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Subspecies

In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to one of two or more populations of a species living in different subdivisions of the species' range and varying from one another by morphological characteristics. A single subspecies cannot be recognized independently: a species is either recognized as having no subspecies at all or at least two, including any that are extinct; the term may be abbreviated to ssp.. The plural is the same as the singular: subspecies. In zoology, under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the subspecies is the only taxonomic rank below that of species that can receive a name. In botany and mycology, under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants, other infraspecific ranks, such as variety, may be named. In bacteriology and virology, under standard bacterial nomenclature and virus nomenclature, there are recommendations but not strict requirements for recognizing other important infraspecific ranks. A taxonomist decides. A common criterion for recognizing two distinct populations as subspecies rather than full species is the ability of them to interbreed without a fitness penalty.

In the wild, subspecies do not interbreed due to sexual selection. The differences between subspecies are less distinct than the differences between species; the scientific name of a species is a binomial or binomen, comprises two Latin words, the first denoting the genus and the second denoting the species. The scientific name of a subspecies is formed differently in the different nomenclature codes. In zoology, under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the scientific name of a subspecies is termed a trinomen, comprises three words, namely the binomen followed by the name of the subspecies. For example, the binomen for the leopard is Panthera pardus; the trinomen Panthera pardus fusca denotes the Indian leopard. In botany, subspecies is one of many ranks below that of species, such as variety, subvariety and subform. To identify the rank, the subspecific name must be preceded by "subspecies", as in Schoenoplectus californicus subsp. Tatora. In bacteriology, the only rank below species, regulated explicitly by the code of nomenclature is subspecies, but infrasubspecific taxa are important in bacteriology.

Names published before 1992 in the rank of variety are taken to be names of subspecies. As in botany, subspecies is conventionally abbreviated as "subsp.", is used in the scientific name: Bacillus subtilis subsp. Spizizenii. In zoological nomenclature, when a species is split into subspecies, the described population is retained as the "nominotypical subspecies" or "nominate subspecies", which repeats the same name as the species. For example, Motacilla alba alba is the nominotypical subspecies of the white wagtail; the subspecies name that repeats the species name is referred to in botanical nomenclature as the subspecies "autonym", the subspecific taxon as the "autonymous subspecies". When zoologists disagree over whether a certain population is a subspecies or a full species, the species name may be written in parentheses, thus Larus smithsonianus means the American herring gull. A subspecies is a taxonomic rank below species – the only recognized rank in the zoological code, one of three main ranks below species in the botanical code.

When geographically separate populations of a species exhibit recognizable phenotypic differences, biologists may identify these as separate subspecies. Botanists and mycologists have the choice of ranks lower than subspecies, such as variety or form, to recognize smaller differences between populations. In biological terms, rather than in relation to nomenclature, a polytypic species has two or more genetically and phenotypically divergent subspecies, races, or more speaking, populations that differ from each other so that a separate description is warranted; these distinct groups do not interbreed as they are isolated from another, but they can interbreed and have fertile offspring, e.g. in captivity. These subspecies, races, or populations, are described and named by zoologists and microbiologists. In a monotypic species, all populations exhibit phenotypical characteristics. Monotypic species can occur in several ways: All members of the species are similar and cannot be sensibly divided into biologically significant subcategories.

The individuals vary but the variation is random and meaningless so far as genetic transmission of these variations is concerned. The variation among individuals is noticeable and follows a pattern, but there are no clear dividing lines among separate groups: they fade imperceptibly into one another; such clinal variation always indicates substantial gene flow among the separate groups that make up the population. Populations that have a steady, substantial gene flow among them are to represent a monotypic species when a fair degree of genetic variation is obvious. Breed Glossary of scientific naming Color phase Cultivar in botany

Ganesh Acharya

Ganesh Acharya is an Indian choreographer, film director and occasional film actor active in India Bollywood. He has choreographed for Singham amongst others, he has appeared in numerous music videos for films. He opened out as a film actor with the 2013 dance film ABCD: Any Body Can Dance, he won the National Film Award For Best Choreography at 61st National Film Awards for his work for song "Hawan Kund" from 2013 movie Bhaag Milkha Bhaag. He was nominated for the Best Choreographer Award for his song "Malhaari" from the 2015 film Bajirao Mastani at 61st Filmfare Awards; when Ganesh was 10, his father, a dancer and a choreographer Mr. Gopi, which plunged his family into financial crisis and forced Ganesh to give up his studies, he moved on to Cuttack, Orissa. He started learning the art of dancing from his sister, he assisted famous choreographer Kamalji, until he died. Ganesh started his own dance group at the age of 12, became a choreographer at 19 and worked in his first film, Anaam at 21. In 2002, he was nominated in Screen Weekly Awards for best choreography for Badi Mushkil song from Lajja.

In 2005, he was nominated for Technical awards in Zee Cine Awards as the best choreographer for the song Aisa Jadoo Dala Re from Khakhee. In 2007 he won Filmfare award for best choreography for the song Beedi from Omkara. Ganesh choreographed five big films in the year 2006, namely Rang De Basanti, Phir Hera Pheri, Golmaal and Lage Raho Munna Bhai. Following this, Ganesh decided to make a stand in film direction, his first film Swami, produced and written by him, stars Manoj Bajpai and Juhi Chawla. It does not have any dance; the film is about the journey of a man called his wife Radha. In 2008, Ganesh Acharya made Money Hai To Honey Hai, a comedy involving a dead man, a will, lots of money and a way. In 2011, he played a villain in the Tamil film Rowthiram; the famous item song Chikni Chameli from 2012 film Agneepath featuring Katrina Kaif was choreographed by Ganesh Acharya. Govinda is his favourite dancer and among the heroines, his favourite is Madhuri Dixit, he has choreographed Govinda in all his films.

He features in songs, like "Koi Jaye to le aaye" from Ghatak and "Khullam Khulla" in the movie Road. He did special appearance as Mr Zar in the superhit Chinese film operation mekong Swami Money Hai Toh Honey Hai Angel Bhikari

Hørdum stone

The Hørdum stone is a Viking Age picture stone discovered in Hørdum, Thisted Municipality, North Denmark Region, that depicts a legend from Norse mythology involving the god Thor and Jörmungandr, the Midgard serpent. The Hørdum stone was discovered in 1954 during trench work adjacent to the church in Hørdum. Before the historical significance of runestones and picture stones was understood, they were reused as materials in the construction of roads, bridges and buildings; the image on the stone illustrates a legend recorded in the Hymiskviða of the Poetic Edda, in which the Norse god Thor fishes for Jörmungandr, the Midgard serpent. Thor goes fishing with the jötunn Hymir using an ox head for bait, catches Jörmungandr, who either breaks loose or, as told in the Gylfaginning of the Prose Edda, the line is cut loose by Hymir; the Prose Edda provides the additional detail that while Thor was pulling on the line with Jörmungandr on the hook, his feet went through the bottom of the boat. The image on the Hørdum stone shows Hymir, his fishing line and a portion of the serpent.

Thor's foot has been pushed through the hull of the boat. The ox head bait is not shown, but may have been on a section of the image, worn away. Hymir is depicted holding a tool in preparation to cut the fishing line, consistent with the version of the myth told in the Gylfaginning, it has been suggested that an image of the head of the serpent can be seen in the natural fracture edges of the stone under the boat. This encounter between Thor and Jörmungandr seems to have been one of the most popular motifs in Norse art. Three other picture stones that have been linked with the myth are the Ardre VIII image stone, the Altuna Runestone, the Gosforth Cross. A stone slab that may be a portion of a second cross at Gosforth shows a fishing scene using an ox head for bait. Several other Scandinavian runic inscriptions from the Viking Age depict ships but not this myth, including DR 77 in Hjermind, DR 119 in Spentrup, DR 220 in Sønder Kirkeby, DR 258 in Bösarp, DR 271 in Tullstorp, DR 328 in Holmby, DR EM85.

Two other stones, the Långtora kyrka stone and U 1001 in Rasbo, depict ships but do not have any runes on them and may never have had any. The Hørdum stone is on display in the church in Hørdum. Photograph of Hørdum stone