Food security is a condition related to the supply of food, and individuals access to it. Concerns over food security have existed throughout history, at the 1974 World Food Conference the term food security was defined with an emphasis on supply. Later definitions added demand and access issues to the definition, household food security exists when all members, at all times, have access to enough food for an active, healthy life. Individuals who are food secure do not live in hunger or fear of starvation, in the years 2011-2013, an estimated 842 million people were suffering from chronic hunger. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, or FAO, identified the four pillars of food security as availability, access and stability. The United Nations recognized the Right to Food in the Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, the 1996 World Summit on Food Security declared that food should not be used as an instrument for political and economic pressure. Food security indicators and measures are derived from country level household income, in general the objective of food security indicators and measures is to capture some or all of the main components of food security in terms of food availability and utilization or adequacy.
While availability and utilization/adequacy seemed much easier to estimate, thus more popular, the factors influencing household food access are often context specific. Household Hunger Scale - measures the experience of household food deprivation based on a set of reactions, captured through a survey. Coping Strategies Index - assesses household behaviours and rates them based on a set of varied established behaviours on how households cope with food shortages. The methodology for research is based on collecting data on a single question, What do you do when you do not have enough food. Food insecurity is measured in the United States by questions in the Census Bureaus Current Population Survey, the FAO, World Food Programme, and International Fund for Agricultural Development collaborate to produce The State of Food Insecurity in the World. The 2012 edition described improvements made by the FAO to the prevalence of undernourishment indicator that is used to measure rates of food insecurity.
New features include revised minimum dietary energy requirements for individual countries, updates to the population data. Measurements that factor into the indicator include dietary energy supply, food production, food prices, food expenditures, the stages of food insecurity range from food secure situations to full-scale famine. A new peer-reviewed journal of Food Security, The Science and Economics of Food Production, with its prevalence of undernourishment indicator, the FAO reported that almost 870 million people were chronically undernourished in the years 2010-2012. This represents 12. 5% of the population, or 1 in 8 people. Higher rates occur in developing countries, where 852 million people are chronically undernourished, the UN noted that about 2 billion people do not consume a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals
Papua New Guinea
Its capital, located along its southeastern coast, is Port Moresby. The western half of New Guinea forms the Indonesian provinces of Papua, Papua New Guinea is one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world. There are 852 known languages in the country, of which 12 have no known living speakers, most of the population of more than 7 million people live in customary communities, which are as diverse as the languages. It is one of the most rural, as only 18 percent of its live in urban centres. The country is one of the worlds least explored and geographically and it is known to have numerous groups of uncontacted peoples, and researchers believe there are many undiscovered species of plants and animals in the interior. Papua New Guinea is classified as an economy by the International Monetary Fund. Strong growth in Papua New Guineas mining and resource sector led to the becoming the sixth fastest-growing economy in the world in 2011. Growth was expected to slow once major resource projects came on line in 2015, mining remains a major economic factor, however.
Local and national governments are discussing the potential of resuming mining operations in Panguna mine in Bougainville Province, nearly 40 percent of the population lives a self-sustainable natural lifestyle with no access to global capital. Most of the still live in strong traditional social groups based on farming. Their social lives combine traditional religion with modern practices, including primary education, at the national level, after being ruled by three external powers since 1884, Papua New Guinea established its sovereignty in 1975. This followed nearly 60 years of Australian administration, which started during the Great War and it became an independent Commonwealth realm with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state and became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations in its own right. Archaeological evidence indicates that humans first arrived in Papua New Guinea around 42,000 to 45,000 years ago and they were descendants of migrants out of Africa, in one of the early waves of human migration.
Agriculture was independently developed in the New Guinea highlands around 7000 BC, a major migration of Austronesian-speaking peoples to coastal regions of New Guinea took place around 500 BC. This has been correlated with the introduction of pottery, pigs, in the 18th century, traders brought the sweet potato to New Guinea, where it was adopted and became part of the staples. Portuguese traders had obtained it from South America and introduced it to the Moluccas, the far higher crop yields from sweet potato gardens radically transformed traditional agriculture and societies. Sweet potato largely supplanted the previous staple and resulted in a significant increase in population in the highlands. In 1901, on Goaribari Island in the Gulf of Papua, missionary Harry Dauncey found 10,000 skulls in the islands Long Houses, traders from Southeast Asia had visited New Guinea beginning 5,000 years ago to collect bird of paradise plumes
Veganism is both the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals. A follower of either the diet or the philosophy is known as a vegan, distinctions are sometimes made between several categories of veganism. Dietary vegans refrain from consuming animal products, not only meat but eggs, dairy products and other animal-derived substances. The term ethical vegan is often applied to those who not only follow a diet but extend the philosophy into other areas of their lives. Donald Watson coined the term vegan in 1944 when he co-founded the Vegan Society in England, at first he used it to mean non-dairy vegetarian, but from 1951 the society defined it as the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals. Interest in veganism increased in the 2010s, more vegan stores opened, and vegan options became increasingly available in supermarkets and restaurants in many countries. Well-planned vegan diets can reduce the risk of some types of chronic disease and they are regarded as appropriate for all stages of the life-cycle by the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
The German Society for Nutrition cautions against vegan diets for children, because uncontaminated plant foods do not provide vitamin B12, researchers agree that vegans should eat B12-fortified foods or take a supplement. The origin of the English term vegetarian is unknown, the earliest known use is attributed to the actress Fanny Kemble, writing around 1839 in Georgia in the United States. The practice can be traced to Indus valley civilization in 3300 -1300 BCE Ancient India, the earliest known vegan was the Arab poet Al-Maʿarri. Vegetarianism established itself as a significant movement in 19th-century England and the United States, a minority of vegetarians avoided animal food entirely. Lambe called animal food an habitual irritation, and argued that ilk eating and flesh eating are but branches of a common system, and they must stand or fall together. Sylvester Grahams meatless Graham diet—mostly fruit, water, several vegan communities were established around this time. In 1843 members of Alcott House created the British and Foreign Society for the Promotion of Humanity and Abstinence from Animal Food, led by Sophia Chichester, Alcott House helped to establish the British Vegetarian Society, which held its first meeting in 1847 in Ramsgate, Kent.
Belongs to the more moderate division. The first known vegan cookbook, Rupert H. Wheldons No Animal Food, the consumption of milk and eggs became a battleground over the following decades. There were regular discussions about it in the Vegetarian Messenger, it appears from the pages that many opponents of veganism came from within the vegetarian community. This lent support to the position, although Gandhi himself drank goats milk
In visual arts and other mediums, minimalism is a style that uses pared-down design elements. Minimalism began in post–World War II Western art, most strongly with American visual arts in the 1960s, prominent artists associated with minimalism include Donald Judd, John McCracken, Agnes Martin, Dan Flavin, Robert Morris, Anne Truitt, and Frank Stella. It derives from the reductive aspects of modernism and is interpreted as a reaction against abstract expressionism. Minimalism in music often features repetition and iteration such as those of the compositions of La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass, the term minimalist often colloquially refers to anything that is spare or stripped to its essentials. It has accordingly been used to describe the plays and novels of Samuel Beckett, the films of Robert Bresson, the stories of Raymond Carver, and the automobile designs of Colin Chapman. The word was first used in English in the early 20th century to describe a 1913 composition by the Russian painter Kasimir Malevich of a square on a white ground.
Guggenheim Museum curated by Lawrence Alloway in 1966 that showcased Geometric abstraction in the American art world via Shaped canvas, Color Field, in the wake of those exhibitions and a few others the art movement called minimal art emerged. Minimal art is inspired in part by the paintings of Barnett Newman, Ad Reinhardt, Josef Albers, and the works of artists as diverse as Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Giorgio Morandi. Minimalism was a reaction against the painterly subjectivity of Abstract Expressionism that had been dominant in the New York School during the 1940s and 1950s. The philosopher or art historian who can envision me—or anyone at all—arriving at aesthetic judgments in this way reads shockingly more into himself or herself than into my article. They very explicitly stated that their art was not about self-expression, in general, minimalisms features included geometric, often cubic forms purged of much metaphor, equality of parts, neutral surfaces, and industrial materials. Robert Morris, a theorist and artist, wrote a three part essay, Notes on Sculpture 1-3, originally published across three issues of Artforum in 1966.
In these essays, Morris attempted to define a conceptual framework and formal elements for himself and these essays paid great attention to the idea of the gestalt - parts. Bound together in such a way that create a maximum resistance to perceptual separation. Morris described an art represented by a marked lateral spread, the general shift in theory of which this essay is an expression suggests the transition into what would be referred to as postminimalism. Stellas decisions about structures on the front surface of the canvas were therefore not entirely subjective, in the show catalog, Carl Andre noted, Art excludes the unnecessary. Frank Stella has found it necessary to paint stripes, there is nothing else in his painting. Because of a tendency in art to exclude the pictorial and fictive in favor of the literal, there was a movement away from painterly
Making use of companion planting, these can be intermixed to grow in a succession of layers, to build a woodland habitat. Forest gardening is a method of securing food in tropical areas. In the 1980s, Robert Hart coined the term forest gardening after adapting the principles, Forest gardens are probably the worlds oldest form of land use and most resilient agroecosystem. They originated in prehistoric times along jungle-clad river banks and in the wet foothills of monsoon regions, in the gradual process of families improving their immediate environment, useful tree and vine species were identified and improved whilst undesirable species were eliminated. Eventually superior foreign species were selected and incorporated into the gardens and these are called agroforests and, where the wood components are short-statured, the term shrub garden is employed. Forest gardens have been shown to be a significant source of income, Robert Hart adapted forest gardening for the United Kingdoms temperate climate during the 1980s.
His theories were developed by Martin Crawford from the Agroforestry Research Trust and various permaculturalists such as Graham Bell, Patrick Whitefield, Dave Jacke. Forest gardens, or home gardens, are common in the tropics, using intercropping to cultivate trees, crops, in Kerala in south India as well as in northeastern India, the home garden is the most common form of land use and is found in Indonesia. One example combines coconut, black pepper and pineapple and these gardens exemplify polyculture, and conserve much crop genetic diversity and heirloom plants that are not found in monocultures. Forest gardens have been compared to the religious concept of the Garden of Eden. This was explored in the bestselling book 1491 by author Charles C. Mann, since the 1970s, numerous geoglyphs have been discovered on deforested land in the Amazon rainforest, furthering the evidence about Pre-Columbian civilizations. On the Yucatán Peninsula, much of the Maya food supply was grown in orchard-gardens, the system takes its name from the low wall of stones that characteristically surrounds the gardens.
Most well known are the Chaga or Chagga gardens on the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro in Tanzania and these are an excellent example of an agroforestry system. In many countries, women are the actors in home gardening. In North-Africa, oasis layered gardening with palm trees, fruit trees and vegetables is a type of forest garden. The term “home garden” is often considered synonymous to the kitchen garden, they differ in terms of function, diversity and features. In Nepal, 72% of households have home gardens of an area 2–11% of the land holdings. Because of their size, the government has never identified home gardens as an important unit of food production and they thereby remain neglected from research
A family farm is generally understood to be a farm owned and/or operated by a family, it is sometimes considered to be an estate passed down by inheritance. It contrasts with farms operated as collectives, non-family corporations or in other institutionalised forms, the concept or definition does not easily translate across languages or cultures, as there are substantial differences in the agricultural traditions and histories between countries. Thus, in the United States, a farm can be of any size, while in Brazil. At least 500 million of the worlds 570 million farms are managed by families, the disparity of definitions reflects national and geographical differences in cultures, rural land tenure, and rural economies, as well as the different purposes for which definitions are coined. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations defines a farm as one that relies primarily on family members for labour. In some usages, family farm implies that the remains within the ownership of a family over a number of generations.
Being special-purpose definitions, the found in laws or regulations may differ substantially from commonly understood meanings of family farm. The complete definition can be found in the US Code of Federal Regulations 7 CFR1943.4. The basis of the latifundia in Spain and Sicily was the ager publicus that fell to the dispensation of the state through Romes policy of war in the 1st century BC and the 1st century AD. In the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the largely self-sufficient villa-system of the latifundia remained among the few centres of a fragmented Europe. Manorialism died slowly and piecemeal, along with its most vivid feature in the landscape and it outlasted serfdom as it outlasted feudalism, primarily an economic organization, it could maintain a warrior, but it could equally well maintain a capitalist landlord. It could be self-sufficient, yield produce for the market, or it could yield a money rent, the last feudal dues in France were abolished at the French Revolution. In parts of eastern Germany, the Rittergut manors of Junkers remained until World War II, the common law of the leasehold estate relation evolved in medieval England.
That law still retains many archaic terms and principles pertinent to a social order. Under the tenant system, a farm may be worked by the family over many generations. In much of Europe, serfdom was abolished only in the period, in Western Europe after the French Revolution. In the inheritance system known as Salic patrimony refers to this clan-based possession of real estate property, terra salica could not be sold or otherwise disposed, it was not alienable. Historical prevalence of the Germanic system of independent estates or Höfe resulted in dispersed settlement structure, the estate as a whole is referred to by the collective Gehöft, the corresponding Slavic concept being Khutor
Intensive farming or intensive agriculture is any of various types of agriculture that involve higher levels of input and output per unit of agricultural land area. It is characterised by a low ratio, higher use of inputs such as capital and labour. This is in contrast to agriculture in which the inputs per unit land are lower. The term intensive has various senses, some of which refer to organic farming methods and others of which refer to nonorganic, both increase the yields of food and fiber per acre as compared to traditional animal husbandry. In CAFO, feed is brought to the animals, while in MIRG the animals are repeatedly moved to fresh forage. Most commercial agriculture is intensive in one or more ways, forms that rely especially heavily on industrial methods are often called industrial agriculture, which is characterised by innovations designed to increase yield. Techniques include planting multiple crops per year, reducing the frequency of fallow years, intensive farms are widespread in developed nations and increasingly prevalent worldwide.
Most of the meat, eggs and vegetables available in supermarkets are produced by such farms, smaller intensive farms usually include higher inputs of labor and more often use sustainable intensive methods. The farming practices commonly found on farms are referred to as appropriate technology. These farms are widespread in both developed countries and worldwide, but are growing more rapidly. Most of the food available in specialty markets such as farmers markets is produced by these smallholder farms, agricultural development in Britain between the 16th century and the mid-19th century saw a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output. This in turn supported unprecedented population growth, freeing up a significant percentage of the workforce, historians cited enclosure, four-field crop rotation, and selective breeding as the most important innovations. Industrial agriculture arose along with the Industrial Revolution, by the early 19th century, agricultural techniques, seed stocks and cultivars had so improved that yield per land unit was many times that seen in the Middle Ages.
The industrialization phase involved a process of mechanization. Horse-drawn machinery such as the McCormick reaper revolutionized harvesting, while inventions such as the cotton gin reduced the cost of processing, during this same period, farmers began to use steam-powered threshers and tractors, although they were expensive and dangerous. Mechanical harvesters, planters and other equipment were developed and these inventions increased yields and allowed individual farmers to manage increasingly large farms. The identification of nitrogen and phosphorus as critical factors in plant growth led to the manufacture of synthetic fertilizers, in 1909 the Haber-Bosch method to synthesize ammonium nitrate was first demonstrated. Farmers adopting this approach were initially referred to as humus farmers, chemicals developed for use in World War II gave rise to synthetic pesticides
Gurjar or Gujjar are a pastoral agricultural ethnic group with populations in India and Pakistan and a small number in northeastern Afghanistan. Alternative spellings include Gurjara, Gojar and Gūjar, although they are able to speak the language of the country where they live, Gurjars have their own language, known as Gujari. They variously follow Hinduism and Sikhism, the Gurjars are classified as Other Backward Class in some states in India, Gurjars in Jammu and Kashmir and parts of Himachal Pradesh are categorised as a Scheduled Tribe. Hindu Gurjars were assimilated into various varnas in the medieval period and anthropologists differ on issue of Gurjar origin. According to this view, Gurjars came in waves of migration. Aydogdy Kurbanov states that some Gurjars, along with people from northwestern India, according to scholars such as Baij Nath Puri, the Mount Abu region of present-day Rajasthan had been abode of the Gurjars during medieval period. The association of the Gurjars with the mountain is noticed in many inscriptions and these Gurjars migrated from the Arbuda mountain region and as early as in the 6th century A. D.
In Sanskrit texts, the ethnonym has sometimes been interpreted as destroyer of the enemy, gur meaning enemy, irawati Karve, the Indologist and historian, believed that the Gurjars position in society and the caste system generally varied from one linguistic area of India to another. In Maharashtra, Karve thought that they were absorbed by the Rajputs and Marathas. Bhandarkar believed that Gurjara-Pratiharas were a clan of Gurjars, in the 18th century, several Gurjar chieftains and small kings were in power. During the reign of Rohilla Nawab Najib-ul-Daula, Dargahi Singh, the Gurjar chieftain of Dadri possessed 133 villages at a revenue of Rs.29,000. A fort at Parlchhatgarh in Meerut District, known as Qila Parikishatgarh, is ascribed to a Gurjar Raja Nain Singh, during the revolt of 1857, the Gurjars of Chundrowli rose against the British, under the leadership of Damar Ram. The Gurjars of Shunkuri village, numbering around three thousand, joined the rebel sepoys, according to British records, the Gurjars plundered gunpowder and ammunition from the British and their allies.
In Delhi, the Metcalfe House was sacked by Gurjar villagers from whom the land was taken to erect the building, the British records claim that the Gurjars carried out several robberies. Twenty Gurjars were reported to have been beheaded by Rao Tula Ram for committing dacoities in July 1857, in September 1857, the British were able to enlist the support of many Gurjars at Meerut. The colonial authors always used the word turbulent for the castes who were generally hostile to British rule. They cited proverbs that appear to evaluate the caste in an unfavorable light, a British administrator, William Crooke, described that Gurjars seriously impeded the operations of the British Army before Delhi. Small pockets of Gurjars are found in Afghanistans northeastern region, particularly in, some in India remain Hindu, although further west many are Muslim
A cash crop is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit. It is typically purchased by parties separate from a farm, the term is used to differentiate marketed crops from subsistence crops, which are those fed to the producers own livestock or grown as food for the producers family. In earlier times cash crops were only a small part of a farms total yield, while today, especially in developed countries. In the least developed countries, cash crops are usually crops which attract demand in developed nations. Prices for major crops are set in commodity markets with global scope, with some local variation based on freight costs and local supply. A consequence of this is that a nation, region, or individual producer relying on such a crop may suffer low prices should a bumper crop elsewhere lead to excess supply on the global markets and this system has been criticized by traditional farmers. Coffee is an example of a product that has been susceptible to significant commodity futures price variations, Issues involving subsidies and trade barriers on such crops have become controversial in discussions of globalization.
The practice of exporting at artificially low prices is known as dumping, the Arctic climate is generally not conducive for the cultivation of cash crops. However, one potential cash crop for the Arctic is Rhodiola rosea, there is currently consumer demand for the plant, but the available supply is less than the demand. Cash crops grown in regions with a temperate climate include many cereals, oil-yielding crops, tree fruit or top fruit, in regions with a subtropical climate, oil-yielding crops and some vegetables and herbs are the predominant cash crops. In regions with a climate, cocoa, sugar cane, oranges, cotton. The oil palm is a palm tree, and the fruit from it is used to make palm oil. Around 60 percent of African workers are employed in the agricultural sector, for example, in Burkina Faso 85% of its residents are reliant upon cotton production for income, and over half of the countrys population lives in poverty. Larger farms tend to grow crops such as coffee, cotton, fruit. These farms, typically operated by corporations, cover tens of square kilometres.
Subsistence farms provide a source of food and a small income for families. Africa has realized significant growth in plantations, many of which are on lands which were purchased by British companies. Jatropha curcas is a crop grown for biofuel production in Africa
Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras
The Ifugao Rice Terraces reach a higher altitude and were built on steeper slopes than many other terraces. The Ifugao Rice Terraces illustrate the ability of human culture to adapt to new social and climate pressures as well as to implement and develop new ideas. Although listed by the UNESCO as a World Heritage site believed to be older than 2,000 years, the rice terraces of the Cordilleras are one of the few monuments in the Philippines that show no evidence of having been influenced by colonial cultures. The history of the terraces is intertwined with that of its people, their culture and it is believed that terracing began in the Cordilleras less than one thousand years ago as Taro cultivation. It is evidence of a level of knowledge of structural. The knowledge and practices, supported by rituals, involved in maintaining the terraces are transferred orally from generation to generation, Taro was replaced by rice around 1600 A. D. which is the predominant crop today. The five clusters inscribed as part of the Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras are Batad, Hungduan, Mayoyao Central and Bangaan are under the jurisdiction of the Municipality of Banaue but are not referred to as the Banaue Rice Terraces.
The Banaue Rice Terraces refer to the close to the Banaue poblacion as seen from the viewpoint. Contrary to popular belief, these terraces are not part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site and they were not included in the UNESCO inscription due to the presence of numerous modern structures, making it score low in the integrity criterion of UNESCO. The Banaue Rice Terraces are however a National Cultural Treasure under Ifugao Rice Terraces and they are supported by indigenous knowledge management of muyong, a private forest that caps each terrace cluster. The muyong is managed through an effort and under traditional tribal practices. The communally managed forestry area on top of the terraces contains about 264 indigenous plant species, the terraces form unique clusters of microwatersheds and are part of the whole mountain ecology. They serve as a filtration system and are saturated with irrigation water all year round. A biorhythm technology, in cultural activities are harmonized with the rhythm of climate.
The Hudhud consists of narrative chants performed mainly by elder Ifugao women usually during the sowing season, at harvest time and at funeral wakes. The Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras were named as a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO World Heritage Centre in 1995 and it has passed by UNESCO’s standards due to the blending of the physical, socio-cultural, economic and political environment as a living cultural landscape. The Ifugao Rice Terraces have been inscribed in the List of World Heritage in Danger in 2001 as the dangers of deforestation, the Philippines sought danger listing as a way to raise national and international support and cooperation in the preservation of the heritage site. In 2012, UNESCO has removed the Rice Terraces from the list of sites in danger in recognition of the success of the Philippines in improving its conservation, Banaue Rice Terraces Honghe Hani Rice Terraces UNESCO World Heritage Site Link
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany