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Suffern, New York

Suffern is a village, incorporated in 1796 in the town of Ramapo, Rockland County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, Suffern's population was 10,723. "The Point of the Mountains" or "Sidman's Clove" were names used in designating the present village of Suffern before the American Revolution. The area was inhabited by the Ramapough, a tribe of Munsee, who were a division of the great Lenape nation. Upon Sidman's death this land passed into the hands of his son-in-law, John Smith, who sold it to John Suffern; the village of Suffern was founded in 1796. John Suffern, first Rockland County judge, 1798–1806, settled near the base of the Ramapo Mountains in 1773, called the place New Antrim, after his home in County Antrim, Northern Ireland, where his Huguenot ancestors had settled. New Antrim's location was considered strategically important in the Revolutionary War due to its location at an important crossroads near Ramapo Pass. General George Washington and other important military leaders used John Suffern's home as headquarters when they were in the area.

Suffern is part of the Washington–Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail under the auspices of the National Park Service. This trail commemorates the route followed by General Washington and the French Comte de Rochambeau as they traveled to the siege of Yorktown, which led to the end of America's War of Independence. Rochambeau made encampment with his 5,000 soldiers in Suffern on August 25, 1781, on his way to Yorktown and again on September 13, 1782, as he retraced his steps to return home. An historical marker on the Washington Avenue side of the Lafayette Theatre identifies this site of "Rochambeau's Encampment 1781–1782". At the time of the encampment, this site was directly across the road from village founder John Suffern's home and tavern where the comte de Rochambeau stayed; the Suffern Furniture Company is now located. During the war, Commander-in-Chief General Washington and his regiment made camp in the village several times. Lafayette Avenue, the main street of Suffern, is named in honor of Revolutionary War hero Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, better known as the Marquis de Lafayette.

Other guests who took advantage of Suffern's hospitality included Lieutenant Colonel Aaron Burr, who became the third Vice President of the United States. From Suffern to Monroe was a main route of travel through the western Hudson Highlands; the main road was the Albany Post Road, one of the oldest roads in the state, which served as the stagecoach line between Albany and New York City and was traveled in winter once the Hudson River froze. The 20 miles of road through Ramapo Pass became the Orange Turnpike. Tolls were collected from 1800 until 1886 to improve the road; the New York State Thruway now runs through the pass. The south entrance to the town was garrisoned during the Revolution, with General Washington ordering as many as 400 soldiers to be stationed there at all times; the first railroad line across Rockland County, the Erie Railroad, was built in 1841 and ran from Piermont to Ramapo. By 1851, the line was extended to Lake Erie, was considered an engineering marvel; the tracks are now owned by the Norfolk Southern line.

In consideration for the right-of-way given it by Judge Edward Suffern, son of founder John, to lay track across his 6 miles of land, the Erie Railroad named their depot "Suffern's Station", the village became known as Suffern, not New Antrim as it had been called by John Suffern. In 1897, Avon Products, known as California Perfume Company, built a 3,000-square-foot laboratory in Suffern. In late 2005, construction was finished on a state-of-the art, 225,000-square-foot facility that would become Avon's global hub for research and development; the new building was constructed on the same site as their previous R&D facility, demolished for site parking. In 1916, what would become New York State Route 59, which reached from Nyack to Spring Valley in 1915, was extended to Suffern and Ramapo Hamlet. In 1924, the Lafayette Theatre, named for the Revolutionary War hero the Marquis de Lafayette, opened its doors. In 1972, the Salvation Army moved their School for Officer Training to a 30-acre site in Suffern.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 2.1 square miles, of which 0.04 square miles, or 1.42%, is water. Suffern is designated as a gateway to the Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area; as of the census of 2000, there were 11,006 people, 4,634 households, 2,836 families residing in the village. The population density was 5,265.8 people per square mile. There were 4,762 housing units at an average density of 2,278.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 86.83% white, 3.53% African American, 0.26% Native American, 2.83% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 4.52% from other races, 1.94% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.87% of the population. There were 4,634 households out of which 25.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.6% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.8% were non-families. 32.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living

56th British Academy Film Awards

The 56th British Academy Film Awards, given by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts, took place on 23 February 2003 and honoured the best films of 2002. The Pianist won Best Best Director for Roman Polanski. Daniel Day-Lewis won Best Actor for Gangs of New York and Nicole Kidman won Best Actress for The Hours. Christopher Walken won Best Supporting Actor for Catch Me If You Can and Catherine Zeta-Jones won Best Supporting Actress for Chicago; the Warrior, directed by Asif Kapadia, was voted Outstanding British Film of 2002. Most wins2 Chicago, The Hours, The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers, The Pianist, Road to Perdition, Talk to Her Most nominations3 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets 2 About a Boy, Dirty Pretty Things, The Magdalene Sisters, Y Tu Mamá También Allison, Rebecca. "Britain's big Bafta night as The Hours has the edge on Hollywood blockbusters". The Guardian "Stars arrive for BAFTAs". BBC. February 23, 2003 "'Pianist,' Kidman win BAFTAs". CNN. February 24, 2003

Chicago Junction Railway

The Chicago Junction Railway operated a switching and terminal railroad in Chicago, connecting the Union Stock Yards with most other railroads in the city. It briefly operated an outer belt, which became the Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad in 1907; the New York Central Railroad acquired control of the company in 1922 and leased it to subsidiary Chicago River and Indiana Railroad. The line is now operated by the Norfolk Southern Railway; when the Union Stock Yard and Transit Company of Chicago was incorporated in 1865 to consolidate the Chicago stock yards, its powers included the construction of a railroad outside the city limits to link the stock yards with the railroads entering Chicago south of Roosevelt Road. All nine of these railroads - the Chicago and Alton Railroad, Chicago and Quincy Railroad and Great Eastern Railway and North Western Railway and Rock Island Railroad, Illinois Central Railroad, Michigan Central Railroad, Michigan Southern and Northern Indiana Railroad, Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railway - had come to an agreement to finance the new property as a replacement for their individual yards.

In December 1865, the new Union Stock Yards and railroad opened, the latter beginning at the Illinois Central near 43rd Street and heading west along 40th Street, to the Chicago and Great Eastern, turning north to parallel the latter company's line in Campbell Avenue until it reached the Chicago and North Western Railway at Ogden Avenue. Prior to 1897, the Union Stock Yard and Transit Company operated its own property, except between 1887 and 1893, when a number of connecting carriers organized a transfer association to operate the railroad. Subsidiary Chicago and Indiana State Line Railway was incorporated July 13, 1880, soon constructed connections from the south border of the stock yards to the Grand Trunk Junction Railway and Chicago and Western Indiana Railroad, from the north border along both sides of the South Fork South Branch Chicago River to near Archer Avenue. On December 15, 1897, the USY&T leased its railroad property to the Indiana State Line. In August 1897, USY&T parent Chicago Junction Railways and Union Stock Yards Company bought control of the Chicago and Western Railroad, building an outer belt line around Chicago, with trackage rights over the Terminal Railroad from Argo to the stock yards.

The Chicago and Indiana State Line and Chicago and Western merged on April 26, 1898 to form the Chicago Junction Railway, now operating two belt lines. However, on October 31, 1907, the outer belt line was sold to the Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad, the Chicago Junction was back to the original line of the USY&T and the ca. 1880 extensions north and south of the stock yards. On May 19, 1922, the New York Central Railroad bought control of the Chicago River and Indiana Railroad and leased the Chicago Junction to the CR&I; the CR&I owned a line extending south and west from the Chicago Junction west of the stock yards to Elsdon. On August 26, 1958, the CR&I acquired the property of the Chicago Junction and lessor USY&T, in 1976 the Consolidated Rail Corporation acquired the CR&I's lines, except for the old Chicago Junction east of Prairie Avenue in Kenwood, abandoned in the 1960s; the Norfolk Southern Railway now owns and operates the line as the CR&I Industrial Track, except east of the Chicago Line, where Chicago Rail Link operates it east to Metra's Rock Island District and the rest has been abandoned.

List of defunct Illinois railroads

Jung Joon-young

Jung Joon-young is a former South Korean singer-songwriter, radio DJ, host and television personality. He first gained recognition in Mnet's reality television talent show, Superstar K4, where he finished third place. In 2013, he became the youngest member of KBS's variety show 2 Days & 1 Night Season 3, he hosted his own radio program titled MBC FM's Jung Joon-young's Simsimtapa and made his big screen debut in Love Forecast. From 2015 to March 2019, Jung was the lead vocalist of rock band Drug Restaurant known as JJY Band, releasing their first album "Escape to Hangover" in May 2015. Since his official debut with the release of 1st Mini Album in October 2013, Jung has won the "New Male Solo Artist" award for its title track "이별 10분전" at the 3rd Gaon Chart K-Pop Awards, he released the self-produced 2nd mini album, which contained six self-composed tracks on June 26, 2014. Jung had his Taiwan fan meeting in 2013 and followed it with his first overseas showcase in Taipei in July 2014, he performed the self-written "하루만" at the Pretty Man OST Japan Concert in July 2014.

He held a concert tour in China in November 2014 and performed in Beijing and Shanghai. Jung made his American concert debut during K-CON 2014 as a host. In March 2019, Jung retired from the entertainment industry, due to the Jung Joon-young KakaoTalk chatrooms, first revealed in the Burning Sun scandal, admitting that he had "filmed women without their consent and shared it in a chatroom"; this was amidst allegations of him having secretly filmed his own sex videos and shared them with friends. On November 29, 2019, Jung was sentenced to six years in prison. Jung Joon-young was born on February 1989, in South Korea, he grew up in Indonesia, Japan and Philippines. He is the youngest son of Choi Jong-sook, his father was an international businessman. Jung learned to speak three different languages fluently such as English, Korean, he could not enroll in a regular school due to frequent moves. He took private lessons for regular subjects such as Math, English and piano, he got his fourth-degree black belt in Taekwondo.

When Jung turned 17, he decided to go to the Philippines to do missionary work. He taught music to the local children, he was a member of the choir which performed in front of the former president of the Philippines, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. He stated that he got inspired by Kurt Cobain and was determined to become a rock star after he watched Nirvana's MTV Unplugged Show when he was a teenager. Indie Bands periodJung moved to South Korea the next year to start his musical career and soon signed to an entertainment agency Danal Entertainment which released Jung's solo EP titled Rock Trip in 2010 as well as the digital single "환상 Fantasy" in 2012. In 2008, Starkim Entertainment selected Jung as a vocalist of LEDApple; as one of the original members, he went through the training process and finished recording the debut album with the band, before Led Apple's debut in 2010, Starkim Entertainment discovered that Jung was under contract with the previous agency which refused to release him and, thus, he was dropped from the idol rock band.

In 2010, Jung dove into the Hongdae, Seoul indie music scene and formed various bands such as Flower Mist which busked in Japan and Switch On which performed for amateur club theaters. Jung modeled for several online shopping malls, he was featured in an advertisement for "BGF retail", a retail franchise, participated in other artists' music videos, such as "Liquor Bottle". Jung appeared on the TV show Ulzzang Generation 얼짱시대 Season 5 and he said of the show, "People don't like this program because they think this is just about good looking boys and girls chatting on a TV show, but it was a good opportunity for me to make money." Since his band "Switch On" was little known to the public, Jung Joon-young tried to take part in Superstar K4 with Switch On members to gain more popularity as a band, but they could not continue the audition together due to issues with some foreign members' visas. Thus, he decided to carry on the audition as a solo artist. During the Superweek, his low husky voice and rather idiosyncratic personality appealed to the viewers as well as the judges, one of whom, PSY, was impressed.

Moreover, his collaboration with Roy Kim covering "먼지가 되어" by Kim Kwang-Suk, a ballad which Jung changed to a rock version, became a big hit and the best duet audition song ever. After its release, it achieved an "all-kill" on real-time charts and won the Mnet 20's Choice Hot Cover as well as 2013's Most Popular Karaoke Song of the Year at the 3rd Gaon Chart K-Pop Awards. Jung had been at risk of dropping out several times, but he passed through into the finals by Psy's choice in the judge's final decision. Throughout the final stages, he stuck to rock as his only musical style, he received multiple suggestions to try a different genre of music, such as ballads, from the judges. However, on the other hand, his persistence for rock music impressed a lot of viewers, as a result, it help him to establish a strong fandom, he was able to survive the third stage through a large number of phone votes. His covers that represented his rock style were "매일매일 기다려 Waiting Everyday" by TeeSams, "Bed of Roses" by Bon Jovi, "Outsider", whose performance received a positive response from the judges and audience.

On the fifth stage, he was urged to sing the rock ballad "응급실 Emergency Room" by IZI, chosen by the viewers instead of via his musical taste. Unexpectedly, it

Rafael Harpaz

Rafael Harpaz is an Israeli diplomat. He is Israel's Ambassador to the Philippines since August 2018, he presented his credentials to Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte on August 31, 2018. Prior to his designation as Israel's Ambassador to the Philippines, he served as Israel’s Ambassador to Azerbaijan, Director of Public Affairs Department in the Embassy of Israel in Washington D. C.. He served as Deputy Chief of Mission in the Embassy of Israel in Stockholm, Bern and Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Ambassador Harpaz served as the Director of the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs Central Asia and Caucasus Department from 2015 to 2018, he served as the Head of Economic Department from 2009-2012, Export Control Coordinator of Division of Strategic Affairs, Deputy Director of North Africa Division. He joined the MFA in 1989. Rafael Harpaz was born in Jerusalem, Israel on January 8, 1962, he grew up in Beit HaKerem neighborhood in West Jerusalem and is the son of Nissan, the General Federation of Labour of Jerusalem and Rachel, an artist and teacher.

Harpaz graduated from Boyer High School in 1980 and served in the Israel Defense Forces between 1980-1983. He is married with three children, he speaks Hebrew and French. 2017 International M. A. in Diplomacy and Security Studies, Tel Aviv University with distinction. 1984-1987 B. A. in International Relations and Supplementary Studies, Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Rafael Harpaz commenced his diplomatic career by joining the MFA in 1989. Following the successful completion of the cadet course, Harpaz served as Deputy Chief of Mission in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Bern and Stockholm, Sweden, he served as head of the Public Diplomacy Department at the Embassy of Israel in Washington, D. C. and was responsible for the relations between the State of Israel and Maryland and the District of Columbia. He served as Israel's ambassador to Azerbaijan from September 2012 to August 2015. During his tenure at the MFA, Harpaz assumed positions of North Africa Division, he served as the Director of Central Asia and Caucasus Department.

Harpaz coordinated Holocaust victims' assets in Swiss banks on behalf of the Foreign Ministry In January 2000, Harpaz participated in the first international Holocaust conference in Stockholm. In December 2002, as Charge d'affairs of the Embassy of Israel in Sweden, Harpaz attended the Nobel Prize ceremony where Israeli-American psychologist Daniel Kahnemann was presented the Nobel Prize in economics. In June 2008, Harpaz represented the Embassy of Israel at the celebration of Israel at 60 at the National Mall; this event was sponsored by the Jewish Federation of Greater Washington. The number of participants at the event was estimated to be between 50,000–75,000. In September 2009, he was appointed as the executor of the will of Mr. Alois Eduard Heuberger of Switzerland, who donated his estate to cerebral palsy institutions in Israel, as well as in other countries in the Middle East. Together with the representative of the Israeli Ministry of Justice, he instructed that the donation be divided among several institutions.

In April 2013, Harpaz accompanied Foreign Minister Mr. Elmar Mammadyarov for the first official visit to Israel by an Azerbaijani foreign minister since the establishment of relations between the two countries in 1993. In May 2014, Israel's Minister of Foreign Affairs Mr. Avigdor Lieberman, visited Azerbaijan. During the visit, Mr. Lieberman stated that Israel views the relationship with Azerbaijan as one of special importance, praised Azerbaijan for being a country that exemplifies religious and ethnic tolerance both in past and present. Harpaz signed visa waiver agreement between Israel and Azerbaijan on behalf of the Israeli government pursuant to the agreement from December 12, 2014 that any Azerbaijani or Israeli official possessing a diplomatic or service passport is able to travel between the two states without a visa. In September 2014, Israeli Minister of Defense Mr. Moshe Ya'alon visited Azerbaijan; this was the first official visit of an Israeli Minister of Defense to Azerbaijan.

In September 2014, Harpaz visited the United States in order to meet with Congressmen, State Department officials, Jewish organizations, academic personnel, representatives of the private sector in Washington D. C. Philadelphia and New York City concerning the relations between Israel and Azerbaijan and regarding Azerbaijan as a model of tolerance; the visit was joined by the Ambassador of Azerbaijan to the United States, Mr. Elin Suleymanov, was sponsored by the American Jewish Committee. In September 2018, Harpaz welcomed and accompanied President Duterte and his delegation during their visit in Israel. During this historic visit of the Philippine President to Israel, President Duterte met Israel's Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and President Reuven Rivlin, he conducted meetings with the Filipino community and Israel business community. Embassy of Israel in the Philippines Ambassador Rafael Harpaz explains the historical ties between Israel and the Philippines in ABS-CBN News Channel Ambassador Rafael Harpaz discusses the startup nation of Israel in One News - The Chiefs Ambassador Rafael Harpaz talks

List of prizes known as the Nobel of a field

Several fields of human cultural and scientific development are not included in the list of Nobel Prizes, because they are either not among the prizes established as part of Alfred Nobel's will nor, in the case of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, sponsored afterwards by the Nobel Foundation. While the foundation has discouraged individuals and organizations that have used the Nobel name to refer to prizes not meeting the aforementioned criteria, several prominent individuals and organizations have nonetheless used the label "Nobel Prize of X" to refer to prestigious awards in fields of activity not recognized by the "real" Nobel Prizes; these awards are listed below. While the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was not endowed by Alfred Nobel, it is sponsored and administered by the Nobel Foundation, recognized as the "Nobel Prize in Economics." Due to this recognition it is included in the list below. Alfred Nobel's last will of 1895 only included five prizes, covering outstanding achievements who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in the fields of chemistry, literature and physiology or medicine.

The original Nobel prizes thus includes: Nobel Prize in Chemistry Nobel Prize in Physics Nobel Prize in Literature Nobel Peace Prize Nobel Prize in Physiology or MedicineIn addition to the prizes listed above, the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences is sponsored by the Nobel Foundation. The foundation has trademarked the term "Nobel Prize" and this designation cannot be used to refer to any prizes other than the five original Nobels. Several prizes in fields of study and achievement not covered by the original Nobel Prizes have been established by various entities; these have been referred to as the "Nobel Prize of" that particular field, in the vast majority of cases without the approval of the Nobel Foundation. These prizes include: Wolf Prize in Agriculture World Food Prize Indianapolis Prize Huxley Memorial Medal and Lecture Pritzker Prize Praemium Imperiale Kavli Prize Crafoord Prize Rumelhart Prize Turing Award Stockholm Prize in Criminology Red Dot Design Award Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences WISE Prize ENI Award Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering John Goldsmith Award Blue Planet Prize Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement IAQF Financial Engineer of the Year Award Marcus Wallenberg Prize Vautrin Lud Prize Vetlesen Prize Martin Ennals Award Kluge PrizeSee also'Philosophy' below.

International Hydrology Prize Abel Prize Fields Medal Wolf Prize in Mathematics1 International Meteorological Organization Prize Ernst von Siemens Music Prize Polar Music Prize Kavli Prize Brain Prize A. G. Huntsman Award for Excellence in the Marine Sciences John von Neumann Theory Prize Glenn A. Fry Award Prix Galien Award Berggruen Philosophy Prize Rolf Schock PrizeSee also'Humanities' above. Hasselblad Award Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science Grawemeyer Award Kurt-Koffka Medal Templeton Prize Joseph F. Engelberger Robotics Award Holberg Prize Dokuchaev Award International Prize in Statistics Katerva Award Millennium Prize Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize Ig Nobel Prize Right Livelihood Award, which recognizes contributions to solving global problems, oftentimes called "Alternative Nobel Prize" Japan Prize, which recognizes achievements in applied science. Goldman Environmental Prize for environmental activism referred to as the "Green Nobel" Stockholm Water Prize for water-related achievements, known as the "Nobel Prize of water"