SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Suez Canal

The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez. It is considered to define the border between Africa and Asia. Constructed by the Suez Canal Company between 1859 and 1869, it opened on 17 November 1869; the canal offers watercraft a more direct route between the North Atlantic and northern Indian oceans via the Mediterranean and Red seas, thus avoiding the South Atlantic and southern Indian oceans and reducing the journey distance from the Arabian Sea to London, for example, by 8,900 kilometres. It extends from the northern terminus of Port Said to the southern terminus of Port Tewfik at the city of Suez, its length is 193.30 km including its southern access-channels. In 2012, 17,225 vessels traversed the canal; the original canal featured a single-lane waterway with passing locations in the Ballah Bypass and the Great Bitter Lake. It contains no lock system, with seawater flowing through it. In general, the canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in south in summer.

South of the lakes, the current changes with the tide at Suez. The United Kingdom and France owned the canal until July 1956, when the President of Egypt, Gamal Abdel Nasser, nationalized it - an event which led to the Suez Crisis of October–November 1956; the canal is maintained by the Suez Canal Authority of Egypt. Under the Convention of Constantinople, it may be used "in time of war as in time of peace, by every vessel of commerce or of war, without distinction of flag"; the canal has played an important military strategic role as a naval short-cut and choke-point. Navies with coastlines and bases on both the Mediterranean and Red Seas have a particular interest in the Suez Canal. In August 2014 the Egyptian government launched construction to expand and widen the Ballah Bypass for 35 km to speed the canal's transit-time; the expansion intended to nearly double the capacity of the Suez Canal - from 49 to 97 ships per day. At a cost of $8.4 billion, this project was funded with interest-bearing investment certificates issued to Egyptian entities and individuals.

The "New Suez Canal", as the expansion was dubbed, was opened with great fanfare in a ceremony on 6 August 2015. On 24 February 2016, the Suez Canal Authority opened the new side channel; this side channel, located at the northern side of the east extension of the Suez Canal, serves the East Terminal for berthing and unberthing vessels from the terminal. As the East Container Terminal is located on the Canal itself, before the construction of the new side channel it was not possible to berth or unberth vessels at the terminal while a convoy was running. Ancient west–east canals were built to facilitate travel from the Nile River to the Red Sea. One smaller canal is believed to have been constructed under the auspices of Senusret II or Ramesses II. Another canal incorporating a portion of the first, was constructed under the reign of Necho II, but the only functional canal was engineered and completed by Darius I; the legendary Sesostris may have started work on an ancient canal joining the Nile with the Red Sea, when an irrigation channel was constructed around 1850 BCE, navigable during the flood season, leading into a dry river valley east of the Nile River Delta named Wadi Tumilat.

In his Meteorology, Aristotle wrote: One of their kings tried to make a canal to it, but he found that the sea was higher than the land. So he first, Darius afterwards, stopped making the canal, lest the sea should mix with the river water and spoil it. Strabo wrote that Sesostris started to build a canal, Pliny the Elder wrote: 165. Next comes the Tyro tribe and, the harbour of the Daneoi, from which Sesostris, king of Egypt, intended to carry a ship-canal to where the Nile flows into what is known as the Delta; the Persian king Darius had the same idea, yet again Ptolemy II, who made a trench 100 feet wide, 30 feet deep and about 35 miles long, as far as the Bitter Lakes. In the second half of the 19th century, French cartographers discovered the remnants of an ancient north–south canal past the east side of Lake Timsah and ending near the north end of the Great Bitter Lake; this proved to be the celebrated canal made by the Persian king Darius I, as his stele commemorating its construction was found at the site.

In the 20th century the northward extension of this ancient canal was discovered, extending from Lake Timsah to the Ballah Lakes. This was dated to the Middle Kingdom of Egypt by extrapolating the dates of ancient sites along its course; the reliefs of the Punt expedition under Hatshepsut, 1470 BCE, depict seagoing vessels carrying the expeditionary force returning from Punt. This suggests that a navigable link existed between the Nile. Recent excavations in Wadi Gawasis may indicate that Egypt's maritime trade started from the Red Sea and did not require a canal. Evidence seems to indicate its existence by the 13th century BCE during the time of Ramesses II. Remnants of an ancient west–east canal through the ancient Egyptian cities of Bubastis, Pi-Ramesses, a

Big Brother (German season 5)

The fifth season of Big Brother Germany lasted for one year from 2 March 2004 to 1 March 2005 and is therefore the longest running Big Brother show worldwide. This season is the longest uninterrupted live television broadcast according to Guinness World Records; the Housemates lived in a house with 3 areas. Rich and Survivor; every week the housemates had to compete in challenges. Some of these challenges included jumping from a flying helicopter into water. At the beginning of the last two months, the survivor area was used as a punishment zone; the title song this season, "Alles was du willst" by Lex. Franziska "Franzi" Lewandrowski won second place and the prize of €50,000. Sascha Sirtl won the season and the prize of €1,000,000; the 4-hour finale on 1 March 2005 was watched by 30% audience share in targeted 14–29 years. Main Article about the show

Community Climate System Model

The Community Climate System Model is a coupled global climate model developed by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research with funding from the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The coupled components include an atmospheric model, a land-surface model, an ocean model, a sea ice model. CCSM is maintained by the National Center for Atmospheric Research, its software design assumes a physical/dynamical component of the climate system and, as a available community model, is designed to work on a variety of machine architectures powerful enough to run the model. The CESM codebase is public domain with some segregable components issued under open source and other licenses; the offline chemical transport model has been described as "very efficient". The model includes four submodels connected by a coupler that exchanges information with the submodels. NCAR suggested that because of this, CCSM cannot be considered a single climate model, but rather a framework for building and testing various climate models.

The Climatological Data Ocean Model is at version 6.0. It must be run within the framework of CCSM rather than standalone, it takes two netCDF datasets as input and sends six outputs to the coupler, to be integrated with the output of the other submodels. The Community Atmosphere Model can be run as a standalone atmosphere model, its most current version is 3.1. On May 17, 2002, its name was changed from the NCAR Community Climate Model to reflect its role in the new system, it shares the same horizontal grid as the land model of CCSM: a 256×128 regular longitude/latitude global horizontal grid. It has 26 levels in the vertical; the polar component of ocean-atmosphere coupling includes sea ice geophysics using the formerly-known Los Alamos Sea Ice Model, CICE, now referred to as the CICE Consortium model, to which NCAR has contributed code and physical improvements through the Polar Climate Working Group. CICE simulates the growth, movement and melt of sea ice, critical for calculating energy and mass fluxes between the polar atmosphere and oceans in the earth system.

The first version of CCSM was created in 1983 as the Community Climate Model. Over the next two decades it was improved and was renamed CCSM after the Climate System Model components were introduced in May 1996. In June 2004 NCAR released the third version. In 2007 this new version was used alongside many others. In May 2010 NCAR released CCSM version 4. On June 25, 2010 NCAR released the successor to CCSM, called the Community Earth System Model, version 1.0, as a unified code release that included CCSM4 as the code base for its atmospheric component. CCSM4 CCSM3 CCSM2 CCSM1 Community Atmosphere Model, atmospheric component of CCSM