A volcanic bomb is a mass of molten rock larger than 64 mm in diameter, formed when a volcano ejects viscous fragments of lava during an eruption. They cool into solid fragments before they reach the ground, because volcanic bombs cool after they leave the volcano, they are extrusive igneous rocks. Volcanic bombs can be many kilometres from an erupting vent. Bombs can be large, the 1935 eruption of Mount Asama in Japan expelled bombs measuring 5–6 m in diameter up to 600 m from the vent. Volcanic bombs are a significant volcanic hazard, and can cause severe injuries, one such incident occurred at Galeras volcano in Colombia in 1993, six people near the summit were killed and several seriously injured by lava bombs when the volcano erupted unexpectedly. Volcanic bombs are known to explode from internal gas pressure as they cool. Bomb explosions are most often observed in bread-crust type bombs, bombs are named according to their shape, which is determined by the fluidity of the magma from which they are formed.
Ribbon or cylindrical bombs form from highly to moderately fluid magma, ejected as irregular strings, the strings break up into small segments which fall to the ground intact and look like ribbons. These bombs are circular or flattened in cross section, are fluted along their length, spherical bombs form from high to moderately fluid magma. In the case of spherical bombs, surface tension plays a role in pulling the ejecta into spheres. Spindle, fusiform, or almond/rotational bombs are formed by the processes as spherical bombs. Spinning during flight leaves these bombs looking elongated or almond shaped, spindle bombs are characterised by longitudinal fluting, one side slightly smoother and broader than the other. This smooth side represents the underside of the bomb as it fell through the air, cow pie bombs are formed when highly fluid magma falls from moderate height, so the bombs do not solidify before impact. They consequently flatten or splash and form irregular roundish disks, which resemble cow dung, bread-crust bombs are formed if the outside of the lava bombs solidifies during their flights.
They may develop cracked outer surfaces as the interiors continue to expand, cored bombs are bombs that have rinds of lava enclosing a core of previously consolidated lava. The core consists of fragments of an earlier eruption, accidental fragments of country rock or, in rare cases. Media related to Volcanic bombs at Wikimedia Commons USGS Volcano Hazards Program
Prediction of volcanic activity
Prediction of volcanic eruption is an interdisciplinary monitoring and research effort to predict the time and severity of a volcanos eruption. Of particular importance is the prediction of eruptions that could lead to catastrophic loss of life, property. Seismic activity always occurs as volcanoes awaken and prepare to erupt and are an important link to eruptions. Some volcanoes normally have continuing low-level seismic activity, but an increase may signal a greater likelihood of an eruption, the types of earthquakes that occur and where they start and end are key signs. Volcanic seismicity has three forms, short-period earthquake, long-period earthquake, and harmonic tremor. Short-period earthquakes are like normal fault-generated earthquakes and they are caused by the fracturing of brittle rock as magma forces its way upward. These short-period earthquakes signify the growth of a body near the surface and are known as A waves. These type of events are often referred to as Volcano-Tectonic events or earthquakes.
Long-period earthquakes are believed to indicate increased gas pressure in a plumbing system. They are similar to the clanging sometimes heard in a plumbing system. These oscillations are the equivalent of acoustic vibrations in a chamber and these are known as resonance waves and long period resonance events. Harmonic tremors are often the result of pushing against the overlying rock below the surface. They can sometimes be strong enough to be felt as humming or buzzing by people and animals, using a similar method, researchers can detect volcanic eruptions by monitoring infra-sound—sub-audible sound below 20 Hz. The IMS Global Infrasound Network, originally set up to compliance with nuclear test ban treaties, has 60 stations around the world that work to detect. A relation between events and imminent volcanic eruptions was first observed in the seismic records of the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia. The occurrence of events were used to predict the 1989 eruption of Mount Redoubt in Alaska.
In December 2000, scientists at the National Center for Prevention of Disasters in Mexico City predicted an eruption within two days at Popocatépetl, on the outskirts of Mexico City, the government evacuated tens of thousands of people,48 hours later, the volcano erupted as predicted. It was Popocatépetls largest eruption for a thousand years, yet no one was hurt, similarities between iceberg tremors, which occur when they run aground, and volcanic tremors may help experts develop a better method for predicting volcanic eruptions
The Tyrrhenian Sea is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy. It is named for the Tyrrhenian people, identified since the 6th century BCE with the Etruscans of Italy, the sea is bounded by the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, the Italian peninsula to the east, and the island of Sicily. The maximum depth of the sea is 3,785 metres, the Tyrrhenian Sea is situated near where the African and Eurasian Plates meet, therefore mountain chains and active volcanoes such as Mount Marsili are found in its depths. The eight Aeolian Islands and Ustica are located in the part of the sea. On the Southwest, A line running from Cape Lilibeo to the South extreme of Cape Teulada in Sardinia, in the Strait of Bonifacio, A line joining the West extreme of Cape Testa in Sardinia with the Southwest extreme of Cape Feno in Corsica. On the North, A line joining Cape Corse in Corsica, with Tinetto Island and thence through Tino, there are four exits from the Tyrrhenian Sea, The Tyrrhenian Basin is divided into two basins, the Vavilov plain and the Marsili plain.
They are separated by the ridge known as the Issel Bridge. Its name derives from the Greek name for the Etruscans, who were said to be emigrants from Lydia, the Etruscans settled along the coast of modern Tuscany and referred to the water as the Sea of the Etruscans. The main ports of the Tyrrhenian Sea in Italy are, Palermo, Salerno, Trapani, in France the most important port is Bastia. Note that even though the port of Rome is frequently used. Instead, the port of Rome refers to the facilities at Civitavecchia, some 68 km to the northwest of Rome. Giglio Porto is an island port in this area. It rose to prominence, when the Costa Concordia ran aground a few metres off the coast of Giglio, the ship was recently removed and towed to Genoa. In Greek mythology, it is believed that the cliffs above the Tyrrhenian Sea housed the four winds kept by Aeolus, the winds are the Mistral from the Rhône valley, the Libeccio from the southwest, and the Sirocco and Ostro from the south
Geologic time scale
The table of geologic time spans, presented here, agrees with the nomenclature and standard color codes set forth by the International Commission on Stratigraphy. Evidence from radiometric dating indicates that Earth is about 4.54 billion years old, the geology or deep time of Earth’s past has been organized into various units according to events which took place in each period. Older time spans, which predate the reliable record, are defined by their absolute age. Some other planets and moons within the Solar System have sufficiently rigid structures to have preserved records of their own histories, for example, Mars, dominantly fluid planets, such as the gas giants, do not preserve their history in a comparable manner. Apart from the Late Heavy Bombardment, events on other planets probably had little influence on the Earth. Construction of a scale that links the planets is, therefore, of only limited relevance to the Earths time scale. The existence and terrestrial effects of the Late Heavy Bombardment is still debated, the largest defined unit of time is the supereon, composed of eons.
Eons are divided into eras, which are in turn divided into periods, the terms eonothem, system and stage are used to refer to the layers of rock that correspond to these periods of geologic time in Earths history. Geologists qualify these units as early and late when referring to time, and lower, for example, the lower Jurassic Series in chronostratigraphy corresponds to the early Jurassic Epoch in geochronology. The adjectives are capitalized when the subdivision is formally recognized, and lower case when not, thus early Miocene but Early Jurassic. Geologic units from the time but different parts of the world often look different and contain different fossils. For example, in North America the Lower Cambrian is called the Waucoban series that is subdivided into zones based on succession of trilobites. In East Asia and Siberia, the unit is split into Alexian, Atdabanian. A key aspect of the work of the International Commission on Stratigraphy is to reconcile this conflicting terminology, the term Anthropocene is used informally by popular culture and a growing number of scientists to describe the current epoch in which we are living.
The term was coined by Paul Crutzen and Eugene Stoermer in 2000 to describe the current time, others say that humans have not even started to leave their biggest impact on Earth, and therefore the Anthropocene hasnt even started yet. Whatever the case, the ICS has not officially approved the term, leonardo da Vinci concurred with Aristotles interpretation that fossils represented the remains of ancient life. The 11th-century Persian geologist Avicenna and the 13th-century Dominican bishop Albertus Magnus extended Aristotles explanation into a theory of a petrifying fluid. Avicenna first proposed one of the principles underlying geologic time scales, the Chinese naturalist Shen Kuo recognized the concept of deep time
Filicudi is one of eight islands that make up the Aeolian archipelago, situated 30–50 km northeast of the island of Sicily, southern Italy. It is a frazione of the comune of Lipari and its total area is 9.5 km2. There are several villages on the island, which include Pecorini Mare. Filicudis lands are capable of producing wine, olive oil, grain, in 1997, three quarters, approximately 7 km2 of Filicudi was turned into a Natural Reserve. The highest point is Monte Fossa Felci at 774 m, other points include Monte Montagnola at 349 m and Monte Terrione at 278 m. At Capo Graziano are the remains of a Bronze Age village dating back to the second millennium BCE, off the coast, the volcanic finger-like rock of La Canna rises about 74 metres above the sea. The modern name of Filicudi is a corruption of the ancient Greek name for the island, the island, like the other Aeolian Islands, was settled since the Neolithic Age, around 3000 BCE. As evidenced by archaeological findings, the island was occupied by a new people during the Bronze Age, the island was uninhabited for many centuries until occupied by the Greeks.
Roman and Byzantine remains can be found on the island, since the 1970s Filicudi was rediscovered and populated by photographers and artists such as Sergio Libiszewsky, Ettore Sottsas, novelist Roland Zoss, and editor Giulio Einaudi. Their perceptions brought the island into the focus of modern tourism, john Bonica and professional wrestler Roland Zoss and composer List of volcanoes in Italy
The Mythopoeic Society was founded in 1967 by Glen H. GoodKnight. Originally composed of groups based in the Los Angeles area, it expanded to include organized branches across North America. Membership is open to those who read, study, or write in the genres of myth, edited by Janet Brennan Croft, publishes peer-reviewed articles on mythic and fantastic works, available by subscription. The Mythic Circle is a collection of fiction and poetry, published yearly. In addition to the periodicals, the society formed The Mythopoeic Press to publish material by and about writers of mythopoeic and fantastic literature, works published include out-of-print materials, collections of short articles and essays, and scholarly items. Mythcon XX was held in Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1989, Mythcon XXIII was held at Keble College, England, in 1992 as part of The J. R. R. Tolkien Centenary Conference, co-sponsored with The Tolkien Society, Mythcon XXXVI in 2005 was held at Aston University, England, combined with Tolkien 2005 -50 Years of The Lord of the Rings, sponsored by The Tolkien Society.
Since 1971 the Mythopoeic Society has bestowed a series of awards to outstanding works. In 1991 the literary award was broken into two categories, the Mythopoeic Fantasy Award for Adult Literature and the Mythopoeic Fantasy Award for Children’s Literature, the Mythopoeic Scholarship Award in Inklings Studies is given to books on J. R. R. Tolkien, C. S. Lewis, and/or Charles Williams that make significant contributions to Inklings scholarship, for the scholarship awards, books first published during the previous three years are eligible, including finalists for previous years. Mythopoeic literature The Tolkien Society Tolkien fandom Science fiction studies Official website Article, Geek Stuff to Do Mythcon 2009 by Corrina Lawson July 7,2009, Wired. com
Strombolicchio is a sea stack of volcanic origin 2 km to the northeast of the island of Stromboli in the Aeolian Islands of Italy. Its name in the Sicilian language means Little Stromboli, the island is a tourist attraction in Stromboli. Eruptions at this site ceased approximately 200,000 years ago, since the volcanic activity has moved about 3 km to the southwest. It is the only part of a submarine platform that extends between it and the main island. Strombolicchio hosts some very rare species of flora and fauna and has declared a natural reserve. Bassia saxicola, for example, a flower at risk of extinction, is otherwise present only in a few hundred specimens on the island of Capri. List of lighthouses in Italy A lighthouse is located on its summit, it can be reached by a stairway of over 200 steps
The Smithsonian Institution, established in 1846 for the increase and diffusion of knowledge, is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. Originally organized as the United States National Museum, that ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967. Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Massachusetts, New York City, Virginia, more than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states, Puerto Rico, and Panama are Smithsonian Affiliates. The Institutions thirty million annual visitors are admitted without charge and its annual budget is around $1.2 billion with 2/3 coming from annual federal appropriations. Other funding comes from the Institutions endowment and corporate contributions, membership dues, and earned retail, Institution publications include Smithsonian and Air & Space magazines. The British scientist James Smithson left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford, Congress officially accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation, and pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1,1836.
The American diplomat Richard Rush was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson to collect the bequest, Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns. Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithsons rather vague mandate for the increase, the money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas which soon defaulted. The United States Exploring Expedition by the U. S. Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842, in 1846, the regents developed a plan for weather observation, in 1847, money was appropriated for meteorological research. The Institution became a magnet for young scientists from 1857 to 1866, the Smithsonian played a critical role as the U. S. partner institution in early bilateral scientific exchanges with the Academy of Sciences of Cuba. The Smithsonian Institution Building began construction in 1849, designed by architect James Renwick Jr. its interiors were completed by general contract Gilbert Cameron and the building opened in 1855.
The Smithsonians first expansion came with construction of the Arts and Industries Building in 1881, Congress had promised to build a new structure for the museum if the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition generated enough income. It did, and the building was designed by architects Adolf Cluss and Paul Schulze, meigs of the United States Army Corps of Engineers. The National Zoological Park opened in 1889 to accommodate the Smithsonians Department of Living Animals and this structure was designed by the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall. More than 40 years would pass before the museum, the Museum of History. It was designed by the firm of McKim, Mead & White. That same year, the Smithsonian signed an agreement to take over the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration, the National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian American Art Museum opened in the Old Patent Office Building on October 7,1968. The first new building to open since the National Museum of Natural History was the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
J. R. R. Tolkien
He was at one time a close friend of C. S. Lewis—they were both members of the informal literary discussion group known as the Inklings. Tolkien was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II on 28 March 1972, after Tolkiens death, his son Christopher published a series of works based on his fathers extensive notes and unpublished manuscripts, including The Silmarillion. Between 1951 and 1955, Tolkien applied the term legendarium to the part of these writings. While many other authors had published works of fantasy before Tolkien and this has caused Tolkien to be popularly identified as the father of modern fantasy literature—or, more precisely, of high fantasy. In 2008, The Times ranked him sixth on a list of The 50 greatest British writers since 1945, forbes ranked him the 5th top-earning dead celebrity in 2009. Tolkiens paternal ancestors were middle-class craftsmen who made and sold clocks and pianos in London, the Tolkien family had emigrated from Germany in the 18th century but had become quickly intensely English.
According to the tradition, the Tolkiens had arrived in England in 1756. Several families with the surname Tolkien or similar spelling live in northwestern Germany, mainly in Lower Saxony, this origin of the name has not been proven. A German writer has suggested that the name is likely to derive from the village of Tolkynen near Rastenburg. Although that village is far from Lower Saxony, its name is derived from the now-extinct Old Prussian language. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on 3 January 1892 in Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State to Arthur Reuel Tolkien, an English bank manager, the couple had left England when Arthur was promoted to head the Bloemfontein office of the British bank for which he worked. Tolkien had one sibling, his brother, Hilary Arthur Reuel. In another incident, a family servant, who thought Tolkien a beautiful child, took the baby to his kraal to show him off. When he was three, he went to England with his mother and brother on what was intended to be a family visit.
His father, died in South Africa of rheumatic fever before he could join them and this left the family without an income, so Tolkiens mother took him to live with her parents in Kings Heath, Birmingham. Soon after, in 1896, they moved to Sarehole, a Worcestershire village, Mabel Tolkien taught her two children at home. Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil and she taught him a great deal of botany and awakened in him the enjoyment of the look and feel of plants. Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and trees, but his lessons were those concerning languages
Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is an autonomous Region of Italy, along with surrounding minor islands, Sicily is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina. Its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe, the island has a typical Mediterranean climate. The earliest archaeological evidence of activity on the island dates from as early as 12,000 BC. It became part of Italy in 1860 following the Expedition of the Thousand, a revolt led by Giuseppe Garibaldi during the Italian unification, Sicily was given special status as an autonomous region after the Italian constitutional referendum of 1946. Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially regard to the arts, literature, cuisine. It is home to important archaeological and ancient sites, such as the Necropolis of Pantalica, the Valley of the Temples, Sicily has a roughly triangular shape, earning it the name Trinacria.
To the east, it is separated from the Italian mainland by the Strait of Messina, about 3 km wide in the north, and about 16 km wide in the southern part. The northern and southern coasts are each about 280 km long measured as a line, while the eastern coast measures around 180 km. The total area of the island is 25,711 km2, the terrain of inland Sicily is mostly hilly and is intensively cultivated wherever possible. Along the northern coast, the ranges of Madonie,2,000 m, Nebrodi,1,800 m. The cone of Mount Etna dominates the eastern coast, in the southeast lie the lower Hyblaean Mountains,1,000 m. The mines of the Enna and Caltanissetta districts were part of a leading sulphur-producing area throughout the 19th century and its surrounding small islands have some highly active volcanoes. Mount Etna is the largest active volcano in Europe and still casts black ash over the island with its ever-present eruptions and it currently stands 3,329 metres high, though this varies with summit eruptions, the mountain is 21 m lower now than it was in 1981.
It is the highest mountain in Italy south of the Alps, Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 with a basal circumference of 140 km. This makes it by far the largest of the three volcanoes in Italy, being about two and a half times the height of the next largest, Mount Vesuvius. In Greek Mythology, the deadly monster Typhon was trapped under the mountain by Zeus, Mount Etna is widely regarded as a cultural symbol and icon of Sicily. The Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea, to the northeast of mainland Sicily form a volcanic complex, the three volcanoes of Vulcano and Lipari are currently active, although the latter is usually dormant
Journey to the Center of the Earth
Journey to the Centre of the Earth is an 1864 science fiction novel by Jules Verne. The story involves German professor Otto Lidenbrock who believes there are volcanic tubes going toward the centre of the Earth, the genre of subterranean fiction already existed long before Verne. However, the present book considerably added to its popularity and influenced such writings, for example, Edgar Rice Burroughs explicitly acknowledged Vernes influence on his own Pellucidar series. While looking through the book and his nephew Axel find a note written in runic script along with the name of a 16th-century Icelandic alchemist. Lidenbrock and Axel transliterate the runic characters into Latin letters, revealing a message written in a seemingly bizarre code, Lidenbrock attempts a decipherment, deducing the message to be a kind of transposition cipher, but his results are as meaningless as the original. Professor Lidenbrock decides to lock everyone in the house and force himself, Axel discovers the answer when fanning himself with the deciphered text, Lidenbrocks decipherment was correct, and only needs to be read backwards to reveal sentences written in rough Latin.
In what Axel calls bad Latin, the message reads, In Snefflls Iokulis kraterem kem delibat umbra Skartaris Iulii intra kalendas deskende, audas uiator. In slightly better Latin, with errors amended, In Sneffels Jokulis craterem, quem delibat umbra Scartaris, Julii intra kalendas descende, audax viator, et terrestre centrum attinges, quod feci. Arne Saknussemm Professor Lidenbrock is a man of astonishing impatience, and departs for Iceland immediately, taking his reluctant nephew with him. After a rapid journey via Kiel and Copenhagen, they arrive in Reykjavík, in late June, they reach the volcano, which has three craters. According to Saknussemms message, the passage to the center of the Earth is through the one crater that is touched by the shadow of a mountain peak at noon. However, the text states that this is only true during the last days of June. During the next few days, with July rapidly approaching, the weather is too cloudy for any shadows, alas for Axel, however, on the second to last day, the sun comes out and the mountain peak shows the correct crater to take.
After taking a turn, they run out of water and Axel almost dies. Lidenbrock and Axel name the resulting stream the Hansbach in his honour, at another point, Axel becomes separated from the others and is lost several miles from them. Luckily, an acoustic phenomenon allows him to communicate with them from some miles away. After descending many miles, following the course of the Hansbach, the travelers build a raft out of trees and set sail. The Professor names this sea the Lidenbrock Sea, while on the water, they see several prehistoric creatures such as a giant Ichthyosaurus, which fights with a Plesiosaurus and wins