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Sugar substitute

A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing less food energy than sugar-based sweeteners, making it a zero-calorie or low-calorie sweetener. Artificial sweeteners may be derived through manufacturing of plant extracts or processed by chemical synthesis. Sugar alcohols such as erythritol and sorbitol are derived from sugars. In 2017, sucralose was the most common sugar substitute used in the manufacture of foods and beverages. In 1969, cyclamate was banned for sale in the US by the Drug Administration; as of 2018, there is no strong evidence that non-sugar sweeteners are either unsafe or result in improved health outcomes. When these sweeteners are provided for restaurant customers to add to beverages such as tea and coffee, they are provided in small colored paper packets; these sweeteners are a fundamental ingredient in diet drinks to sweeten them without adding calories. High-intensity sweeteners – one type of sugar substitute – are compounds with many times the sweetness of sucrose, common table sugar.

As a result, much less sweetener is required and energy contribution is negligible. The sensation of sweetness caused by these compounds is sometimes notably different from sucrose, so they are used in complex mixtures that achieve the most intense sweet sensation. If the sucrose, replaced has contributed to the texture of the product a bulking agent is also needed; this may be seen in soft drinks or sweet teas that are labeled as "diet" or "light" that contain artificial sweeteners and have notably different mouthfeel, or in table sugar replacements that mix maltodextrins with an intense sweetener to achieve satisfactory texture sensation. In the United States, six high-intensity sugar substitutes have been approved for use: aspartame, neotame, acesulfame potassium and advantame. Food additives must be approved by the FDA, sweeteners must be proven as safe via submission by a manufacturer of a GRAS document; the conclusions about GRAS are based on a detailed review of a large body of information, including rigorous toxicological and clinical studies.

GRAS notices exist for two plant-based, high-intensity sweeteners: steviol glycosides obtained from stevia leaves and extracts from Siraitia grosvenorii called luo han guo or monk fruit. Cyclamates are used outside the United States, but are prohibited from manufacturing as a sweetener within the United States; the majority of sugar substitutes approved for food use are artificially synthesized compounds. However, some bulk plant-derived sugar substitutes are known, including sorbitol and lactitol; as it is not commercially viable to extract these products from fruits and vegetables, they are produced by catalytic hydrogenation of the appropriate reducing sugar. For example, xylose is converted to xylitol, lactose to lactitol, glucose to sorbitol. Sorbitol and lactitol are examples of sugar alcohols; these are, in general, less sweet than sucrose but have similar bulk properties and can be used in a wide range of food products. Sometimes the sweetness profile is fine-tuned by mixing with high-intensity sweeteners.

Acesulfame potassium is 200 times sweeter than sucrose, as sweet as aspartame, about two-thirds as sweet as saccharin, one third as sweet as sucralose. Like saccharin, it has a bitter aftertaste at high concentrations. Kraft Foods has patented the use of sodium ferulate to mask acesulfame's aftertaste. Acesulfame potassium is blended with other sweeteners, which give a more sucrose-like taste, whereby each sweetener masks the other's aftertaste and exhibits a synergistic effect in which the blend is sweeter than its components. Unlike aspartame, acesulfame potassium is stable under heat under moderately acidic or basic conditions, allowing it to be used as a food additive in baking or in products that require a long shelf life. In carbonated drinks, it is always used in conjunction with another sweetener, such as aspartame or sucralose, it is used as a sweetener in protein shakes and pharmaceutical products chewable and liquid medications, where it can make the active ingredients more palatable.

Aspartame was discovered in 1965 by James M. Schlatter at the G. D. Searle company, he accidentally spilled some aspartame on his hand. When he licked his finger, he noticed. Torunn Atteraas Garin oversaw the development of aspartame as an artificial sweetener, it is an odorless, white crystalline powder, derived from the two amino acids aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is about 180–200 times as sweet as sugar and can be used as a tabletop sweetener or in frozen desserts, gelatins and chewing gum; when cooked or stored at high temperatures, aspartame breaks down into its constituent amino acids. This makes aspartame undesirable as a baking sweetener, it is more stable in somewhat acidic conditions, such as in soft drinks. Though it does not have a bitter aftertaste like saccharin, it may not taste like sugar; when eaten, aspartame is metabolized into its original amino acids. Because it is so intensely sweet little of it is needed to sweeten a food product, is thus useful for reducing the number of calories in a product.

The safety of aspartame has b

Chesapeake Bayhawks

The Chesapeake Bayhawks are a Major League Lacrosse professional men's field lacrosse team based in Annapolis, Maryland since 2010. They have played in the greater Baltimore metro area since the MLL's inaugural 2001 season, as the Baltimore Bayhawks from 2001–2006, the Washington Bayhawks from 2007–2009, they have won the most of any MLL franchise. The Bayhawks played two seasons at Homewood Field at Johns Hopkins University, in 2001 and 2003, while they played at M&T Bank Stadium in downtown Baltimore in 2002, their home moved to Johnny Unitas Stadium on the campus of Towson University from 2004 to 2006. They won National Division titles in 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005 and made the 2004 playoffs as a wild card. In 2001, the Bayhawks won the National Division crown, but fell short in the championship game to the Long Island Lizards; the following year, the Bayhawks repeated as National Division champions and this time avenged their title game loss by beating the Lizards to win their first MLL crown.

In the MLL's third season, the Bayhawks continued their National Division dominance with their third straight title, but again came up just short in the MLL Championship against the Lizards. The Bayhawks were eliminated in the semifinals; the 2005 Bayhawks squad is regarded as one of the greatest lacrosse teams assembled. Led by hall-of-famers Gary Gait and Tom Marechek, the Bayhawks went 10–2, dominating the competition and setting several scoring records throughout the year, they scored 47 more goals than any other team and lead the league with fewest goals allowed, resulting in an average score of 20–13. The team capped the regular season with their fourth National Division title and their second MLL crown; the Bayhawks were the only Major League Lacrosse team to have a winning season in each of the first five years of the league, posting a 44–19 record. The 2006 season was a transition year for the Bayhawks. BT Lax Operating purchased the franchise from the prior ownership group led by the Pivec family.

The Bayhawks missed the playoffs for the first time in its history. Following the season, the new owners announced the team would be renamed the Washington Bayhawks and play around Washington, DC; the Washington Bayhawks played their first home game of the 2007 season at George Mason Stadium in Fairfax, Virginia with the subsequent five home games at Georgetown University's Multi-Sport Field. George Mason Stadium served as the primary field for five home games during 2008 with one home game at Navy–Marine Corps Memorial Stadium in Annapolis, Maryland. Both years the Bayhawks produced losing records, 5–7 and 4–8. In 2009, the Bayhawks returned to Maryland for good and signed a three-year agreement with the US Naval Academy for their home games. A permanent home did not help the Bayhawks on the field, they finished with another 5–7 season. In March 2010, the Bayhawks announced a new ownership group, Hometown Lacrosse, LLC led by majority owner Brendan Kelly; the Bayhawks announced that the team name would be changed to the Chesapeake Bayhawks to include all areas of the region from Northern Maryland to Virginia and Washington, DC to the Eastern Shore.

The Bayhawks continued to play at Navy–Marine Corps Memorial Stadium in Annapolis. The team started out 4 -- 6, leading Kelly to take over as head coach himself. With Kelly's leadership, the team finished the 2010 season at 6–6 and made the playoffs for the first time since 2005; the Bayhawks defeated the Boston Cannons 13–9 in the semifinals, won the Steinfeld Trophy for the third time with another 13–9 victory over their archrivals, the Long Island Lizards. After a rollercoaster season and another 6–6 record in 2011, the Bayhawks were defeated by the Boston Cannons in a close match-up in the playoffs at home. In the off-season, the team made some major changes when Kelly stepped down as head coach and promoted Dave Cottle from assistant coach to head coach. Cottle brought in Tony Resch to serve as his defensive coordinator. In 2012 they recaptured the Steinfeld Cup; the Bayhawks repeated as MLL champions in 2013. After their third title in four years in 2013, the Bayhawks missed the playoffs in the following four seasons, the second time in franchise history.

In 2016, seven teams finished tied atop the standings including the Bayhawks. Due to tiebreaker procedures, the Bayhawks were left out of the playoffs. In 2017, the Bayhawks started the season 3-1, but a four-game losing streak put them in a bad position at 3-5; the Bayhawks were able to regain some momentum but were eliminated with a loss during the second-to-last week of the regular season. They finished the season on a high note though, a 23-19 victory over the defending champion Denver Outlaws. In the game, rookie Josh Byrne scored seven goals and finished 2017 with the Major League Lacrosse record for goals in a season for a rookie with 39; the win put them at an 7-7, but did not prevent them from extending their playoff drought to four seasons. On September 14, the Bayhawks announced that head coach Brian Reese would not be returning because the team wanted a full-time coach, the league's first. On December 13, the Bayhawks announced; the Bayhawks are developing plans for a $40 million 10,000-seat stadium in Crownsville that would include a three-story team headquarters.

The project's first phase would be a 6,000 seat amphitheater that the Bayhawks hope to be playing in by 2020, while phase two would include 20 youth fields but the local community has raised significant objections to the plans. The Bayhawks new and old head coach Dave Cottle began the 2018 campaign at home against the Dallas

Old Customs House (Knoxville, Tennessee)

The Old Customs House called the Old Post Office, is a historic building located at the corner of Clinch Avenue and Market Street in Knoxville, United States. Completed in 1874, it was the city's first federal building, it housed the federal courts, excise offices and post office until 1933. From 1936 to 1976, it was used by the Tennessee Valley Authority for offices. Expanded in 2004, the building is home to the East Tennessee History Center, which includes the Lawson McGhee Library's Calvin M. McClung Historical Collection, the Knox County Archives, the East Tennessee Historical Society's headquarters and museum; the building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places for its architectural significance. The Old Customs House is a three-story Italianate style building sheathed in East Tennessee marble; the smooth exterior walls contrast with rusticated quoins at the building's corners. The former courtroom on the third floor is notable for its neoclassical detailing. Much of the original interior has been altered.

The Customs House is situated on what was Lot 11 of James White's 1795 extension of Knoxville. An 1871 map of Knoxville shows the property as an open grove surrounded by a few small houses. Throughout the 1850s, Congress was petitioned by cities across the country to provide courtrooms and post offices. Congress was reluctant to provide funding for buildings that only contained judicial and postal functions, so the title "Customs House" was used instead of "courthouse" or "post office." Congress was viewed as more agreeable to providing construction funding if excise taxes collected from foreign imports were linked to projects, since taxes generated revenue. Congress appropriated funding for Knoxville's Customs House in 1856, reappropriated the funding in 1869. Construction of the original portion of the Customs House, designed by U. S. government chief architect Alfred B. Mullett, began in 1871 and was completed in 1874; the first floor was used as a post office, while the second and third floors were used for the federal court and as office space for various federal officials, namely postal inspectors, pension agents, court officials, internal-revenue officers.

As Knoxville's population quadrupled in the late 19th century, the increased postal activity left the Customs House critically overcrowded, thus the building was enlarged in 1910. A 1913 government document describes the building as "clean and well kept," with a "large and roomy" workroom for postal employees; the document stated that the building had its own steam plant for heating, used electricity provided by the Knoxville Railway & Light Company. Knoxville's continued growth rendered the Customs House insufficient for the city's postal needs, a new post office was built on Main Street in 1934. Ownership of the Customs House was transferred to the newly created Tennessee Valley Authority for use as office space. Along with the Customs House, TVA maintained offices in the nearby Arnstein Building and in the Daylight Building on Union Avenue. Following the completion of the TVA Towers in 1976, ownership of the Customs House was transferred to Knox County for use by the Lawson McGhee Library's Calvin M. McClung Historical Collection, the Knox County Archives.

In the 1980s, the East Tennessee Historical Society, using the McClung Collection's office equipment and staff, moved into the Customs House, set up the East Tennessee Historical Center. The Society used the second floor of the Customs House, but moved to the first floor in 1992; the Society opened the Museum of East Tennessee History the following year. In 2000, the second-floor corridor of the building was named "Deaderick Hall" in honor of librarian Lucile Deaderick. In 2004, a BarberMcMurry-designed eastern extension to the Customs House was completed, extending the structure the length of Clinch Avenue from Market to Gay Street; this new complex, known as the East Tennessee History Center, includes the ETHS's headquarters, the Museum of East Tennessee History, the Calvin M. McClung Historical Collection, the Knox County Archives; the Old Customs House is depicted in the ETHS logo. Fidelity Building Greystone Knox County Courthouse Old City Hall Isenhour, Judith Clayton. Knoxville - A Pictorial History.

Pages 122-124. Knoxville: Fifty Landmarks. Page 11. East Tennessee Historical Society MPC Silver Award Photos Custom House under construction, circa 1872 – photograph on file at the Calvin M. McClung Digital Collection Custom House interior, circa 1894 – photograph on file at the Calvin M. McClung Digital Collection

David Bell (footballer, born 1985)

David Bell is an Irish football player playing as a defender for Lisburn Distillery in the IFA Premiership. Bell was spotted by a Rushden and Diamonds scout at an early age whilst playing in an Ulster schools select team in an inter-provincial tournament and was snapped up by the club, he won caps for the Republic of Ireland under-17 - 19 under Brian Kerr. The left-sided player moved back to his native Ireland in 2004 where he joined St. Patrick's Athletic of Dublin, he made 30 appearances for the Premier League outfit. He midfield. Signing for Finn Harps at the beginning of the 2006 season, he made his debut against Kildare County on 18 March 2006, he played 34 games for the club, including 1 as a substitute. After spells at Institute and Limavady United, he joined Crusaders, he made his debut for Crusaders in an Irish Cup tie against Bangor, won the County Antrim Shield in just his second game. He joined Carrick Rangers on loan in January 2011. Crusaders County Antrim Shield: 2009/10Carrick Rangers Championship 1: 2010/11 WKD Intermidiete Cup: 2010/11

Minimum-variance unbiased estimator

In statistics a minimum-variance unbiased estimator or uniformly minimum-variance unbiased estimator is an unbiased estimator that has lower variance than any other unbiased estimator for all possible values of the parameter. For practical statistics problems, it is important to determine the MVUE if one exists, since less-than-optimal procedures would be avoided, other things being equal; this has led to substantial development of statistical theory related to the problem of optimal estimation. While combining the constraint of unbiasedness with the desirability metric of least variance leads to good results in most practical settings—making MVUE a natural starting point for a broad range of analyses—a targeted specification may perform better for a given problem. Consider estimation of g based on data X 1, X 2, …, X n i.i.d. from some member of a family of densities p θ, θ ∈ Ω, where Ω is the parameter space. An unbiased estimator δ of g is UMVUE if ∀ θ ∈ Ω, var ⁡ ≤ var ⁡ for any other unbiased estimator δ ~.

If an unbiased estimator of g exists one can prove there is an unique MVUE. Using the Rao–Blackwell theorem one can prove that determining the MVUE is a matter of finding a complete sufficient statistic for the family p θ, θ ∈ Ω and conditioning any unbiased estimator on it. Further, by the Lehmann–Scheffé theorem, an unbiased estimator, a function of a complete, sufficient statistic is the UMVUE estimator. Put formally, suppose δ is unbiased for g, that T is a complete sufficient statistic for the family of densities. Η = E ⁡ is the MVUE for g. A Bayesian analog is a Bayes estimator with minimum mean square error. An efficient estimator need not exist, but if it does and if it is unbiased, it is the MVUE. Since the mean squared error of an estimator δ is MSE ⁡ = var ⁡ + 2 the MVUE minimizes MSE among unbiased estimators. In some cases biased estimators have lower MSE because they have a smaller variance than does any unbiased estimator. Consider the data to be a single observation from an continuous distribution on R with density p θ = θ e − x θ + 1 and we wish to find the UMVU estimator of g = 1 θ 2 First we recognize that the density can be written as e − x 1 + e − x exp ⁡ ( − θ log ⁡ +

Akira Kano

Akira Kano is a Japanese alpine skier and Paralympic Champion. He competed in the 2006 Winter Paralympics in Turin, where he became 27th at the Slalom, sitting, he competed in the 2010 Winter Paralympics in British Columbia, Canada. He won a gold medal in the bronze in the Downhill, sitting, he became 6th at the Slalom. He competed in the 2014 Winter Paralympics in Russia, he won a gold medal in the Super-G as well as gold in the Downhill. "Athletes." Akira KANO. Organizing Committee of the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi, 2014. Web. 10 Mar. 2014. Akira Kano at Vancouver 2010 at the Wayback Machine Akira Kano at the International Paralympic Committee