the name Possum Kingdom for this part of the Brazos River valley. The most accepted version attributes the name to Ike Sablosky who settled in the region in the early twentieth century. Sablosky was a businessman, a Russian Jewish immigrant who came to America at the age of 13, he arrived in Mineral Wells, Texas from Indianapolis in 1905. Sablosky believed he was dying. Mineral Wells was nationally famous as a health spa and Sablosky offered an employee of one of the spa hotels ten cents a day for ten days to be allowed to drink all of the mineral water he wanted; the employee accepted and Sablosky claimed that within ten days his stomach problems were cured. Sablosky went into the fur and hide business, dealing in, among other things, possum pelts, his best suppliers of these hunted in the canyon of the Brazos and Sablosky began greeting them by saying, "Here are the boys from the Possum Kingdom." Sablosky went on to be a prominent businessman in Dallas.
Before his death he left millions of dollars to charity. The lake is home to the famous Hell's Gate, a sheer break in the cliffs around the lake; the lake's name was the title of a popular 1990s song "Possum Kingdom" by The Toadies. The lake is home to Possum Kingdom State Park, a 1,530-acre state park governed by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department The Possum Kingdom Lake area suffered major wildfires in 2011 during a severe drought, first in April with 160 homes destroyed and again in August–September with 39 homes and 9 recreational vehicles lost; the cause of the second 2011 fire was an electrical spark on the 101 Ranch The first week of August 2012 brought more wildfires to the PK vicinity which were ignited by lightning strikes amid the drought-ridden countryside. Texas Governor Perry authorized the Texas military forces to assist in battling them. Several Chinook helicopters were assigned to the Palo Pinto county efforts; the fires were brought under control over a period of nights.
The lake was at the level of the cliffs resort which caused the massive c shaped ridges in the side walls of the shore. Possum Kingdom Online Community PK lake 2011 FIRES webpage April 2011 Fires as reported by Pondera Properties at Possum Kingdom Lake; this was the most comprehensive minute-by-minute report of days of fire coverage. It was provided as a community service from a local business at Possum Kingdom Lake and the report itself was followed by thousands of people and received media attention as a result. Page 184, Tolbert of Texas: The Man and His Work - How Possum Kingdom got its name
Louisiana is a state in the Deep South region of the South Central United States. It is the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Louisiana is bordered by the state of Texas to the west, Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, the Gulf of Mexico to the south. A large part of its eastern boundary is demarcated by the Mississippi River. Louisiana is the only U. S. state with political subdivisions termed parishes. The state's capital is Baton Rouge, its largest city is New Orleans. Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp; these contain a rich southern biota. There are many species of tree frogs, fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a natural process in the landscape, has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas; these support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of terrestrial orchids and carnivorous plants.
Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other southern state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized, four that have not received recognition. Some Louisiana urban environments have a multicultural, multilingual heritage, being so influenced by a mixture of 18th-century French, Spanish, Native American, African cultures that they are considered to be exceptional in the US. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, present-day Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a brief period a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa. In the post-Civil War environment, Anglo-Americans increased the pressure for Anglicization, in 1921, English was for a time made the sole language of instruction in Louisiana schools before a policy of multilingualism was revived in 1974. There has never been an official language in Louisiana, the state constitution enumerates "the right of the people to preserve and promote their respective historic and cultural origins."
Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane; the suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to "information relating to a particular individual, subject, or place." Thus Louis + ana carries the idea of "related to Louis." Once part of the French Colonial Empire, the Louisiana Territory stretched from present-day Mobile Bay to just north of the present-day Canada–United States border, including a small part of what is now the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea; as Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened. Louisiana developed, over millions of years, from water into land, from north to south; the oldest rocks are exposed in areas such as the Kisatchie National Forest. The oldest rocks date back to the early Cenozoic Era, some 60 million years ago.
The history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearing's Roadside Geology of Louisiana; the youngest parts of the state were formed during the last 12,000 years as successive deltas of the Mississippi River: the Maringouin, Teche, St. Bernard, the modern Mississippi, now the Atchafalaya; the sediments were carried from north to south by the Mississippi River. In between the Tertiary rocks of the north, the new sediments along the coast, is a vast belt known as the Pleistocene Terraces, their age and distribution can be related to the rise and fall of sea levels during past ice ages. In general, the northern terraces have had sufficient time for rivers to cut deep channels, while the newer terraces tend to be much flatter. Salt domes are found in Louisiana, their origin can be traced back to the early Gulf of Mexico, when the shallow ocean had high rates of evaporation. There are several hundred salt domes in the state. Salt domes are important not only as a source of salt. Louisiana is bordered to the west by Texas.
The state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands of the north, the alluvial along the coast. The alluvial region includes low swamp lands, coastal marshlands and beaches, barrier islands that cover about 20,000 square miles; this area lies principally along the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 mi ) and empties into the Gulf of Mexico. The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles, along the other rivers, the alluvial region averages about 10 miles across; the Mississippi River flows along a ridge formed by its own natural deposits, from which the lands decline toward a river beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile. The alluvial lands along other streams present similar features; the higher and contiguous hill lands of the north and northwestern part of the state have an area of more than 25,000 square miles. They consist of prairie and woodl