click links in text for more info

Sub-orbital spaceflight

A sub-orbital spaceflight is a spaceflight in which the spacecraft reaches outer space, but its trajectory intersects the atmosphere or surface of the gravitating body from which it was launched, so that it will not complete one orbital revolution. For example, the path of an object launched from Earth that reaches the Kármán line, falls back to Earth, is considered a sub-orbital spaceflight; some sub-orbital flights have been undertaken to test spacecraft and launch vehicles intended for orbital spaceflight. Other vehicles are designed only for sub-orbital flight. Flights which attain sufficient velocity to go into low Earth orbit, de-orbit before completing their first full orbit, are not considered sub-orbital. Examples of this include Yuri Gagarin's Vostok 1, flights of the Fractional Orbital Bombardment System. A flight that does not reach space is still sometimes called suborbital, but is not a'suborbital spaceflight'. A rocket is used, but experimental sub-orbital spaceflight has been achieved with a space gun.

By one definition a sub-orbital spaceflight reaches an altitude higher than 100 km above sea level. This altitude, known as the Kármán line, was chosen by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale because it is the point where a vehicle flying fast enough to support itself with aerodynamic lift from the Earth's atmosphere would be flying faster than orbital speed; the US military and NASA award astronaut wings to those flying above 50 mi, although the U. S. State Department appears to not support a distinct boundary between atmospheric flight and spaceflight. During freefall the trajectory is part of an elliptic orbit as given by the orbit equation; the perigee distance is less than the radius of the Earth R including atmosphere, hence the ellipse intersects the Earth, hence the spacecraft will fail to complete an orbit. The major axis is vertical, the semi-major axis a is more than R/2; the specific orbital energy ϵ is given by: ε = − μ 2 a > − μ R where μ is the standard gravitational parameter.

Always a < R, corresponding to a lower ϵ than the minimum for a full orbit, − μ 2 R Thus the net extra specific energy needed compared to just raising the spacecraft into space is between 0 and μ 2 R. To minimize the required delta-v, the high-altitude part of the flight is made with the rockets off; the maximum speed in a flight is attained at the lowest altitude of this free-fall trajectory, both at the start and at the end of it. If one's goal is to "reach space", for example in competing for the Ansari X Prize, horizontal motion is not needed. In this case the lowest required delta-v, to reach 100 km altitude, is about 1.4 km/s. Moving slower, with less free-fall, would require more delta-v. Compare this with orbital spaceflights: a low Earth orbit, with an altitude of about 300 km, needs a speed around 7.7 km/s, requiring a delta-v of about 9.2 km/s. For sub-orbital spaceflights covering a horizontal distance the maximum speed and required delta-v are in between those of a vertical flight and a LEO.

The maximum speed at the lower ends of the trajectory are now composed of a horizontal and a vertical component. The higher the horizontal distance covered, the greater the horizontal speed will be. For the V-2 rocket, just reaching space but with a range of about 330 km, the maximum speed was 1.6 km/s. Scaled Composites SpaceShipTwo, under development will have a similar free-fall orbit but the announced maximum speed is 1.1 km/s. For larger ranges, due to the elliptic orbit the maximum altitude can be much more than for a LEO. On a 10,000-km intercontinental flight, such as that of an intercontinental ballistic missile or possible future commercial spaceflight, the maximum speed is about 7 km/s, the maximum altitude may be more than 1300 km. Any spaceflight that returns to the surface, including sub-orbital ones, will undergo atmospheric reentry; the speed at the start of the reentry is the maximum speed of the flight. The aerodynamic heating caused will vary accordingly: it is much less for a flight with a maximum speed of only 1 km/s than for one with a maximum speed of 7 or 8 km/s.

The minimum delta-v and the corresponding maximum altitude for a given range can be calculated, d, assuming a spherical Earth of circumference 40 000 km and neglecting the earth's rotation and atmosphere. Let θ be half the angle that the projectile is to go around the earth, so in degrees it is 45°×d/10 000 km; the minimum-delta-v trajectory corresponds to an ellipse with one focus at the centre of the Earth and

Thornton v Shoe Lane Parking Ltd

Thornton v Shoe Lane Parking Ltd EWCA Civ 2 is a leading English contract law case. It gives a good example of the rule that a clause cannot be incorporated after a contract has been concluded, without reasonable notice before, it was held that an automatic ticket machine was an offer, rather than an invitation to treat. Although the case is important for these two propositions, today any exclusion of negligence liability for personal injury by businesses is prohibited by the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 s 2 and the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations 1999 Sch 2, para. Francis Thornton, "a free lance trumpeter of the highest quality", drove to the entrance of the multi-storey car park on Shoe Lane, before attending a performance at Farringdon Hall with the BBC, he parked his car. It said "this ticket is issued subject to the conditions of issue as displayed on the premises", and on the car park pillars near the paying office there was a list, one excluding liability for "injury to the Customer… howsoever that loss, damage or injury shall be caused".

Three hours he had an accident before getting into his car. The car park argued. Lord Denning MR held that the better notice of it needed to be given. Moreover, the contract was concluded when the ticket came out of the machine, so any condition on it could not be incorporated in the contract. Megaw LJ and Sir Gordon Wilmer agreed with the onerous point, but reserved their opinions on where the contract was concluded. Furthermore, Sir Gordon Wilmer distinguished this from the other ticket cases based upon the fact that a human clerk proffered the ticket and the buyer had the opportunity to say I do not like those conditions; the car park at Shoe Lane was demolished in early 2014. Parker v South Eastern Railway Company 2 CPD 416 Chapelton v Barry UDC 1 KB 532 Olley v Marlborough Court Hotel 1 KB 532 J Spurling Ltd v Bradshaw 1 WLR 461 Interfoto Picture Library Ltd v Stiletto Visual Programmes Ltd QB 433 George Mitchell v Finney Lock Seeds Ltd QB 284 Full text of the decision at BAILII

Virtua Fighter

Virtua Fighter is a series of fighting games created by Sega-AM2 and designers Yu Suzuki and Seiichi Ishii. The original Virtua Fighter was released in November 28, 1993 and has received four main sequels and several spin-offs; the influential first Virtua Fighter game is recognized as the first 3D fighting game released. Similar to most other fighting games, the default gameplay system of the Virtua Fighter series involves two combatants needing to win two of three rounds, with each round being 30 seconds long or more. If a character is knocked out of the ring, the opponent wins the round. A fourth round is necessary if a double knockout occurred in a previous round and the match is tied one round each. In this fourth round, players fight on a small stage; the basic control scheme is simple, using three buttons. Through various timings and button combinations, players input normal and special moves for each character. Traditionally, in the single-player mode, the player runs a gauntlet of characters in the game all the way to the final boss.

The following is a list of games in the Virtua Fighter series: Virtua Fighter – Arcade, Sega Saturn, Sega 32X Virtua Fighter Remix – Saturn, Windows Virtua Fighter 10th Anniversary – PlayStation 2 Virtua Fighter 2 – Arcade, Sega Genesis, Windows Virtua Fighter 2.1 – Arcade, Windows, PlayStation 2, Xbox 360, PlayStation 3 Virtua Fighter CG Portrait Series – Saturn Virtua Fighter AnimationGame Gear, Master System Virtua Fighter Kids – Arcade, Saturn Fighters Megamix – Saturn Virtua Fighter 3 – Arcade Virtua Fighter 3tb – Arcade, Dreamcast Virtua Fighter 4 – Arcade, PlayStation 2 Virtua Fighter 4: Evolution – Arcade, PlayStation 2 Virtua Fighter 4: Final Tuned – Arcade Virtua QuestGameCube, PlayStation 2 Virtua Fighter 5 – Arcade, PlayStation 3 Virtua Fighter 5 Online – Xbox 360 Virtua Fighter 5 R – Arcade Virtua Fighter 5 Final Showdown – Arcade, Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4 Virtua Fighter: Cool Champ – Mobile Virtua Fighter: Fever Combo – Mobile The brainchild of Sega AM2's Yu Suzuki, Virtua Fighter was released in 1993 as an arcade game using hardware jointly developed by aerospace technology firm Lockheed Martin and Sega, dubbed the Model 1.

It is considered the first polygon-based fighting game. It introduced the eight initial fighters as well as Dural. Virtua Fighter 2 was released in November 1994, adding two new fighters: Lion Rafale, it was built using the Model 2 hardware, rendering characters and backgrounds with filtered texture mapping and motion capture. A slightly-tweaked upgrade, Virtua Fighter 2.1, followed soon after. Virtua Fighter 3 came out with the introduction of Taka-Arashi and Aoi Umenokoji. Aside from improving the graphics via use of the Model 3, the game introduced undulations in some stages and a fourth button, Dodge. Virtua Fighter 3tb in 1997 was the first major update in series history, implementing tournament battles featuring more than two characters. Virtua Fighter 4, which introduced Vanessa Lewis and Lei-Fei and removed Taka-Arashi, was released on the NAOMI 2 hardware in 2001 instead of hardware from a joint collaboration with Lockheed Martin; the game removed the uneven battlegrounds and the Dodge button from the previous game.

The title is popular in its home arcade market. Virtua Fighter 4: Evolution, released in 2002, was the first update to add new characters, these being Brad Burns and Goh Hinogami. Virtua Fighter 4: Final Tuned, an upgrade to Evolution, was released in the arcades in 2004. In Japan, Virtua Fighter 4 was famous for spearheading and opening the market for internet functionality in arcades. VF. NET started in Japan in 2001, since companies have created their own arcade networks, E-Amusement by Konami, NESiCAxLive by Taito and Square Enix, ALL. Net by Sega. Virtua Fighter 5 was released in Japan on July 12, 2006 for Sega's Lindbergh arcade board and introduced yet two more new characters, Eileen and El Blaze. Similar to its predecessor, two revisions were released. Virtua Fighter 5 R, released on July 24, 2008, saw the return of Taka-Arashi while introducing a new fighter, Jean Kujo. Virtua Fighter 5 Final Showdown was released in arcades on July 29, 2010; the first Virtua Fighter game was ported to the Saturn in 1994, just months before fellow 3D-fighter Tekken was released.

The console port, nearly identical to the arcade game, sold at a nearly 1:1 ratio with the Saturn hardware at launch. The port of Virtua Fighter 2 on the Saturn for Christmas 1995 was considered faithful to the arcade original. While the game's 3D backgrounds were now rendered in 2D, resulting in some scenery such as the bridge in Shun Di's river stage being removed, the remainder of the game was kept intact, it became the top-selling Saturn game in Japan. Ports of the original Virtua Fighter and Virtua Fighter 2 with enhanced graphics were released for the PC. Virtua Fighter 2 was remade as a 2D fighter for the Mega Drive/Genesis in 1996, omitting the characters Shun and Lion, re-released on the PlayStation 2 as a part of the Sega Ages series. Yakuza


Erpetosuchus is an extinct genus of pseudosuchian from the Late Triassic. The type species of Erpetosuchus is E. granti. It was first described by E. T. Newton in 1894 for remains found in northeastern Scotland, including four specimens from the latest Carnian Lossiemouth Sandstone Formation. Additional remains of Erpetosuchus have been found in the New Haven Formation of Connecticut in the eastern United States, although they were not attributed to the species E. granti. The relationship of Erpetosuchus to other archosaurs is uncertain. In 2000 and 2002, it was considered a close relative of the group Crocodylomorpha, which includes living crocodylians and many extinct relatives. However, this relationship was questioned in a 2012 analysis that found the phylogenetic placement of Erpetosuchus to be uncertain; the first remains of Erpetosuchus were found in the Lossiemouth Sandstone Formation in Scotland, dating back to the late Carnian stage of the Late Triassic. The holotype specimen consists of a skull and a partial postcranial skeleton.

During a field trip in 1995 to the lower part of the New Haven Formation in Connecticut, American palaeontologist Paul E. Olsen discovered a partial skull that, after preparation and description in 2000, was referable to Erpetosuchus; this was the first record of Erpetosuchus outside Scotland. The specimen has been given the number AMNH 29300, besides the right side of the skull has some vertebrae and indeterminate bones associated. Dating of the lower portion of the New Haven Formation indicates a Norian age. Erpetosuchus granti was assigned to Thecodontia, but that name is no longer considered valid in scientific literature because it is a paraphyletic group of early archosaurs. A more recent phylogenetic analysis by Olsen et al. found E. granti to be the sister-taxon to the Crocodylomorpha. These were united in a clade by the following synapomorphies: Medial contact of the maxillae to form a secondary bony palate Absence of a postfrontal bone at the top of the skull Parietal bones fused without a trace of a suture between themBenton and Walker found the same sister-group relationship and proposed the name Bathyotica for the clade containing Erpetosuchus and Crocodylomorpha.

Nesbitt and Butler included Erpetosuchus within a more comprehensive phylogenetic analysis and found it to group with the archosaur Parringtonia from the Middle Triassic of Tanzania. Both were part of the clade Erpetosuchidae. Nesbitt and Butler did not find support for the sister-group relationship between Erpetosuchus and Crocodylomorpha. Instead, erpetosuchids formed a polytomy or unresolved evolutionary relationship at the base of Archosauria along with several other groups, it could take many positions within Archosauria, but none were as a sister taxon of Crocodylomorpha

Human User Interface Protocol

Human User Interface Protocol is a proprietary MIDI communications protocol for interfacing between a hardware audio control surface and digital audio workstation software. It was first created by Mackie and Digidesign in 1997 for use with Pro Tools, is now part of the Mackie Control Universal protocol. HUI protocol allows a digital audio workstation and a connected hardware control surface to exchange MIDI signals that synchronize the states of their sliders, buttons and displays; the user can write console automation which can be seen in the DAW. It includes support for 10-bit/1,024 discrete values; the HUI protocol was created jointly by Mackie and Digidesign in 1997 for Mackie's Human User Interface, the first non-Digidesign hardware control surface for Digidesign’s Pro Tools. It was subsequently implemented by hardware controllers from manufacturers such as Solid State Logic, Yamaha, TASCAM, Novation. By the time Mackie introduced the Baby HUI in August 2002, the protocol was supported by DAWs including Digital Performer and Nuendo, making them cross-compatible with HUI-compatible hardware controllers.

Other DAWs to support HUI protocol include Logic Pro, REAPER, Cakewalk Sonar. In 2003, the Mackie Control Universal protocol was introduced, combining together functionality from Mackie Control, Logic Control and HUI into a single protocol. DAWs which support MCU include Ableton Live, Studio One and Reason

Michael Begley (politician)

Michael Begley was an Irish Fine Gael politician. He was elected as a Fine Gael Teachta Dála for the Kerry South constituency between 1969 and 1989, he served as a Minister of State in a number of government departments. Born in Dingle, County Kerry in 1932 to a farming family, Begley was a carpenter and secondary school teacher before entering national politics. Prior to his election as a TD, Begley was elected to Kerry County Council and subsequently served as chairman of the council in 1966–67, he was first elected to Dáil Éireann on his third attempt at the 1969 general election for Kerry South. Four years in 1973 Fine Gael came to power in coalition government with the Labour Party and Begley was appointed as Minister of State with responsibility for Local Government. In 1975 Begley became Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Finance following the death of Henry Kenny, he served in that position until 1977. In 1981 he became a Junior Minister for the Department of Industry and Commerce in the government of Garret FitzGerald.

He served in this capacity until 1982. Begley remained a TD until losing his seat at the 1989 general election to the Labour Party's Michael Moynihan, he retired from politics. Michael Begley died aged 79 at his home in Dingle. Tributes were paid among many politicians including Tánaiste Eamon Gilmore