Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras
The Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1995, the first-ever property to be included in the cultural landscape category of the World Heritage List. This inscription has five sites: the Batad Rice Terraces, Bangaan Rice Terraces, Mayoyao Rice Terraces, Hungduan Rice Terraces and Nagacadan Rice Terraces, all in the Ifugao Province, the Philippines; the Ifugao Rice Terraces reach a higher altitude and were built on steeper slopes than many other terraces. The Ifugao complex of stone or mud walls and the careful carving of the natural contours of hills and mountains to make terraced pond fields, coupled with the development of intricate irrigation systems, harvesting water from the forests of the mountain tops, an elaborate farming system; the Ifugao Rice Terraces illustrate the remarkable ability of human culture to adapt to new social and climate pressures as well as to implement and develop new ideas and technologies. Although listed by the UNESCO as a World Heritage site believed to be older than 2,000 years, there are some conflicting recent studies that report they may be less than 1,000 years old.
Maintenance of the living rice terraces reflects a cooperative approach of the whole community, based on detailed knowledge of the rich diversity of biological resources existing in the Ifugao agro-ecosystem, a finely tuned annual system respecting lunar cycles and planning, extensive soil conservation, mastery of a complex pest control regime based on the processing of a variety of herbs, accompanied by religious rituals. The rice terraces of the Cordilleras are one of the few monuments in the Philippines that show no evidence of having been influenced by colonial cultures. Owing to the difficult terrain, the Cordillera tribes are among the few peoples of the Philippines who have resisted any foreign domination and have preserved their authentic tribal culture; the history of the terraces is intertwined with that of its people, their culture, their traditional practices. Apart from the idjang stone-fortresses of the Ivatan of the Batanes, the terraces, which spread over five present-day provinces, are the only other only form of surviving stone construction from the pre-colonial period.
The Philippines alone among south-east Asian cultures is a wood-based one: unlike Cambodia, Indonesia, or Thailand, for example, in the Philippines both domestic buildings and ritual structures such as temples and shrines were all built in wood, a tradition that has survived in the terrace hamlets. It is believed that terracing began in the Cordilleras less than one thousand years ago as taro cultivation, it is evidence of a high level of knowledge of structural and hydraulic engineering on the part of the Ifugao builders. The knowledge and practices, supported by rituals, involved in maintaining the terraces are transferred orally from generation to generation, without written records. Taro was replaced by rice around 1600 A. D., the predominant crop today. The five clusters inscribed as part of the Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras are Batad, Hungduan, Mayoyao Central and Nagacadan. Batad and Bangaan are under the jurisdiction of the Municipality of Banaue but are not referred to as the Banaue Rice Terraces.
The Banaue Rice Terraces refer to the cluster close to the Banaue poblacion as seen from the viewpoint. Contrary to popular belief, these terraces are not part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, they were not included in the UNESCO inscription due to the presence of numerous modern structures, making it score low in the integrity criterion of UNESCO. The Banaue Rice Terraces are however a National Cultural Treasure under Ifugao Rice Terraces, together with the other rice terraces clusters. Batad Rice Terraces Bangaan Rice Terraces Mayoyao Rice Terraces Hungduan Rice Terraces Nagacadan Rice Terraces For more information on the Ifugao Rice Terraces see: Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems All located in the Ifugao region, the Rice Terraces feature as one of the Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Sites or GIAHS, they are supported by indigenous knowledge management of muyong, a private forest that caps each terrace cluster. The muyong is managed under traditional tribal practices.
The communally managed forestry area on top of the terraces contains about 264 indigenous plant species endemic to the region. The terraces are part of the whole mountain ecology, they are saturated with irrigation water all year round. A biorhythm technology, in which cultural activities are harmonized with the rhythm of climate and hydrology management, has enabled farmers to grow rice at over 1 000 meters. Aside from the Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras, UNESCO inscribed the Hudhud Chants of the Ifugao, another National Cultural Treasure, on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2008; the Hudhud consists of narrative chants performed by elder Ifugao women during the rice sowing season, at harvest time and at funeral wakes and rituals. The Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras were named as a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO World Heritage Centre in 1995, it has passed by UNESCO’s standards due to the blending of the physical, socio-cultural, economic and political environment as a living cultural landscape.
In 2000, the site was inscribed as one of the most endangered cultural site
Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. Characteristics central to capitalism include private property, capital accumulation, wage labor, voluntary exchange, a price system, competitive markets. In a capitalist market economy, decision-making and investment are determined by every owner of wealth, property or production ability in financial and capital markets, whereas prices and the distribution of goods and services are determined by competition in goods and services markets. Economists, political economists and historians have adopted different perspectives in their analyses of capitalism and have recognized various forms of it in practice; these include welfare capitalism and state capitalism. Different forms of capitalism feature varying degrees of free markets, public ownership, obstacles to free competition and state-sanctioned social policies; the degree of competition in markets, the role of intervention and regulation, the scope of state ownership vary across different models of capitalism.
The extent to which different markets are free as well as the rules defining private property are matters of politics and policy. Most existing capitalist economies are mixed economies, which combine elements of free markets with state intervention and in some cases economic planning. Market economies have existed under many forms of government and in many different times and cultures. Modern capitalist societies—marked by a universalization of money-based social relations, a large and system-wide class of workers who must work for wages, a capitalist class which owns the means of production—developed in Western Europe in a process that led to the Industrial Revolution. Capitalist systems with varying degrees of direct government intervention have since become dominant in the Western world and continue to spread. Over time, capitalist countries have experienced consistent economic growth and an increase in the standard of living. Critics of capitalism argue that it establishes power in the hands of a minority capitalist class that exists through the exploitation of the majority working class and their labor.
Supporters argue that it provides better products and innovation through competition, disperses wealth to all productive people, promotes pluralism and decentralization of power, creates strong economic growth, yields productivity and prosperity that benefit society. The term "capitalist", meaning an owner of capital, appears earlier than the term "capitalism" and it dates back to the mid-17th century. "Capitalism" is derived from capital, which evolved from capitale, a late Latin word based on caput, meaning "head"—also the origin of "chattel" and "cattle" in the sense of movable property. Capitale emerged in the 12th to 13th centuries in the sense of referring to funds, stock of merchandise, sum of money or money carrying interest. By 1283, it was used in the sense of the capital assets of a trading firm and it was interchanged with a number of other words—wealth, funds, assets, property and so on; the Hollandische Mercurius uses "capitalists" in 1654 to refer to owners of capital. In French, Étienne Clavier referred to capitalistes in 1788, six years before its first recorded English usage by Arthur Young in his work Travels in France.
In his Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, David Ricardo referred to "the capitalist" many times. Samuel Taylor Coleridge, an English poet, used "capitalist" in his work Table Talk. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon used the term "capitalist" in his first work, What is Property?, to refer to the owners of capital. Benjamin Disraeli used the term "capitalist" in his 1845 work Sybil; the initial usage of the term "capitalism" in its modern sense has been attributed to Louis Blanc in 1850 and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in 1861. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels referred to the "capitalistic system" and to the "capitalist mode of production" in Capital; the use of the word "capitalism" in reference to an economic system appears twice in Volume I of Capital, p. 124 and in Theories of Surplus Value, tome II, p. 493. Marx did not extensively use the form capitalism, but instead those of capitalist and capitalist mode of production, which appear more than 2,600 times in the trilogy The Capital. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term "capitalism" first appeared in English in 1854 in the novel The Newcomes by novelist William Makepeace Thackeray, where he meant "having ownership of capital".
According to the OED, Carl Adolph Douai, a German American socialist and abolitionist, used the phrase "private capitalism" in 1863. Capitalism in its modern form can be traced to the emergence of agrarian capitalism and mercantilism in the early Renaissance, in city states like Florence. Capital has existed incipiently on a small scale for centuries in the form of merchant and lending activities and as small-scale industry with some wage labour. Simple commodity exchange and simple commodity production, which are the initial basis for the growth of capital from trade, have a long history. Classical Islam promulgated capitalist economic policies such as free banking, their use of Indo-Arabic
Sustainable living describes a lifestyle that attempts to reduce an individual's or society's use of the Earth's natural resources, one's personal resources. Its practitioners attempt to reduce their carbon footprint by altering their methods of transportation, energy consumption, and/or diet, its proponents aim to conduct their lives in ways that are consistent with sustainability balanced, respectful of humanity's symbiotic relationship with the Earth's natural ecology. The practice and general philosophy of ecological living follows the overall principles of sustainable development. Lester R. Brown, a prominent environmentalist and founder of the Worldwatch Institute and Earth Policy Institute, describes sustainable living in the twenty-first century as "shifting to a renewable energy-based, reuse/recycle economy with a diversified transport system." Derrick Jensen, a celebrated American author, radical environmentalist and prominent critic of mainstream environmentalism argues that "industrial civilization is not and can never be sustainable".
From this statement, the natural conclusion is that sustainable living is at odds with industrialization. Thus, practitioners of the philosophy face the challenge of living in an industrial society and adapting alternative norms, technologies, or practices. Additionally, practical ecovillage builders like Living Villages maintain that the shift to alternative technologies will only be successful if the resultant built environment is attractive to a local culture and can be maintained and adapted as necessary over multiple generations. Sustainable living is fundamentally the application of sustainability to lifestyle choice and decisions. One conception of sustainable living expresses what it means in triple-bottom-line terms as meeting present ecological and economical needs without compromising these factors for future generations. Another broader conception describes sustainable living in terms of four interconnected social domains: economics, ecology and culture. In the first conception, sustainable living can be described as living within the innate carrying capacities defined by these factors.
In the second or Circles of Sustainability conception, sustainable living can be described as negotiating the relationships of needs within limits across all the interconnected domains of social life, including consequences for future human generations and non-human species. Sustainable design and sustainable development are critical factors to sustainable living. Sustainable design encompasses the development of appropriate technology, a staple of sustainable living practices. Sustainable development in turn is the use of these technologies in infrastructure. Sustainable architecture and agriculture are the most common examples of this practice. 1954 The publication of Living the Good Life by Helen and Scott Nearing marked the beginning of the modern day sustainable living movement. The publication paved the way for the "back-to-the-land movement" in early 1970s. 1962 The publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson marked another major milestone for the sustainability movement. 1972 Donella Meadows wrote the international bestseller The Limits to Growth, which reported on a study of long-term global trends in population and the environment.
It was translated into 28 languages. 1973 E. F. Schumacher published a collection of essays on shifting towards sustainable living through the appropriate use of technology in his book Small is Beautiful. 1992–2002 The United Nations held a series of conferences, which focused on increasing sustainability within societies to conserve the Earth's natural resources. The Earth Summit conferences were held in 1992, 1972 and 2002. 2007 the United Nations published Sustainable Consumption and Production, Promoting Climate-Friendly Household Consumption Patterns, which promoted sustainable lifestyles in communities and homes. On a global scale, shelter is associated with about 25% of the greenhouse gas emissions embodied in household purchases and 26% of households' land use. Sustainable homes are built using sustainable methods and facilitate green practices, enabling a more sustainable lifestyle, their construction and maintenance have neutral impacts on the Earth. If necessary, they are close in proximity to essential services such as grocery stores, daycares, work, or public transit making it possible to commit to sustainable transportation choices.
Sometimes, they are off-the-grid homes that do not require any public energy, water, or sewer service. If not off-the-grid, sustainable homes may be linked to a grid supplied by a power plant, using sustainable power sources, buying power as is normal convention. Additionally, sustainable homes may be connected to a grid, but generate their own electricity through renewable means and sell any excess to a utility. There are two common methods to approaching this option: double metering. Net metering uses the common meter, installed in most homes, running forward when power is used from the grid, running backward when power is put into the grid. Power companies can purchase the power, put back into the grid, as it is being produced. Double metering involves installing two meters: one measuring electricity consumed, the other measuring electricity created. Additionally, or in place of selling their renewable energy, sustainable home owners may choose to bank their excess energy by using it to charge bat
A cash crop or profit crop is an agricultural crop, grown to sell for profit. It is purchased by parties separate from a farm; the term is used to differentiate marketed crops from subsistence crops, which are those fed to the producer's own livestock or grown as food for the producer's family. In earlier times cash crops were only a small part of a farm's total yield, while today in developed countries all crops are grown for revenue. In the least developed countries, cash crops are crops which attract demand in more developed nations, hence have some export value. Prices for major cash crops are set in commodity markets with global scope, with some local variation based on freight costs and local supply and demand balance. A consequence of this is that a nation, region, or individual producer relying on such a crop may suffer low prices should a bumper crop elsewhere lead to excess supply on the global markets; this system has been criticized by traditional farmers. Coffee is an example of a product, susceptible to significant commodity futures price variations.
Issues involving subsidies and trade barriers on such crops have become controversial in discussions of globalization. Many developing countries take the position that the current international trade system is unfair because it has caused tariffs to be lowered in industrial goods while allowing for low tariffs and agricultural subsidies for agricultural goods; this makes it difficult for a developing nation to export its goods overseas, forces developing nations to compete with imported goods which are exported from developed nations at artificially low prices. The practice of exporting at artificially low prices is known as dumping, is illegal in most nations. Controversy over this issue led to the collapse of the Cancún trade talks in 2003, when the Group of 22 refused to consider agenda items proposed by the European Union unless the issue of agricultural subsidies was addressed; the Arctic climate is not conducive for the cultivation of cash crops. However, one potential cash crop for the Arctic is Rhodiola rosea, a hardy plant used as a medicinal herb that grows in the Arctic.
There is consumer demand for the plant, but the available supply is less than the demand. Cash crops grown in regions with a temperate climate include many cereals, oil-yielding crops, tree fruit or top fruit and soft fruit. In regions with a subtropical climate, oil-yielding crops and some vegetables and herbs are the predominant cash crops. In regions with a tropical climate, cocoa, sugar cane, oranges and jute, are common cash crops; the oil palm is a tropical palm tree, the fruit from it is used to make palm oil. Around 60 percent of African workers are employed in the agricultural sector, with about three-fifths of African farmers being subsistence farmers. For example, in Burkina Faso 85% of its residents are reliant upon cotton production for income, over half of the country's population lives in poverty. Larger farms tend to grow cash crops such as coffee, cotton, cocoa and rubber; these farms operated by large corporations, cover tens of square kilometres and employ large numbers of laborers.
Subsistence farms provide a source of food and a small income for families, but fail to produce enough to make re-investment possible. The situation in which African nations export crops while a significant number of people on the continent struggle with hunger has been blamed on developed countries, including the United States and the European Union; these countries protect their own agricultural sectors, through high import tariffs and offer subsidies to their farmers, which some have contended is leading to the overproduction of commodities such as cotton and milk. The result of this is that the global price of such products is continually reduced until Africans are unable to compete in world markets, except in cash crops that do not grow in temperate climates. Africa has realized significant growth in biofuel plantations, many of which are on lands which were purchased by British companies. Jatropha curcas is a cash crop grown for biofuel production in Africa; some have criticized the practice of raising non-food plants for export while Africa has problems with hunger and food shortages, some studies have correlated the proliferation of land acquisitions for use to grow non-food cash crops with increasing hunger rates in Africa.
Australia produces significant amounts of lentils. It was estimated in 2010 that Australia would produce 143,000 tons of lentils. Most of Australia's lentil harvest is exported to the Middle East. Italy's Cassa per il Mezzogiorno in 1950 led to the government implementing incentives to grow cash crops such as tomatoes and citrus fruits; as a result, they created an over abundance of these crops causing an over saturation of these crops on the global market. This caused these crops to depreciate in value Cash cropping in the United States rose to prominence after the baby boomer generation and the end of World War II, it was seen as a way to feed the large population boom and continues to be the main factor in having an affordable food supply in the United States. According to the 1997 U. S. Census of Agriculture, 90% of the farms in the United States are still owned by families, with an additional 6% owned by a partnership. Cash crop farmers have utilized p
Bhotiya or Bhot are groups of ethno-linguistically related Tibetan people living in the Transhimalayan region of the SAARC countries. The word Bhotiya comes from the classical Tibetan name for Bod; the Bhotiya speak numerous languages including Ladakhi. The Indian recognition of such language is Bhoti / Bhotia having Tibetan scripts and it lies in the Parliament of India to become one of the official languages through Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution; the Bhotiya prefer to be referred as Thakur or Rajvanshi. The Bhotiya may be the original immigrants to north Oudh in the period of Nawab Asaf-Ud-Dowlah; the Bhotiya people are related to several other groups and ethnic boundaries are porous. One group is the Bhutia, the main ethnolinguistic group of the northern part of the Indian state of Sikkim. A second is the Uttarakhand Bhotiya of the upper Himalayan valleys of the Kumaon and the Garhwal divisions of Uttarakhand; these include the Shauka tribe of Kumaon, the Tolchhas and the Marchhas of Garhwal, Gyagar Khampa of Khimling, Bhidang.
A third related group are the Dzongkha speaking Ngalop people, the main ethnolinguistic group of Bhutan. The Bhotiya are related to several dispersed groups in Nepal and the adjacent areas of India including the Tibetans and Sherpas. In Nepal, Bhotiya are 0.1 percent of the population. They live in villages through the Himilayas; the language of the Bhotiya people is Bhotia. It is written in the Tibetan alphabet. Bhoti and Bhotia is spoken in Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Arunachal Pradesh, Nepal and parts of Pakistan and West Bengal. Bhoti is not included in the languages with official status in India. On 27 February 2011, however, a resolution introduced by the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, for the inclusion of the language in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India passed without opposition; the Bhotiya, tribe people are native people belonging to Himalayan Belt. In Nepal they live in the northern and eastern regions of Nepal, where they and other Tibetans are the region's autochthonous people.
The Bhotiya live in the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Tripura. In Uttar Pradesh, the Bhotiya live in the Bahraich, Lakhimpur, Barabanki, Kanpur Nagar, Kanpur Dehat, Kheri districts. Bhotiya have six recognisable sub-groups: the Bhot, the Bhutia of Sikkim, the Tibbati, the Bhut, the Gyakar Khampa of Khimling, Bhidang of Uttarakhand. Bhotiya tribe are natives of other countries outside India and they are in Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Nepal and Tibet. In Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Arunachal Pradesh, the Bhotiya people have Scheduled Tribe status. In Uttarakhand, the Bhotiya are a Scheduled Tribe under the "Schedule caste order 1950, the constitutional Scheduled tribe 1967 SC/ST." The Constitution of India recognizes the Bhotiya. Bhotiya marriages are similar to Hindu weddings; when the bride's palanquin arrives at her husband's house, gods are worshipped and she is admitted to the house.
Rice, silver or gold is put in the hands of bridegroom. She places them in a winnowing fan, hands them as a present to the wife of the barber; this ceremony is known as Karj Bharna. A man may have not more than three wives; the first wife is the head wife, she inherits an additional one tenth of the husband's estate. The Bhotiyas have distinctive funerary traditions. Young children who die of cholera or snakebite are buried. There is no fixed burial ground, no ceremonies are performed at the time of burial; the wealthy keep the ashes for lowal to several streams. After cremation, a stalk of kusha is fixed in the ground near a tank of water and sesamum is poured on it for ten days; this makes it a refuge for the deceased's spirit. Bhotiya Tribe, the natives of the Himalayan belt are maximum Buddhist followers along with followers of other religion. Though most of Bhotiya practice a combination of Tibetan Buddhism and Hinduism. Ancestor worship is prevalent. Buddhist Bhotiyas engage a Lama to perform celebrations.
In Buddhism, correct thinking, ritual sacrifices, self-denial will enable the soul to break the cycle of reincarnation and reach Nirvana at death. Only those who follow the middle way and the noble eight-fold path can achieve that state; the Bhotiya are lamaistic Buddhists. In Uttarakhand, the Bhotiya may acknowledge superstitions, amulets for good luck, curses and witchcraft. Believers may appease their divinities with religious chants and sacrifices; the Buddhist Bhotiyas celebrate the Losar festival during the flowering of the apricot trees in autumn. Incense is offered to appease local deities. In Uttarakhand Chamoli and Uttarkashi, the Bhotiya are nomadic, migratory pastoralists, moving about the border lands between India and Tibet.and live in Pakistan with bhutta and bhutto nameThey are traders in the Himilayas for products such as, cereal and salt. Now, some are farmers and others are merchants of stones and herbs; the Bhotiya are experienced in the use of medicinal plants. The local fermented beverages are jan, daru.
A local fermented food stuff is sez. The traditional catalyzing agent
Forest gardening is a low-maintenance sustainable plant-based food production and agroforestry system based on woodland ecosystems, incorporating fruit and nut trees, herbs and perennial vegetables which have yields directly useful to humans. Making use of companion planting, these can be intermixed to grow in a succession of layers, to build a woodland habitat. Forest gardening is a prehistoric method of securing food in tropical areas. In the 1980s, Robert Hart coined the term "forest gardening" after adapting the principles and applying them to temperate climates. Forest gardens are the world's oldest form of land use and most resilient agroecosystem, they originated in prehistoric times along jungle-clad river banks and in the wet foothills of monsoon regions. In the gradual process of families improving their immediate environment, useful tree and vine species were identified and improved whilst undesirable species were eliminated. Superior foreign species were selected and incorporated into the gardens.
Forest gardens are still common in the tropics and known by various names such as: home gardens in Kerala in South India, Zambia and Tanzania. These are called agroforests and, where the wood components are short-statured, the term shrub garden is employed. Forest gardens have been shown to be a significant source of income and food security for local populations. Robert Hart adapted forest gardening for the United Kingdom's temperate climate during the 1980s, his theories were developed by Martin Crawford from the Agroforestry Research Trust and various permaculturalists such as Graham Bell, Patrick Whitefield, Dave Jacke and Geoff Lawton. Forest gardens, or home gardens, are common in the tropics, using intercropping to cultivate trees and livestock on the same land. In Kerala in south India as well as in northeastern India, the home garden is the most common form of land use and is found in Indonesia. One example combines coconut, black pepper and pineapple; these gardens exemplify polyculture, conserve much crop genetic diversity and heirloom plants that are not found in monocultures.
Forest gardens have been loosely compared to the religious concept of the Garden of Eden. The BBC's Unnatural Histories claimed that the Amazon rainforest, rather than being a pristine wilderness, has been shaped by humans for at least 11,000 years through practices such as forest gardening and terra preta; this was explored in the bestselling book 1491 by author Charles C. Mann. Since the 1970s, numerous geoglyphs have been discovered on deforested land in the Amazon rainforest, furthering the evidence about Pre-Columbian civilizations. On the Yucatán Peninsula, much of the Maya food supply was grown in "orchard-gardens", known as pet kot; the system takes its name from the low wall of stones. The North American ecosystem was managed by the first nations' use of fire to burn underbrush to encourage large game. Large Oak forests harvested for acorns disappeared. Prairie and grasslands were managed by the first nations. In many African countries, for example Zambia, Zimbabwe and Tanzania, gardens are widespread in rural and urban areas and they play an essential role in establishing food security.
Most well known are the Chagga gardens on the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro in Tanzania; these are an excellent example of an agroforestry system. In many countries, women are the main actors in home gardening and food is produced for subsistence. In North-Africa, oasis layered gardening with palm trees, fruit trees and vegetables is a traditional type of forest garden. In Nepal, the Ghar Bagaincha "home garden", refers to the traditional land-use system around a homestead, where several species of plants are grown and maintained by household members and their products are intended for the family consumption; the term “home garden” is considered synonymous to the kitchen garden. However, they differ in terms of function, diversity and features. In Nepal, 72% of households have home gardens of an area 2–11% of the total land holdings; because of their small size, the government has never identified home gardens as an important unit of food production, they thus remain neglected from research and development.
However, at the household level the system is important, as it is an important source of quality food and nutrition for the rural poor and, therefore, is an important contributor to the household food security and livelihoods of farming communities in Nepal. The gardens are cultivated with a mixture of annual and perennial plants that can be harvested on a daily or seasonal basis. Biodiversity that has an immediate value is maintained in home gardens as women and children have easy access to preferred food. Home gardens, with their intensive and multiple uses, provide a safety net for households when food is scarce; these gardens are not only important sources of food, fuel, spices, flowers, construction materials and income in many countries, but they are important for the in situ conservation of a wide range of unique genetic resources for food and agriculture. Many uncultivated, as well as neglected and underutilised species could make an important contribution to the dietary diversity of local communities.
In addition to supplementing diet in times of difficulty, home gardens promote who
Sharecropping is a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land. Sharecropping has a long history and there are a wide range of different situations and types of agreements that have used a form of the system; some are governed by tradition, others by law. Legal contract systems such as the Italian mezzadria, the French métayage, the Spanish mediero, the Slavic połowcy,издoльщина or the Islamic system of muqasat, occur widely. Sharecropping has costs for both the owners and the tenant. Everyone encourages the cropper to remain on the land. At the same time, since the cropper pays in shares of his harvest and croppers share the risks of harvests being large or small and of prices being high or low; because tenants benefit from larger harvests, they have an incentive to work harder and invest in better methods than in a slave plantation system. However, by dividing the working force into many individual workers, large farms no longer benefit from economies of scale.
On the whole, sharecropping was not as economically efficient as the gang agriculture of slave plantations. In the U. S. "tenant" farmers own their own mules and equipment, "sharecroppers" do not, thus sharecroppers are poorer and of lower status. Sharecropping occurred extensively in Scotland and colonial Africa, came into wide use in the Southern United States during the Reconstruction era; the South had been devastated by war – planters had ample land but little money for wages or taxes. At the same time, most of the former slaves had labor but no money and no land – they rejected the kind of gang labor that typified slavery. A solution was the sharecropping system focused on cotton, the only crop that could generate cash for the croppers, landowners and the tax collector. Poor white farmers, who had done little cotton farming, needed cash as well and became sharecroppers. Jeffery Paige made a distinction between centralized sharecropping found on cotton plantations and the decentralized sharecropping with other crops.
The former is characterized by long lasting tenure. Tenants are tied to the landlord through the plantation store, their work is supervised as slave plantations were. This form of tenure tends to be replaced by wage slavery. Decentralized sharecropping involves no role for the landlord: plots are scattered, peasants manage their own labor and the landowners do not manufacture the crops. Leases are short which leads to peasant radicalism; this form of tenure becomes more common. Use of the sharecropper system has been identified in England, it is still used in many rural poor areas of the world today, notably in India. Although there is a perception that sharecropping was exploitative, "evidence from around the world suggests that sharecropping is a way for differently endowed enterprises to pool resources to mutual benefit, overcoming credit restraints and helping to manage risk." According to Dr. Hunter, "a few acres to the cottage would make the labourers too independent."It can have more than a passing similarity to serfdom or indenture where associated with large debts at a plantation store that ties down the workers and their family to the land.
It has therefore been seen as an issue of land reform in contexts such as the Mexican Revolution. However, Nyambara states that Eurocentric historiographical devices such as'feudalism' or'slavery' qualified by weak prefixes like'semi-' or'quasi-' are not helpful in understanding the antecedents and functions of sharecropping in Africa. Sharecropping agreements can, however, be made as a form of tenant farming or sharefarming that has a variable rental payment, paid in arrears. There are three different types of contracts. Workers can keep the whole crop. Workers keep some of the crop. No money changes hands but the land owner each keep a share of the crop; the advantages of sharecropping in other situations include enabling access for women to arable land where ownership rights are vested only in men. It has been pointed out. However, many outside factors make it efficient. One factor is slave emancipation: sharecropping provided the freed slaves of the US, Brazil and the late Roman Empire with land access.
It is efficient as a way of escaping inflation, hence its rise in 16th-century France and Italy. It gave sharecroppers a vested interest in the land, incentivizing hard work and care. However, American plantation were wary of this interest, as they felt that would lead to African Americans demanding rights of partnership. Many black laborers denied the unilateral authority that landowners hoped to achieve, further complicating relations between landowners and sharecroppers. Landlords opt for sharecropping to avoid the administrative costs and shirking that occurs on plantations and haciendas, it is preferred to cash tenancy because cash tenants take all the risks, any harvest failure will hurt them and not the landlord. Therefore, they tend to demand lower rents than sharecroppers; the practice was harmful to tenants with many cases of high interest rates, unpredictable harvests, unscrupulous landlords and merchants keeping tenant farm families indebted. The debt was compounded year on year leaving the cropper vulnerable to intimidation and shortchanging.
It appeared to be inevitable, with no serious altern