A bog body is a human cadaver that has been naturally mummified in a peat bog. Such bodies, sometimes known as bog people, are geographically and chronologically widespread, having been dated to between 8000 BCE and the Second World War. Unlike most ancient human remains, bog bodies have retained their skin and these conditions include highly acidic water, low temperature, and a lack of oxygen, and combine to preserve but severely tan their skin. While the skin is well-preserved, the bones are generally not, the oldest known bog body is the skeleton of Koelbjerg Man from Denmark, who has been dated to 8000 BCE, during the Mesolithic period. The oldest fleshed bog body is that of Cashel Man, who dates to 2000 BCE during the Bronze Age, the newest bog bodies are those of soldiers killed in the Russian wetlands during the Second World War. The preservation of bog bodies in peat bogs is a natural phenomenon and it is caused by the unique physical and biochemical composition of the bogs. A limited number of bogs have the conditions for preservation of mammalian tissue.
Most of these are located in colder climates near bodies of salt water, for example, in the area of Denmark where the Haraldskær Woman was recovered, salt air from the North Sea blows across the Jutland wetlands and provides an ideal environment for the growth of peat. As new peat replaces the old peat, the material underneath rots and releases humic acid. The bog acids, with pH levels similar to vinegar, conserve the human bodies in the way as fruit is preserved by pickling. In addition, peat bogs form in areas lacking drainage and hence are characterized by almost completely anaerobic conditions and this environment, highly acidic and devoid of oxygen, denies the prevalent subsurface aerobic organisms any opportunity to initiate decomposition. Researchers discovered that required that they place the body in the bog during the winter or early spring when the water temperature is cold—i. e. This allows bog acids to saturate the tissues before decay can begin, bacteria are unable to grow rapidly enough for decomposition at temperatures under 4 °C.
The bog chemical environment involves a completely saturated acidic environment, where concentrations of organic acids. Layers of sphagnum and peat assist in preserving the cadavers by enveloping the tissue in an immobilizing matrix, impeding water circulation. An additional feature of preservation by acidic bogs is the ability to conserve hair, clothing. Most of the bog bodies discovered showed some aspects of decay or else were not properly conserved, when such specimens are exposed to the normal atmosphere, they may begin to decompose rapidly. As a result, many specimens have been effectively destroyed, as of 1979, the number of specimens that have been preserved following discovery was 53
The Dacians were an Indo-European people, part of or related to the Thracians. Dacians were the ancient inhabitants of Dacia, located in the area in and around the Carpathian Mountains and this area includes the present-day countries of Romania and Moldova, as well as parts of Ukraine, Eastern Serbia, Northern Bulgaria, Slovakia and Southern Poland. The Dacians were known as Geta in Ancient Greek writings, and as Dacus or Getae in Roman documents and it was Herodotus who first used the ethnonym Getae in his Histories. In Greek and Latin, in the writings of Julius Caesar and Pliny the Elder and Dacians were interchangeable terms, or used with some confusion by the Greeks. Latin poets often used the name Getae, vergil called them Getae four times, and Daci once, Lucian Getae three times and Daci twice, Horace named them Getae twice and Daci five times, while Juvenal one time Getae and two times Daci. In AD113, Hadrian used the poetic term Getae for the Dacians, modern historians prefer to use the name Geto-Dacians.
Strabo describes the Getae and Dacians as distinct but cognate tribes and this distinction refers to the regions they occupied. Strabo and Pliny the Elder state that Getae and Dacians spoke the same language, by contrast, the name of Dacians, whatever the origin of the name, was used by the more western tribes who adjoined the Pannonians and therefore first became known to the Romans. According to Strabos Geographica, the name of the Dacians was Δάοι Daoi. The name Daoi was certainly adopted by foreign observers to designate all the inhabitants of the north of Danube that had not yet been conquered by Greece or Rome. The ethnographic name Daci is found under various forms within ancient sources, Greeks used the forms Δάκοι Dakoi and Δάοι Daoi. The form Δάοι Daoi was frequently used according to Stephan of Byzantium, latins used the forms Davus, and a derived form Dacisci. There are similarities between the ethnonyms of the Dacians and those of Dahae, an Indo-European people located east of the Caspian Sea, scholars have suggested that there were links between the two peoples since ancient times.
The historian David Gordon White has, stated that the Dacians, appear to be related to the Dahae. The name Daci, or Dacians is a collective ethnonym, Dio Cassius reported that the Dacians themselves used that name, and the Romans so called them, while the Greeks called them Getae. Opinions on the origins of the name Daci are divided, one hypothesis is that the name Getae originates in the Indo-European *guet- to utter, to talk. Another hypothesis is that Getae and Daci are Iranian names of two Iranian-speaking Scythian groups that had assimilated into the larger Thracian-speaking population of the Dacia. In the 1st century AD, Strabo suggested that its stem formed a name borne by slaves, Greek Daos
Osterby Man or the Osterby Head is a bog body of which only the skull and hair survive. It was discovered in 1948 by peat cutters to the southeast of Osterby, the hair is tied in a Suebian knot. The head is at the State Archaeological Museum at Gottorf Castle in Schleswig, the head was discovered on 26 May 1948 by Otto and Max Müller of Osterby, who were cutting peat on their fathers land, at 54°26′51″N 09°46′09″E. It was found approximately 65 to 70 centimetres beneath the current ground level, the head was wrapped in fragments of a deerskin cape, which Max Müller noticed protruding from the peat. The find was reported to the museum in Schleswig, despite searching by the brothers and others. The skull was wrapped in fragments of a cape and had been damaged by striking with a blunt object before being sunk in the bog. The skull had been broken several pieces. The acids in the bog have decalcified the bone, which has shrunk somewhat and is dark brown, the hair and small sections of scalp are well preserved, but the skin and other soft tissues of the face have disappeared.
The skull had been deformed by the weight of the peat above it, skeletal evidence suggests a man 50 to 60 years of age. Hack marks on the cervical vertebra show that the head was cut off. The skull was stabilised for exhibition by filling with gypsum, the hair is thin and slightly wavy,28 centimetres long. It has been coloured a reddish brown by the acids in the bog, microscopic analysis showed that it had been dark blond and that the man had had some white hairs. In a re-examination in 2005, isotopic analysis showed that at least during his last year of life, the man ate meat remarkably rarely and he did not eat seafood such as fish or mussels. Parasitological analysis of the hair showed no head lice, unusual for the time, the hair is unusually well preserved and is tied above the right temple in a Suebian knot. Tacitus describes this in Chapter 38 of his Germania as a characteristic of free men among the Germanic tribe of Suebi, the knot appears in several Roman depictions and on at least one other bog body, Dätgen Man.
Osterby has featured the Suebian knot on its coat of arms since 1998, the skull was wrapped in fragments of a garment, measuring approximately 40 by 53 centimetres, consisting of tanned pieces of leather sewn together. Microscopic analysis suggested on the basis of the hairs that they were from roe deer, the neck opening was lined with a strip of leather about 1 centimetre wide. All seams had been sewn with small stitches in catgut, peter Löhr performed the anthropological analysis, which determined that the skull had shrunk while immersed in the bog
Tacitus says that physically, the Germanic peoples appear to be a distinct nation, not an admixture of their neighbors, as nobody would desire to migrate to a climate as horrid as that of Germania. They are divided into three branches, the Ingaevones, the Herminones and the Istaevones, deriving their ancestry from three sons of Mannus, son of Tuisto, their common forefather. He mentions that the opinions of women are given respect, Tacitus further discusses the role of women in Chapters 7 and 8, mentioning that they often accompany the men to battle and offer encouragement. He says that the men are highly motivated to fight for the women because of an extreme fear of losing them to captivity. He records that adultery is very rare, and that a woman is shunned afterward by the community regardless of her beauty. In Chapter 45 Tacitus mentions that the tribe to the north of the Germans, the latter chapters of the books describe the various Germanic tribes, their relative locations and some of their characteristics.
Many of the tribes named correspond with other records and traditions. Ethnography had a long and distinguished heritage in literature. Tacitus himself had written a similar—albeit shorter—essay on the lands. In writing the work, Tacitus might have wanted to stress the dangers that the Germanic tribes posed to the Empire, Tacitus descriptions of the Germanic character are at times favorable in contrast to the opinions of the Romans of his day. All of these traits were highlighted perhaps because of their similarity to idealized Roman virtues. g, the possibility that the Batavians may therefore have been Celtic-speaking. Tacitus nevertheless shows no lack of precision in stating that the Nervii are not actually Germanic as they claim to be and he notes in Chapter 43 that a certain tribe called the Cotini actually speaks a Gallic tongue, and likewise the Osi speak a Pannonian dialect. Tacitus himself had never travelled in the Germanic lands, all his information is second-hand at best, the defection of these peoples in the year 89 during Domitians war against the Dacians modified the whole frontier policy of the Empire.
All copies of Germania were lost during the Middle Ages and the work was forgotten until a manuscript was found in Hersfeld Abbey in 1425. It was brought to Italy, where Enea Silvio Piccolomini, Pope Pius II and this sparked interest among German humanists, including Conrad Celtes, Johannes Aventinus, and Ulrich von Hutten and beyond. Beginning in 16th-century German humanism, German interest in Germanic antiquity remained acute throughout the period of Romanticism and nationalism, a scientific angle was introduced with the development of Germanic philology by Jacob Grimm. Because of its influence on the ideologies of Pan-Germanism and Nordicism, christopher Krebs, a professor at Stanford University, claims in a 2012 study that Germania played a major role in the formation of the core concepts of Nazi ideology. The Codex Aesinas is believed to be portions of the Codex Hersfeldensis - the lost Germania manuscript brought to Rome from Hersfeld Abbey and it was rediscovered in 1902 by priest-philologist Cesare Annibaldi in the possession of Count Aurelio Balleani of Iesi
The Germanic peoples are an ethno-linguistic Indo-European group of Northern European origin. They are identified by their use of Germanic languages, which diversified out of Proto-Germanic during the Pre-Roman Iron Age, the term Germanic originated in classical times when groups of tribes living in Lower and Greater Germania were referred to using this label by Roman scribes. Tribes referred to as Germanic by Roman authors generally lived to the north, in about 222 BCE, the first use of the Latin term Germani appears in the Fasti Capitolini inscription de Galleis Insvbribvs et Germ. This may simply be referring to Gaul or related people, the term Germani shows up again, allegedly written by Poseidonios, but is merely a quotation inserted by the author Athenaios who wrote much later. Somewhat later, the first surviving detailed discussions of Germani and Germania are those of Julius Caesar, from Caesars perspective, Germania was a geographical area of land on the east bank of the Rhine opposite Gaul, which Caesar left outside direct Roman control.
This usage of the word is the origin of the concept of Germanic languages. In other classical authors the concept sometimes included regions of Sarmatia, also, at least in the south there were Celtic peoples still living east of the Rhine and north of the Alps. Caesar and others noted differences of culture which could be found on the east of the Rhine, but the theme of all these cultural references was that this was a wild and dangerous region, less civilised than Gaul, a place that required additional military vigilance. Caesar used the term Germani for a specific tribal grouping in northeastern Belgic Gaul, west of the Rhine. He made clear that he was using the name in the local sense and these are the so-called Germani Cisrhenani, whom Caesar believed to be closely related to the peoples east of the Rhine, and descended from immigrants into Gaul. Caesar described this group of both as Belgic Gauls and as Germani. Gauls are associated with Celtic languages, and the term Germani is associated with Germanic languages, but Caesar did not discuss languages in detail.
It has been claimed, for example by Maurits Gysseling, that the names of this region show evidence of an early presence of Germanic languages. The etymology of the word Germani is uncertain, the likeliest theory so far proposed is that it comes from a Gaulish compound of *ger near + *mani men, comparable to Welsh ger near, Old Irish gair neighbor, Irish gar- near, garach neighborly. Another Celtic possibility is that the name meant noisy, cf. Breton/Cornish garm shout, here the vowel does not match, nor does the vowel length ). Others have proposed a Germanic etymology *gēr-manni, spear men, cf. Middle Dutch ghere, Old High German Ger, Old Norse geirr. However, the form gēr seems far too advanced phonetically for the 1st century, has a vowel where a short one is expected. The term Germani, probably applied to a group of tribes in northeastern Gaul who may or may not have spoken a Germanic language
The Vienna Museum is a group of museums in Vienna consisting of the museums of the history of the city. In addition to the building in Karlsplatz and the Hermesvilla. The permanent exhibit of art and the collection on the history of Vienna include exhibits dating from the Neolithic to the mid-20th century. The emphasis is on the 19th century, for works by Gustav Klimt. In addition, the Vienna Museum hosts a variety of special exhibitions, originally known as the Historical Museum of the City of Vienna, its existence dates back to 1887, and until 1959 was located in the Vienna Town Hall. The first plans for a city museum on Karlsplatz date back to the beginning of the 20th century, not least because of two world wars, the building of the museum was postponed for several decades. In 1953, the City Council of Vienna passed a resolution to honour Austrian president and former mayor Theodor Körner, a design contest was organised, in which 13 architects were specifically invited to take part but which was open to any other entrants.
80 contestants took part and submitted a total of 96 designs, the jury awarded Oswald Haertl fourth place, but he was subsequently off-handedly contracted to design the building, which was executed in an unassuming contemporary modern style. Haertl was responsible for the design, down to the furnishing of the directors office. The museum opened on 23 April 1959 as the first newly built museum of the Second Republic, the Historical Museum repeatedly distinguished itself with its exhibitions. In 2000, the courtyard was roofed over, in 2003, under the direction of Wolfgang Kos, the museums of the City of Vienna were united under the umbrella name of Vienna Museum and the Historical Museum was renamed Vienna Museum. In early 2006, the foyer was renovated and in addition, in addition to the permanent exhibits, there are frequent special exhibitions. A memorandum of understanding and cooperation was signed in January 2000 with the Nagoya City Museum, cooperation established with Nagoya City Museum.
Under former mayor Bruno Marek, the building was restored by the Association of Friends of the Hermesvilla, the permanent exhibition is dedicated to the history of the building and the imperial couple, who spent a few days there each year until Elisabeths death. In addition, special exhibitions are mounted on a variety of themes in cultural history. Since 2005, a permanent exhibition on the life and work of Otto Wagner has been on show in this former Vienna Stadtbahn building and they no longer serve any transport purpose. Allerhöchsten Hofes in Hietzing near Schönbrunn Palace was built in 1899 to Otto Wagners design as a station for the use of the Emperor. It was not included in the plans for the Stadtbahn
It is commonly used as a pejorative term for ethnic Ukrainians. Russians commonly use the word khokhol as a slur for Ukrainians. The term is frequently derogatory or condescending, an equivalent of the Ukrainian term katsap, Ukrainians used the term khokhol amongst themselves as a form of ethnic self-identification, in order to visibly separate themselves from Russians. The Ukrainian name for type of haircut is oseledets or chub. There are several Ukrainian surnames derived from this word, in the Cossacks times the haircut carried an honorary meaning identifying one as being a true Cossack. That tradition is depicted in motion pictures such as Propala Hramota that is based on works of Nikolai Gogol. The khokhol/oseledets is a feature in the stereotypical image of a Ukrainian Cossack
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig. Its capital city is Kiel, other cities are Lübeck. Also known in more dated English as Sleswick-Holsatia, the Danish name is Slesvig-Holsten, the Low German name is Sleswig-Holsteen, the name can refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig-Holstein and the former South Jutland County in Denmark. The term Holstein derives from Old Saxon Holseta Land, originally, it referred to the central of the three Saxon tribes north of the River Elbe, Tedmarsgoi and Sturmarii. The area of the tribe of the Holsts was between the Stör River and Hamburg, and after Christianization, their church was in Schenefeld. Saxon Holstein became a part of the Holy Roman Empire after Charlemagnes Saxon campaigns in the eighth century. Since 811, the frontier of Holstein was marked by the River Eider. The term Schleswig comes from the city of Schleswig, around 1100, the Duke of Saxony gave Holstein, as it was his own country, to Count Adolf I of Schauenburg.
Schleswig and Holstein have at different times belonged in part or completely to either Denmark or Germany, the exception is that Schleswig had never been part of Germany until the Second Schleswig War in 1864. For many centuries, the King of Denmark was both a Danish Duke of Schleswig and a German Duke of Holstein, Schleswig was either integrated into Denmark or was a Danish fief, and Holstein was a German fief and once a sovereign state long ago. Both were for centuries ruled by the kings of Denmark. In the church, following the reformation, German was used in the part of Schleswig. This would prove decisive for shaping national sentiments in the population, the administration of both duchies was conducted in German, despite the fact that they were governed from Copenhagen. The German national awakening that followed the Napoleonic Wars gave rise to a popular movement in Holstein. This development was paralleled by an equally strong Danish national awakening in Denmark and this movement called for the complete reintegration of Schleswig into the Kingdom of Denmark and demanded an end to discrimination against Danes in Schleswig.
The ensuing conflict is called the Schleswig-Holstein Question. e. Not only in the Kingdom of Denmark, but to Danes living in Schleswig, they demanded protection for the Danish language in Schleswig. A liberal constitution for Holstein was not seriously considered in Copenhagen and these demands were rejected by the Danish government in 1848, and the Germans of Holstein and southern Schleswig rebelled
The British Museum is dedicated to human history and culture, and is located in the Bloomsbury area of London. The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the physician, the museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, in Montagu House, on the site of the current building. Although today principally a museum of art objects and antiquities. Its foundations lie in the will of the Irish-born British physician, on 7 June 1753, King George II gave his formal assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. They were joined in 1757 by the Old Royal Library, now the Royal manuscripts, together these four foundation collections included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving copy of Beowulf. The British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king, freely open to the public, sloanes collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests.
The addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary, the body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The Trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost. With the acquisition of Montagu House the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts. A list of donations to the Museum, dated 31 January 1784, in the early 19th century the foundations for the extensive collection of sculpture began to be laid and Greek and Egyptian artefacts dominated the antiquities displays. Gifts and purchases from Henry Salt, British consul general in Egypt, beginning with the Colossal bust of Ramesses II in 1818, many Greek sculptures followed, notably the first purpose-built exhibition space, the Charles Towneley collection, much of it Roman Sculpture, in 1805.
In 1816 these masterpieces of art, were acquired by The British Museum by Act of Parliament. The collections were supplemented by the Bassae frieze from Phigaleia, Greece in 1815, the Ancient Near Eastern collection had its beginnings in 1825 with the purchase of Assyrian and Babylonian antiquities from the widow of Claudius James Rich. The neoclassical architect, Sir Robert Smirke, was asked to draw up plans for an extension to the Museum. For the reception of the Royal Library, and a Picture Gallery over it, and put forward plans for todays quadrangular building, much of which can be seen today. The dilapidated Old Montagu House was demolished and work on the Kings Library Gallery began in 1823, the extension, the East Wing, was completed by 1831. The Museum became a site as Sir Robert Smirkes grand neo-classical building gradually arose
Falx is a Latin word originally meaning sickle but was used to mean any of a number of tools that had a curved blade that was sharp on the inside edge such as a scythe. Falx was used to mean a weapon – particularly that of the Thracians and Dacians – and, later, in Latin texts, the weapon was described as an ensis falcatus by Ovid in Metamorphose and as a falx supina by Juvenal in Satiriae. The Dacian falx came in two sizes, one-handed and two-handed, the shorter variant was called sica in the Dacian language with a blade length that varied but was usually around 16 inches long with a handle 1/3 longer than the blade. The two-handed falx was a pole-arm and it consisted of a 3 feet long wooden shaft with a long curved iron blade of nearly-equal length attached to the end. Archaeological evidence indicates that the falx was used two-handed. The blade was sharpened only on the inside and was reputed to be devastatingly effective, however, it left its user vulnerable because, being a two-handed weapon, the warrior could not make use of a shield.
Alternatively, it might be used as a hook, pulling away shields and cutting at vulnerable limbs, Trajans column is a monument to the emperor’s conquest of Dacia. The massive base is covered with reliefs of trophies of Dacian weapons, the column itself has a helical frieze that tells the story of the Dacian wars. On the frieze, almost all the Dacians that are armed have shields, the exact weapon of those few shown without shields cannot be determined with certainty. The frieze of Trajans column shows Dacians using a smaller, this column is largely stylized, with the sculptor believed to have worked from Trajans now lost commentary and unlikely to have witnessed the events himself. A further problem is that most of the weapons on the monument were made of metal and this column shows four distinct types of falx, whereas Trajans shows only one type that does not resemble any on the Adamclisi monument. Because of this, historians disagree on which depiction is correct, both columns show the Dacians fighting with no armour apart from a shield, although some on the Adamclisi are wearing helmets.
Some historians believe that armour was not depicted to differentiate Dacians from Romans, other sources indicate that Dacians by this time had undergone Romanisation, used Roman military tactics, and sometimes wore Roman style scale armour. It is likely that the nobles at least wore armour and, combined with the falx, at the time of the Dacian wars, researchers have estimated that only ten percent of Iberian and Gallic warriors had access to swords, usually the nobility. By contrast Dacia had rich resources of iron and were metal workers. It is clear that a percentage of Dacians owned swords. These experiments show that the falx was most efficient when targeting the head, shoulder and especially the right arm, a legionary who had lost the use of his right arm became a serious liability to his unit in battle. Roman legionaries had reinforcing iron straps applied to their helmets - it is clear that these are late modifications because they are roughly applied across existing embossed decoration
The Suebi was a large group of related Germanic peoples who lived in Germania in the time of the Roman Empire. They were first mentioned by Julius Caesar in connection with his battles against Ariovistus in Gaul and they actually occupy more than half of Germania, and are divided into a number of distinct tribes under distinct names, though all generally are called Suebi. At one time, classical ethnography had applied the name Suevi to so many Germanic tribes that it appeared as if, in the first centuries AD, classical authors noted that the Suevic tribes, compared to other Germanic tribes, were very mobile and not reliant on agriculture. Various Suevic groups moved from the direction of the Baltic Sea, towards the end of the empire, the Alemanni, referred to as Suebi, first settled in the Agri Decumates and crossed the Rhine and occupied Alsace. An area in southwest Germany is still called Swabia, which derives from the Suebi. Other Suebi entered Gaul and some moved as far as Gallaecia, where they established the Kingdom of the Suebi, which lasted for 170 years until its integration into the Visigothic Kingdom.
Notably, the Semnones, known to classical authors as one of the largest Suebian groups, seem to have a name with this same meaning, alternatively, it may be borrowed from a Celtic word for vagabond. Caesar placed the Suebi east of the Ubii apparently near modern Hesse, in the position where writers mention the Chatti, some commentators believe that Caesars Suebi were the Chatti or possibly the Hermunduri, or Semnones. Later authors use the term Suebi more broadly, to cover a number of tribes in central Germany. Whether or not the Chatti were ever considered Suevi, both Tacitus and Strabo distinguish the two partly because the Chatti were more settled in one territory, whereas Suevi remained less settled. The definitions of the greater ethnic groupings within Germania were apparently not always consistent and clear, whereas Tacitus reported three main kinds of German peoples, Irminones and Ingaevones, Pliny specifically adds two more genera or kinds, the Bastarnae and the Vandili. The Vandals were tribes east of the Elbe, including the well-known Silingi and Burgundians, the modern term Elbe Germanic similarly covers a large grouping of Germanic peoples that at least overlaps with the classical terms Suevi and Irminones.
In the time of Caesar, southern Germany was Celtic, in addition, near the Hercynian forest Caesar believed that the Celtic Tectosages had once lived. All of these peoples had for the most part moved by the time of Tacitus, Cassius Dio wrote that the Suebi, who dwelt across the Rhine, were called Celts, which could mean that some Celtic groups were absorbed by larger Germanic tribal confederations. Strabo, in Book IV of his Geography associates the Suebi with the Hercynian Forest and the south of Germania north of the Danube. He describes a chain of mountains north of the Danube that is like an extension of the Alps, possibly the Swabian Alps. In Book VII Strabo specifically mentions as Suevic peoples the Marcomanni, some of these tribes were inside the forest and some outside of it. Tacitus confirms the name Boiemum, saying it was a survival marking the old population of the place