Romare Bearden was an African-American artist and author of a history of his people's art. He worked with many types of media including cartoons and collages. Born in Charlotte, North Carolina, Bearden grew up in New York City and Pittsburgh and graduated from NYU in 1935, he began his artistic career creating scenes of the American South. He worked to express the humanity he felt was lacking in the world after his experience in the US Army during World War II on the European front, he studied Art History and Philosophy at the Sorbonne. Bearden's early work focused on cooperation within the African-American community. After a period during the 1950s when he painted more abstractly, this theme reemerged in his collage works of the 1960s. New York Times described Bearden as "the nation's foremost collagist" in his 1988 obituary. Bearden became a founding member of the Harlem-based art group known as The Spiral, formed to discuss the responsibility of the African-American artist in the civil rights movement.
Bearden was the coauthor of several books. He was a songwriter, known as co-writer of the jazz classic "Sea Breeze", recorded by Billy Eckstine, a former high school classmate at Peabody High School, Dizzy Gillespie, he had long supported young, emerging artists and he and his wife established the Bearden Foundation to continue this work, as well as to support young scholars. In 1987, Bearden was awarded the National Medal of Arts. Bearden was born in Charlotte, North Carolina. Bearden's family moved with him to New York City when he was a toddler, as part of the Great Migration, he was educated in high school in Pittsburgh and returned to New York City. The Bearden household soon became a meeting place for major figures of the Harlem Renaissance. Romare's mother, Bessye Bearden, played an active role with New York City's Board of Education, served as founder and president of the Colored Women's Democratic League, she was a New York correspondent for The Chicago Defender, an African-American newspaper.
In 1929 he graduated from Peabody High School in Pennsylvania. He enrolled in Lincoln University, the nation's first black college, founded in 1854, he transferred to Boston University where he served as art director for Beanpot, Boston University's student humor magazine. Bearden continued his studies at New York University, where he started to focus more on his art and less on athletics, became a lead cartoonist and art editor for The Medley, the monthly journal of the secretive Eucleian Society. Bearden studied art, education and mathematics, graduating with a degree in science and education in 1935, he continued his artistic study under German artist George Grosz at the Art Students League in 1936 and 1937. During this period Bearden supported himself by working as a political cartoonist for African-American newspapers, including the Baltimore Afro-American, where he published a weekly cartoon from 1935 until 1937. Bearden grew as an artist by exploring his life experiences, his early paintings were of scenes in the American South, his style was influenced by the Mexican muralists Diego Rivera and José Clemente Orozco.
In 1935, Bearden became a case worker for the Harlem office of the New York City Department of Social Services. Throughout his career as an artist, Bearden worked as a case worker off and on to supplement his income. During World War II, Bearden joined the United States Army, serving from 1942 until 1945 in Europe. After serving in the army, Bearden joined the Samuel Kootz Gallery, a commercial gallery in New York that featured avant-garde art, he produced paintings at this time in "an expressionistic, semi-abstract style." He returned to Europe in 1950 to study philosophy with Gaston Bachelard and art history at the Sorbonne, under the auspices of the GI Bill. Bearden traveled throughout other artists. Making major changes in his art, he started producing abstract representations of what he deemed as human, he had evolved from what Edward Alden Jewell, a reviewer for the New York Times, called a "debilitating focus on Regionalist and ethnic concerns" to what became known as his stylistic approach, which participated in the post-war aims of avant-garde American art.
His works were exhibited at the Samuel M. Kootz gallery. During Bearden's success in the gallery, however, he produced Golgotha, a painting from his series of the Passion of the Christ. Golgotha is an abstract representation of the Crucifixion; the eye of the viewer is drawn to the middle of the image first, where Bearden has rendered Christ's body. The body parts are stylized into abstract geometric shapes, yet are still too realistic to be concretely abstract; the body is in a central position and darkly contrasted with the highlighted crowds. The crowds of people are on the left and right, are encapsulated within large spheres of bright colors of purple and indigo; the background of the painting is depicted in lighter jewel tones dissected with linear black ink. Bearden used these colors and contrasts because of the abstract influence of the time, but for their meanings. Bearden wanted to explore the actions of the crowds gathered around the Crucifixion, he worked hard to "depict myths in an attempt to convey universal human values and reactions".
According to Bearden, Christ's life and resurrection are the greatest expressions of man's humanism, because of the idea of him that lived on through other men. This is why
M7 (New York City bus)
The Columbus Avenue Line is a public transit line in Manhattan, New York City, United States, running along Columbus Avenue, 116th Street, Lenox Avenue from Lower Manhattan to Harlem. A streetcar line, it is now the M7 bus route, operated by the New York City Transit Authority, a division of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority; the M7 bus begins at 18th Street. Northbound it shares Sixth Avenue with the M55 between 18th Street and 44th Street, as well as the M5 above 31st Street. Southbound it shares Seventh Avenue with the M20; the M7 turns west at 59th Street and northwest on Broadway to reach the one-way pair of Amsterdam Avenue and Columbus Avenue. These two streets are shared with the M11; the M7 turns east at 106th Street, north on Manhattan Avenue, east on 116th Street, north on Lenox Avenue to a loop at the 145th Street subway station. This is the exact path followed by the former streetcar north of 109th Street. Prior to 2009, southbound M7 service ran along Broadway and terminated at Union Square along 14th Street.
This was changed due to pedestrianization of Broadway at Times Square, Duffy Square, Herald Square, which closed the street to traffic. The southbound M7 now terminates at 18th Street; the Ninth Avenue Railroad's Ninth Avenue Line used the southernmost part of Columbus Avenue, but cut over along Broadway to use Amsterdam Avenue to Harlem. On December 30, 1892, the Columbus and Ninth Avenue Railroad acquired a franchise from the city to build along Columbus Avenue from Broadway to 110th Street, with a branch west on 106th Street to Amsterdam Avenue, it was soon authorized to build in Manhattan Avenue to 116th Street. The company was consolidated into the Metropolitan Street Railway on November 7, 1895. Columbus Avenue cars were operated by the Metropolitan along their Broadway Line from lower Manhattan to Midtown, along the 53rd Street Crosstown Line west to 9th Avenue/Columbus Avenue. Cable cars were used from the line's opening on December 6, 1894 until May 1901. After the Metropolitan system was split in 1913, the Third Avenue Railway acquired the 59th Street Crosstown, 53rd Street was again used.
Buses were substituted for streetcars by the New York City Omnibus Corporation on March 25, 1936. In 1956 it was renamed Fifth Avenue Coach Lines, the Manhattan and Bronx Surface Transit Operating Authority replaced it in 1962; when Columbus and Amsterdam Avenues became one-way streets, northbound buses were moved to Amsterdam Avenue. Pedestrianization of Broadway in Times Square and Herald Square in 2009 led to southbound buses using 7th Avenue instead of Broadway from 59th Street to 14th Street; the 14th Street terminus was shifted to 6th Avenue. On November 28, 2018, the route's southern terminal was moved to 18th Sixth Avenue. Southbound buses began to run on 16th Street to reach the terminal. Media related to M7 at Wikimedia Commons
125th Street (IRT Lenox Avenue Line)
125th Street is a station on the IRT Lenox Avenue Line of the New York City Subway. Located at the intersection of 125th Street and Lenox Avenue in Harlem, it is served by the 2 and 3 trains at all times; this underground station has two tracks. The fare control is at platform level, there is no crossover or crossunder between the platforms; the station has a new name tablet plus some old "125" terra cotta cartouches. The 1996 artwork there is Heroines, by Faith Ringgold. On May 23, 1968, poet Henry Dumas was fatally shot by a New York City Transit Police officer on the station's southbound platform. In 1981, the MTA listed the station among the 69 most deteriorated stations in the subway system; the tracks and platforms at this station were rebuilt during a 1998 reconstruction project to combat a water seepage problem along the Lenox Avenue Line. One stair, NW corner of Lenox Avenue and West 125th Street One stair, SW corner of Lenox Avenue and West 125th Street One stair, NE corner of Lenox Avenue and West 125th Street One stair, SE corner of Lenox Avenue and West 125th Street nycsubway.org – IRT White Plains Road Line: 125th Street nycsubway.org — Flying Home Harlem Heroes and Heroines Artwork by Faith Ringgold Station Reporter — 2 Train Station Reporter — 3 Train The Subway Nut — 125th Street Pictures MTA's Arts For Transit — 125th Street 125th Street entrance from Google Maps Street View Platforms from Google Maps Street View
MTA Regional Bus Operations
MTA Regional Bus Operations is the surface transit division of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. It was created in 2008 to consolidate all bus operations in New York City operated by the MTA; as of February 2018, MTA Regional Bus Operations runs 234 local routes, 71 express routes, 18 Select Bus Service routes. Its fleet of 5,725 buses is the largest municipal bus fleet in the United States and operates 24/7; the division comprises two brands: MTA New York City Bus. While MTA Bus is an amalgamation of former private companies' routes, MTA New York City Bus is composed of public routes that were taken over by the city before 2008; the MTA operates paratransit services and operated Long Island Bus. As of 2018, MTA Regional Bus Operations' budgetary burden for expenditures was $773 million. Regional Bus Operations is only used in official documentation, not publicly as a brand; the current public brands are listed below: MTA New York City Bus – most routes within the City of New York, operated by the New York City Transit Authority and subsidiary Manhattan and Bronx Surface Transit Operating Authority.
MTA Bus – service administered by the New York City Department of Transportation and operated by seven companies at the time of takeover, concentrated in Queens, with some routes in the Bronx and Brooklyn, most express service from Brooklyn and the Bronx to Manhattan. The seven former companies were, Command Bus Company, Inc.. Liberty Lines Express, Inc.. The most common scheme is a straight blue stripe across the sides of the bus against a white base, with no colors on the front or back, black window trim. From 1977 until late 2007, the livery was a full all-around stripe with a black rear, until late 2010, the scheme was a stripe with a blank rear. Buses operated in Select Bus Service bus rapid transit service are wrapped with a light blue-and-white wrap below the windows. In spring 2016, a new livery was introduced based on navy blue, light blue, yellow, with a blue front and sides, a light blue and yellow wave, a yellow back; this new livery will replace the blue stripe on a white base livery.
Many RBO's operational changes have been at the management level, with the creation of a unified command center and consolidation of management for all bus operations, with the aim of reducing redundancies in the agency. Other changes have included eliminating the MTA Bus call center, folding it into that of MTA New York City Transit, the unification of the fare policy for all of the MTA's services; the history of the MTA's bus operations follows the history of the New York City Transit Authority known as MTA New York City Transit, created on June 15, 1953 by the State of New York to take over operations operated by the New York City Board of Transportation. In 1962 the State established the Manhattan and Bronx Surface Transit Operating Authority as a subsidiary of NYCT to take over operations operated by two private companies, Fifth Avenue Coach Lines, Inc. and Surface Transit, Inc. Both NYCT and MaBSTOA operate service pursuant to a lease agreement with the City of New York. City involvement with surface transit in the city began in September 1919, when Mayor John Francis Hylan, through the New York City Department of Plant and Structures, organized private entrepreneurs to operate "emergency" buses to replace four abandoned storage battery streetcar lines: the Madison Street Line and Delancey Streets Line, Avenue C Line, Sixth Avenue Ferry Line.
Many routes were soon added, replacing lines such as the Brooklyn and North River Line and Queens Bus Lines, the DP&S began operating trolleys in Staten Island to replace the Staten Island Midland Railway's system. Another city acquisition was the Bridge Operating Company, which ran the Williamsburg Bridge Local trolley, acquired in 1921 by the DP&S. Unlike the other lines, this one remained city-operated, was replaced by the B39 bus route on December 5, 1948, by transferred to the New York City Board of Transportation. With the city takeover of the Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation's surface subsidiary, the Brooklyn and Queens Transit Corporation, on June 2, 1940, the city gained a large network of trolley and bus lines, covering all of Brooklyn and portions of Queens. On February 23, 1947, the Board of Transportation took over the Staten Island bus network of the Isle Transportation Company. Further acquisitions were made on March 30, 1947, with the North Shore Bus Company in Queens, September 24, 1948, with the East Side Omnibus Corporation and Comprehensive Omnibus Corporation in Manhattan.
The final Brooklyn trolleys were the Church Avenue Line and McDonald Avenue Line, discontinued on October 31, 1956, though the operated Queensboro Bridge Local remained until 1957. Thus, in the late 1950s, the city operated all local service in Staten Island and Brooklyn, about half the local service in Queens, several routes in Manhattan. Several private companies operated buses in Queens, the Avenue B and East Broadway Transit Company operated a small Manhattan system, but by far the largest system was the Fifth Avenue Coach Company and Surface Transit, which operated all Manhattan routes and all Bronx routes, plus two into Queens and one within Queens. After a strike in 1962, the city condemned the assets of the bus companies. To facilitate the anticipat
Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. It stretches north from Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village to West 143rd Street in Harlem, it is considered one of the most elegant streets in the world. A narrower thoroughfare, much of Fifth Avenue south of Central Park was widened in 1908, sacrificing its wide sidewalks to accommodate the increasing traffic; the midtown blocks, now famously commercial, were a residential district until the start of the 20th century. The first commercial building on Fifth Avenue was erected by Benjamin Altman who bought the corner lot on the northeast corner of 34th Street in 1896, demolished the "Marble Palace" of his arch-rival, A. T. Stewart. In 1906 his department store, B. Altman and Company, occupied the whole of its block front; the result was the creation of a high-end shopping district that attracted fashionable women and the upscale stores that wished to serve them. Lord & Taylor's flagship store was once located on Fifth Avenue near the Empire State Building and the New York Public Library, but has since closed.
In the 1920s, traffic towers controlled important intersections from 14th to 59th Streets. Fifth Avenue originates at Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village and runs northwards through the heart of Midtown, along the eastern side of Central Park, where it forms the boundary of the Upper East Side and through Harlem, where it terminates at the Harlem River at 142nd Street. Traffic crosses the river on the Madison Avenue Bridge. Fifth Avenue serves as the dividing line for house numbering and west-east streets in Manhattan, just as Jerome Avenue does in the Bronx, it separates, for example, East 59th Street from West 59th Street. From this zero point for street addresses, numbers increase in both directions as one moves away from Fifth Avenue, The building lot numbering system worked on the East Side as well, before Madison & Lexington Aves. were retrofitted into the street grid, confusing the building numbers. Confusingly, an address on a cross street cannot be predicted at the intersection of Madison Ave. or Lexington Ave. as these were added decades after the building numbers.
It's. The "most expensive street in the world" moniker changes depending on currency fluctuations and local economic conditions from year to year. For several years starting in the mid-1990s, the shopping district between 49th and 57th Streets was ranked as having the world's most expensive retail spaces on a cost per square foot basis. In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Fifth Avenue as being the most expensive street in the world; some of the most coveted real estate on Fifth Avenue are the penthouses perched atop the buildings. The American Planning Association compiled a list of "2012 Great Places in America" and declared Fifth Avenue to be one of the greatest streets to visit in America; this historic street has many world-renowned museums and stores, luxury apartments, historical landmarks that are reminiscent of its history and vision for the future. By 2018 portions of Fifth Avenue had large numbers of vacant store fronts for long periods, part of a citywide trend of vacant store fronts attributed to high rental costs.
Fifth Avenue from 142nd Street to 135th Street carries two-way traffic. Fifth Avenue carries one-way traffic southbound from 135th Street to Washington Square North; the changeover to one-way traffic south of 135th Street took place on January 14, 1966, at which time Madison Avenue was changed to one way uptown. From 124th Street to 120th Street, Fifth Avenue is cut off by Marcus Garvey Park, with southbound traffic diverted around the park via Mount Morris Park West. Fifth Avenue is the traditional route for many celebratory parades in New York City; the longest running parade is the annual St. Patrick's Day Parade. Parades held are distinct from the ticker-tape parades held on the "Canyon of Heroes" on lower Broadway, the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade held on Broadway from the Upper West Side downtown to Herald Square. Fifth Avenue parades proceed from south to north, with the exception of the LGBT Pride March, which goes north to south to end in Greenwich Village; the Latino literary classic by New Yorker Giannina Braschi, entitled "Empire of Dreams," takes place on the Puerto Rican Day Parade on Fifth Avenue.
Bicycling on Fifth Avenue ranges from segregated with a bike lane south of 23rd Street, to scenic along Central Park, to dangerous through Midtown with heavy traffic during rush hours. There is no dedicated bike lane along Fifth Avenue. In July 1987 New York City Mayor Edward Koch proposed banning bicycling on Fifth and Madison Avenues during weekdays, but many bicyclists protested and had the ban overturned; when the trial was started on Monday, August 24, 1987 for 90 days to ban bicyclists from these three avenues from 31st Street to 59th Street between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. on weekdays, mopeds would not be banned. On Monday, August 31, 1987, a state appeals court judge halted the ban for at least a week pending a ruling after opponents against the ban brought a lawsuit. Fifth Avenue is one of the few major streets in Manhattan along. Instead, Fifth Avenue Coach offered a service more to the taste of fashionable gentlefolk, at twice the fare. Double-decker buses were operated by the Fifth Avenue Coach Company until 1953, again by MTA Regional Bus Operations from 1976 to 1978.
Today, local bus service along Fifth Avenue is provided by the MTA's M1, M2, M3, M4 buses. The M5 and Q32 run on Fifth Avenue in Midtown, while the M55 runs on Fifth Avenue south of 44th Street
New York City Subway
The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Opened in 1904, the New York City Subway is one of the world's oldest public transit systems, one of the world's most used metro systems, the metro system with the most stations, it offers service 24 hours per day on every day of the year, though some routes may operate only part-time. The New York City Subway is the largest rapid transit system in the world by number of stations, with 472 stations in operation. Stations are located throughout the boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn and the Bronx; the MTA operates the Staten Island Railway and MTA Bus, with free transfers to and from the subway. The PATH in Manhattan and New Jersey and the AirTrain JFK in Queens both accept the subway's MetroCard but are not operated by the MTA and do not allow free transfers. However, the Roosevelt Island Tramway does allow free transfers to the MTA and bus systems though it is not operated by the MTA.
The system is one of the world's longest. Overall, the system contains 245 miles of routes. By annual ridership, the New York City Subway is the busiest rapid transit rail system in both the Western Hemisphere and the Western world, as well as the eighth busiest rapid transit rail system in the world. In 2017, the subway delivered over 1.72 billion rides, averaging 5.6 million daily rides on weekdays and a combined 5.7 million rides each weekend. On September 23, 2014, more than 6.1 million people rode the subway system, establishing the highest single-day ridership since ridership was monitored in 1985. Of the system's 27 services, 24 pass through Manhattan, the exceptions being the G train, the Franklin Avenue Shuttle, the Rockaway Park Shuttle. Large portions of the subway outside Manhattan are elevated, on embankments, or in open cuts, a few stretches of track run at ground level. In total, 40% of track is above ground. Many lines and stations have both express and local services; these lines have four tracks.
The outer two are used for local trains, while the inner one or two are used for express trains. Stations served by express trains are major transfer points or destinations; as of 2018, the New York City Subway's budgetary burden for expenditures was $8.7 billion, supported by collection of fares, bridge tolls, earmarked regional taxes and fees, as well as direct funding from state and local governments. Its on-time performance rate was 65% during weekdays. Alfred Ely Beach built the first demonstration for an underground transit system in New York City in 1869 and opened it in February 1870, his Beach Pneumatic Transit only extended 312 feet under Broadway in Lower Manhattan operating from Warren Street to Murray Street and exhibited his idea for an atmospheric railway as a subway. The tunnel was never extended for financial reasons. Today, no part of this line remains as the tunnel was within the limits of the present day City Hall Station under Broadway.) The Great Blizzard of 1888 helped demonstrate the benefits of an underground transportation system.
A plan for the construction of the subway was approved in 1894, construction began in 1900. The first underground line of the subway opened on October 27, 1904 36 years after the opening of the first elevated line in New York City, which became the IRT Ninth Avenue Line; the fare was $0.05 and on the first day the trains carried over 150,000 passengers. The oldest structure still in use opened in 1885 as part of the BMT Lexington Avenue Line in Brooklyn and is now part of the BMT Jamaica Line; the oldest right-of-way, part of the BMT West End Line near Coney Island Creek, was in use in 1864 as a steam railroad called the Brooklyn and Coney Island Rail Road. By the time the first subway opened in 1904, the lines had been consolidated into two owned systems, the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company and the Interborough Rapid Transit Company; the city leased them to the companies. The first line of the city-owned and operated Independent Subway System opened in 1932; this required it to be run'at cost', necessitating fares up to double the five-cent fare popular at the time.
In 1940, the city bought the two private systems. Some elevated lines ceased service while others closed soon after. Integration was slow, but several connections were built between the IND and BMT. Since the IRT tunnels, sharper curves, stations are too small and therefore can not accommodate B Division cars, the IRT remains its own division, the A Division. However, many passenger transfers between stations of all three former companies have been created, allowing the entire network to be treated as a single unit. During the late-1940s, the system recorded high ridership, on December 23, 1946, the system-wide record of 8,872,249 fares was set; the New York City Transit Authority, a public authority presided by New York City, was created in 1953 to take over subway, bus
Manhattan referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U. S. state of New York. The borough consists of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson and Harlem rivers. S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world, the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, the borough has been the setting for numerous books and television shows. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013. Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan. Manhattan is documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals $1038 in current terms; the territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790; the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.
Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898. New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area, is the most densely populated U. S. county. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles, or 72,918 residents per square mile, higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan Island is informally divided into three areas, each aligned with its long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Grand Central Terminal.
The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement; the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the name Manhattan derives from the Munsee dialect of the Lenape language'manaháhtaan'. The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end, considered ideal for the making of bows.
It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen. A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate; the area, now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City, he entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York