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Sub-brown dwarf

A sub-brown dwarf or planetary-mass brown dwarf is an astronomical object that formed in the same manner as stars and brown dwarfs but that has a mass below the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium. Some researchers call them free-floating planets whereas others call them planetary-mass brown dwarfs. Sub-brown dwarfs are formed in the manner of stars, through the collapse of a gas cloud but there is no consensus amongst astronomers on whether the formation process should be taken into account when classifying an object as a planet. Free-floating sub-brown dwarfs can be observationally indistinguishable from rogue planets, which formed around a star and were ejected from orbit. A sub-brown dwarf formed free-floating in a star cluster may be captured into orbit around a star, making distinguishing sub-brown dwarfs and large planets difficult. A definition for the term "sub-brown dwarf" was put forward by the IAU Working Group on Extra-Solar Planets, which defined it as a free-floating body found in young star clusters below the lower mass cut-off of brown dwarfs.

The smallest mass of gas cloud that could collapse to form a sub-brown dwarf is about 1 Jupiter mass. This is because to collapse by gravitational contraction requires radiating away energy as heat and this is limited by the opacity of the gas. A 3 MJ candidate is described in a 2007 paper. There is no consensus whether these companions of stars should be considered sub-brown dwarfs or planets. WD 0806-661 B DT Virginis c FW Tauri b HD 106906 b ROXs 42Bb There is no consensus whether these companions of brown dwarfs should be considered sub-brown dwarfs or planets; the 5–10MJ companion of 2MASS J04414489+2301513 2M1207b Also called Rogue planets: WISE 0855–0714 3–10 MJ about 7 light years away S Ori 52 UGPS J072227.51-054031.2 10–25 MJ 13 light years away Cha 110913-773444 5–15 MJ 163 light years away CFBDSIR2149-0403 4–7 MJ 130 light years away OTS 44 11.5 MJ 550 light years away Brown dwarf Giant planet Hot Jupiter Red dwarf Rogue planet List of planet types

A Splendid Hazard

A Splendid Hazard is a 1920 American silent drama film directed by Allan Dwan and starring Henry B. Walthall; the film is based on the 1910 book of the same name. The film was produced by the Mayflower Photoplay Company, it is not known whether the film survives. The main charter Karl Breitman thinks he is a descendant of Napoleon and tries bring back to France the French monarchy; as part of his plot he courts Hedda Gobert. After winning Hedda heart he takes the documents from her, he travels to America to visit Admiral Killigrew. He hopes, he finds a treasure map in the Admiral's home and travels to Corsica. Before finding the Napoleon wealth, he comes across someone, he challenges them to a duel. In the duel he is mortally wounded, he dies at Hedda. Henry B. Walthall as Karl Breitman Rosemary Theby as Hedda Gobert Norman Kerry as John Fitzgerald Ann Forrest as Laura Killigrew Hardee Kirkland as Adm. Killegrew Thomas Jefferson as Dr. Ferraud Philo McCullough as Arthur Cathewe J. Jiquel Lanoe as Jiquel Lanoe Joseph J. Dowling as Joseph Dowling A Splendid Hazard on IMDb

1925 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final

The 1925 Central Council Tournament Final was not the All-Ireland Final as is sometimes stated. It had no bearing on the destination of the 1925 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, an inter-county Gaelic football tournament for the top teams in Ireland. While Galway's All-Ireland title was not on the line, there was prestige to play for, the chance to prove that they were worthy champions; this All-Ireland final was the last game of a second championship played in lieu of the original, in which Galway were made champions after Kerry and Cavan were disqualified. Galway's first All-Ireland football title, it followed two previous losing appearances in the final. "Kerry's Victory" on YouTube, a British Pathé newsreel of the game