Sturm und Drang was a proto-Romantic movement in German literature and music that occurred between the late 1760s and early 1780s. Within the movement, individual subjectivity and, in particular, extremes of emotion were given free expression in reaction to the perceived constraints of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment and associated aesthetic movements; the period is named for Friedrich Maximilian Klinger's play of the same name, first performed by Abel Seyler's famed theatrical company in 1777. The philosopher Johann Georg Hamann is considered to be the ideologue of Sturm und Drang. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller were notable proponents of the movement early in their life, although they ended their period of association with it by initiating what would become Weimar Classicism. French neoclassicism, a movement beginning in the early Baroque, with its emphasis on the rational, was the principal target of rebellion for adherents of the Sturm und Drang movement. For them, sentimentality and an objective view of life gave way to emotional turbulence and individuality, enlightenment ideals such as rationalism and universalism no longer captured the human condition.
The term Sturm und Drang first appeared as the title of a play by Friedrich Maximilian Klinger, written for Abel Seyler's Seylersche Schauspiel-Gesellschaft and published in 1776. The setting of the play is the unfolding American Revolution, in which the author gives violent expression to difficult emotions and extols individuality and subjectivity over the prevailing order of rationalism. Though it is argued that literature and music associated with Sturm und Drang predate this seminal work, it was from this point that German artists became distinctly self-conscious of a new aesthetic; this spontaneous movement became associated with a wide array of German authors and composers of the mid-to-late Classical period. Sturm und Drang came to be associated with literature or music aimed at shocking the audience or imbuing them with extremes of emotion; the movement soon gave way to Weimar Classicism and early Romanticism, whereupon a socio-political concern for greater human freedom from despotism was incorporated along with a religious treatment of all things natural.
There is much debate regarding whose work should or should not be included in the canon of Sturm und Drang. One point of view would limit the movement to Goethe, Johann Gottfried Herder, Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, their direct German associates writing works of fiction and/or philosophy between 1770 and the early 1780s; the alternative perspective is that of a literary movement inextricably linked to simultaneous developments in prose and drama, extending its direct influence throughout the German-speaking lands until the end of the 18th century. The originators of the movement came to view it as a time of premature exuberance, abandoned in favor of conflicting artistic pursuits; the literary topos of the "Kraftmensch" existed as a precursor to Sturm und Drang among dramatists beginning with F. M. Klinger, the expression of, seen in the radical degree to which individuality need appeal to no outside authority save the self nor be tempered by rationalism; these ideals are identical to those of Sturm und Drang, it can be argued that the name exists to catalog a number of parallel, co-influential movements in German literature rather than express anything different from what German dramatists were achieving in the violent plays attributed to the Kraftmensch movement.
Major philosophical/theoretical influences on the literary Sturm und Drang movement were Johann Georg Hamann and Johann Gottfried Herder, both from Königsberg, both in contact with Immanuel Kant. Significant theoretical statements of Sturm und Drang aesthetics by the movement's central dramatists themselves include Lenz' Anmerkungen übers Theater and Goethe's Von deutscher Baukunst and Zum Schäkespears Tag; the most important contemporary document was the 1773 volume Von deutscher Art und Kunst. Einige fliegende Blätter, a collection of essays that included commentaries by Herder on Ossian and Shakespeare, along with contributions by Goethe, Paolo Frisi, Justus Möser; the protagonist in a typical Sturm und Drang stage work, poem, or novel is driven to action—often violent action—not by pursuit of noble means nor by true motives, but by revenge and greed. Goethe's unfinished Prometheus exemplifies this along with the common ambiguity provided by juxtaposing humanistic platitudes with outbursts of irrationality.
The literature of Sturm und Drang features an anti-aristocratic slant while seeking to elevate all things humble, natural, or intensely real. The story of hopeless love and eventual suicide presented in Goethe's sentimental novel Die Leiden des jungen Werthers is an example of the author's tempered introspection regarding his love and torment. Friedrich Schiller's drama, Die Räuber, provided the groundwork for melodrama to become a recognized dramatic form; the plot portrays a conflict between two aristocratic brothers and Karl Moor. Franz is cast as a villain attempting to cheat Karl out of his inheritance, though the motives for his action are
Pascal Bedrossian is a French-Armenian professional footballer, head coach at Chicago Fire's Academy. Born in Marseille, Bedrossian began his playing career for the Under-15 French national team, representing them to the Under-21 level, he played club football on the youth squad of AS Cannes in 1993, played in the same youth squad that produced the likes of David Jemmali, Patrick Vieira, Johan Micoud. After enjoying spells with AS Cannes and Stade Rennais, Bedrossian was involved in two relegation campaigns and one promotion campaign to Ligue 1 for Lorient, more prominently, was a member of the Lorient squad that won the 2002 Coupe de France, the team's first and only championship in the history of the tournament; that year, Bedrossian appeared in both legs in Lorient's UEFA Cup exit from qualification at the hands of Turkish side Denizlispor, losing 3–3 on aggregate. In 2004, Bedrossian joined Ligue 2 side Angers SCO. At the end of that campaign, he suffered an injury that has kept him away from football for the 2005 season.
He signed with the American side Chicago Fire. Bedrossian was released from the Chicago Fire in June 2007, he is now head coach at Chicago Fire's Academy. Furthermore, Bedrossian is a soccer coach for middle and high school at the Lycée Français de Chicago, he is employed as the Dean's assistant and helps with many extracurricular activities. He sometimes accompanies various competitions across the globe. Bedrossian's idol is basketball star Michael Jordan, one of the first things Bedrossian did after arriving in Chicago was to find Jordan's house and take a photograph of it. Pascal Bedrossian at L'Équipe Football
Little Moreton Hall known as Old Moreton Hall, is a moated half-timbered manor house 4.5 miles southwest of Congleton in Cheshire, England. The earliest parts of the house were built for the prosperous Cheshire landowner William Moreton in about 1504–08, the remainder was constructed in stages by successive generations of the family until about 1610; the building is irregular, with three asymmetrical ranges forming a small, rectangular cobbled courtyard. A National Trust guidebook describes Little Moreton Hall as being "lifted straight from a fairy story, a gingerbread house"; the house's top-heavy appearance, "like a stranded Noah's Ark", is due to the Long Gallery that runs the length of the south range's upper floor. The house remained in the possession of the Moreton family for 450 years, until ownership was transferred to the National Trust in 1938. Little Moreton Hall and its sandstone bridge across the moat are recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade I listed building, the ground on which Little Moreton Hall stands is protected as a Scheduled Monument.
The house has been restored and is open to the public from April to December each year. At its greatest extent, in the mid-16th century, the Little Moreton Hall estate occupied an area of 1,360 acres and contained a cornmill, gardens, an iron bloomery with water-powered hammers; the gardens lay abandoned until their 20th-century re-creation. As there were no surviving records of the layout of the original knot garden it was replanted according to a pattern published in the 17th century; the name Moreton derives from the Old English mor meaning "marshland" and ton, meaning "town", thus "marsh town" similar to other local area names such as "Buglawton" meaning the "Law town of bug" or Bog again named after the marsh land common in the area with the additional word law meaning the area has common law. Another example would be Congleton meaning the "Law town of Cong" both Moreton and Buglawton are Parishes of Congleton; the area where Little Moreton Hall stands today was named Little Moreton to distinguish it from the nearby township of Moreton-cum-Alcumlow, or Greater Moreton.
The Moreton family's roots in Little Moreton can be traced to the marriage in 1216 of Lettice de Moreton to Sir Gralam de Lostock, who inherited land there. Gralam de Lostock's grandson, Gralam de Moreton, acquired valuable land from his marriages to Alice de Lymme and Margery de Kingsley. Another grandson, John de Moreton, married heiress Margaret de Macclesfield in 1329, adding further to the estate; the family purchased land cheaply after the Black Death epidemic of 1348. Four generations after John de Moreton, the family owned sixteen messuages, a mill and 700 acres of land, comprising 560 acres of ploughland, 80 acres of pasture, 20 acres of meadow, 20 acres of wood and 20 acres of moss; the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the mid-16th century provided further opportunities for the Moretons to add to their estate, by the early years of Elizabeth I's reign, William Moreton II owned two water mills and 1,360 acres of land valued at £24 7s 4d, including 500 acres of ploughland, 500 acres of pasture and 100 acres of turbary.
Little Moreton Hall first appears in the historical record in 1271, but the present building dates from the early 16th century. The north range is the earliest part of the house. Built between 1504 and 1508 for William Moreton, it comprises the Great Hall and the northern part of the east wing. A service wing to the west, built at the same time but subsequently replaced, gave the early house an H-shaped floor plan; the east range was extended to the south in about 1508 to provide additional living quarters, as well as housing the Chapel and the Withdrawing Room. In 1546 William Moreton's son called William, replaced the original west wing with a new range housing service rooms on the ground floor as well as a porch and three interconnected rooms on the first floor, one of which had access to a garderobe. In 1559 William had a new floor inserted at gallery level in the Great Hall, added the two large bay windows looking onto the courtyard, built so close to each other that their roofs abut one another.
The south wing was added in about 1560–62 by William Moreton II's son John. It includes the Gatehouse and a third storey containing a 68-foot Long Gallery, which appears to have been an afterthought added on after construction work had begun. A small kitchen and Brew-house block was added to the south wing in about 1610, the last major extension to the house; the fortunes of the Moreton family declined during the English Civil War. As supporters of the Royalist cause, they found themselves isolated in a community of Parliamentarians. Little Moreton Hall was requisitioned by the Parliamentarians in 1643 and used to billet Parliamentary soldiers; the family petitioned for its restitution, survived the Civil War with their ownership of Little Moreton Hall intact, but financially they were crippled. They could only dispose of several parcels of land. William Moreton died in 1654 leaving debts of £3,000–£4,000, which forced his heirs to remortgage what remained of the estate; the family's fortunes never recovered, by the late 1670s they no longer lived in Little Moreton Hall, renting it out instead to a series of tenant farmers.
The Dale family took over the tenancy in 1841, were still in residence more than 100 years later. By 1847 most of the house was unoccupied, the deconsecrated Chapel was being used as a coal cellar and storeroom. Little Moreto
Corey Hughes is an Australian former professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1990s and 2000s. A City New South Wales representative hooker, he played in the National Rugby League for Canterbury-Bankstown and Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks. Corey Hughes is the youngest brother of Glen Hughes and Steven Hughes, he is the son of Garry Hughes. Hughes was born in Australia. Hughes made his first grade debut for Canterbury in round 8 of the 1998 NRL season against the Adelaide Rams at Belmore Oval, scoring a try during a 30-4 victory. In the 1998 NRL season, Hughes played 15 games as Canterbury finished 9th on the table and qualified for the finals. Canterbury proceeded to make the 1998 NRL Grand Final after winning 4 sudden death elimination matches in a row including the club's famous preliminary final victory over rivals Parramatta, considered to be one of the greatest comebacks of all time. After being 18-2 down with less than 10 minutes remaining, Canterbury scored 3 tries to take the game into extra-time before winning the match 32-20.
The following week, Hughes played for Canterbury at five-eighth in their loss at the 1998 NRL grand final to the Brisbane Broncos. In the 2002 NRL season, Hughes played 24 games as the club went undefeated through most of the year winning their first 16 games, it was revealed that Canterbury had exceeded the NRL's salary cap by $2 million over 3 years including undisclosed payments made to players. As a result, the NRL fined Canterbury $500,000 and stripped them of all their 37 competition points meaning that the club would finish the 2002 season with the wooden spoon, he played for Canterbury from the interchange bench in their 2004 NRL Grand Final victory over cross-town rivals, the Sydney Roosters. As 2004 NRL premiers, the Canterbury faced Super League IX champions, the Leeds Rhinos in the 2005 World Club Challenge. Hughes played at half back in the Canterbury's 32-39 loss. In 2005, Hughes was involved in a brawl at the Kembla Grange Racecourse after being taunted by opposition supporters.
He was refused to pay it. Hughes signed a one-year deal with the Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks for 2009 and retired at the end of the year. NRL profile
Art Gilkey was an American geologist and mountaineer. Gilkey was born on September 25, 1926, in Boulder, Colorado, to Herbert J. Gilkey and Mildred Gilkey, was raised in Ames, where his father was a professor of Engineering, he earned a Bachelor's of Science degree from Iowa State in 1949 and, after a tour of duty in the Navy during World War II, began graduate study in Geology at Columbia University, where he earned a Master of Science degree in 1950. Prior to his death, Gilkey had completed his doctoral dissertation, “Fracture Pattern of the Zuni Uplift,” and was posthumously awarded a Ph. D, he explored Alaska in 1950 and 1952. He died during the 1953 American expedition to summit K2. At Camp III, he came down with thrombophlebitis or deep venous thrombosis, followed by pulmonary embolism, his fellow expedition members, including Charles Houston and Pete Schoening turned back in an attempt to save his life. During the descent, wrapped in a sleeping bag disappeared, it is believed he was swept away by an avalanche, but others conjecture that he untied himself from the ropes to spare his teammates from further risk on his behalf.
Gilkey's remains were discovered in 1993, melting out of the glacier at the base of the south face of K2. The current memorial to deceased climbers situated below K2 was built for, named after, Art Gilkey; the American Alpine Club administers the Arthur K. Gilkey Memorial Award, providing grants in aid of scientific research in alpine areas
Global Open Data for Agriculture and Nutrition is an initiative that seeks to "support global efforts to make agricultural and nutritionally relevant data available and usable for unrestricted use worldwide. The initiative focuses on building high-level policy as well as public and private institutional support for open data."The initiative was launched in 2013, one year after the G8 summit in 2012 where G-8 leaders "committed to the New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition as the next phase of a shared commitment to achieving global food security."According to the Open Data Institute and other stakeholders on the agriculture supply chain can make more informed decisions resulting in improved yields and efficiency – from farm to fork, when they have free access to useful information on agriculture and nutrition. GODAN and its partners aim to support the open data revolution and hosted the 2016 GODAN summit in New York in September. GODAN has over 400 partners from government and private organisations around the world.
In the bid to support the open data revolution, the UK Department for Environment and Rural Affairs made over 8,000 data sets available for free use in June 2015. The GODAN secretariat has been hosted by CABI in Wallingford, UK since 2014, its research and partnerships offices are based in Wageningen and Rome, Italy. "The GODAN Secretariat states that it has an estimated five year budget of $8.5 million, with five full time employees. GODAN states that its activities and Secretariat are financially supported by the US Government, the UK Department for International Development, the Government of the Netherlands, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation ACP-EU, Global Forum on Agricultural Research, The Open Data Institute, the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research and the CABI." The GODAN Secretariat is governed by a group of GODAN partners including the US Government, the UK's DFID, the Netherlands Government, the Open Data Institute, FAO, CTA, CABI, CGIAR and GFAR.
In September 2016, GODAN held a two-day summit in New York described as “the largest event of its kind”, with the aim of raising awareness of the call for making agricultural and nutrition data open. The event featured high profile guests including U. S. Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack and Willy Bett, Kenyan Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries. Official website Open Data Institute Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International