The sulfate or sulphate ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula SO2−4. Sulfate is the spelling recommended by IUPAC. Salts, acid derivatives, peroxides of sulfate are used in industry. Sulfates occur in everyday life. Sulfates are salts of sulfuric acid and many are prepared from that acid; the sulfate anion consists of a central sulfur atom surrounded by four equivalent oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. The symmetry is the same as that of methane; the sulfur atom is in the +6 oxidation state. The sulfate ion carries an overall charge of −2 and it is the conjugate base of the bisulfate ion, HSO−4, in turn the conjugate base of H2SO4, sulfuric acid. Organic sulfate esters, such as dimethyl sulfate, are covalent compounds and esters of sulfuric acid; the tetrahedral molecular geometry of the sulfate ion is. The first description of the bonding in modern terms was by Gilbert Lewis in his groundbreaking paper of 1916 where he described the bonding in terms of electron octets around each atom, no double bonds and a formal charge of +2 on the sulfur atom.
Linus Pauling used valence bond theory to propose that the most significant resonance canonicals had two pi bonds involving d orbitals. His reasoning was that the charge on sulfur was thus reduced, in accordance with his principle of electroneutrality; the S−O bond length of 149 pm is shorter than the bond lengths in sulfuric acid of 157 pm for S−OH. The double bonding was taken by Pauling to account for the shortness of the S−O bond. Pauling's use of d orbitals provoked a debate on the relative importance of π bonding and bond polarity in causing the shortening of the S−O bond; the outcome was a broad consensus that d orbitals play a role, but are not as significant as Pauling had believed. A accepted description involving pπ – dπ bonding was proposed by D. W. J. Cruickshank. In this model occupied p orbitals on oxygen overlap with empty sulfur d orbitals. However, in this description, despite there being some π character to the S−O bonds, the bond has significant ionic character. For sulfuric acid, computational analysis confirms a clear positive charge on sulfur and a low 3d occupancy.
Therefore, the representation with four single bonds is the optimal Lewis structure rather than the one with two double bonds. In this model, the structure obeys the octet rule and the charge distribution is in agreement with the electronegativity of the atoms; the discrepancy between the S−O bond length in the sulfate ion and the S−OH bond length in sulfuric acid is explained by donation of p-orbital electrons from the terminal S=O bonds in sulfuric acid into the antibonding S−OH orbitals, weakening them resulting in the longer bond length of the latter. However, the bonding representation of Pauling for sulfate and other main group compounds with oxygen is still a common way of representing the bonding in many textbooks; the apparent contradiction can be cleared if one realizes that the covalent double bonds in the Lewis structure in reality represent bonds that are polarized by more than 90% towards the oxygen atom. On the other hand, in the structure with a dipolar bond, the charge is localized as a lone pair on the oxygen.
Methods of preparing metal sulfates include: treating metal, metal hydroxide or metal oxide with sulfuric acidZn + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2 Cu2 + H2SO4 → CuSO4 + 2 H2O CdCO3 + H2SO4 → CdSO4 + H2O + CO2oxidation of metal sulfides or sulfites Many examples of ionic sulfates are known, many of these are soluble in water. Exceptions include calcium sulfate, strontium sulfate, lead sulfate, barium sulfate, which are poorly soluble. Radium sulfate is the most insoluble sulfate known; the barium derivative is useful in the gravimetric analysis of sulfate: if one adds a solution of barium chloride to a solution containing sulfate ions, the appearance of a white precipitate, barium sulfate, indicates that sulfate anions are present. The sulfate ion can act as a ligand attaching either by one oxygen or by two oxygens as either a chelate or a bridge. An example is the complex +Br− or the neutral metal complex PtSO42 where the sulfate ion is acting as a bidentate ligand; the metal–oxygen bonds in sulfate complexes can have significant covalent character.
Sulfates are used industrially. Major compounds include: Gypsum, the natural mineral form of hydrated calcium sulfate, is used to produce plaster. About 100 million tonnes per year are used by the construction industry. Copper sulfate, a common algaecide, the more stable form is used for galvanic cells as electrolyte Iron sulfate, a common form of iron in mineral supplements for humans and soil for plants Magnesium sulfate, used in therapeutic baths Lead sulfate, produced on both plates during the discharge of a lead–acid battery Sodium Laureth Sulfate, or SLES, a common detergent in shampoo formulations Polyhalite, hydrated K2Ca2Mg-sulfate, used as fertiliser. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, some anaerobic microorganisms, such as those living in sediment or near deep sea thermal vents, use the reduction of sulfates coupled with the oxidation of organic compounds or hydrogen as an energy source for chemosynthesis; some sulfates were known to alchemists. The vitriol salts, from the Latin vitreolum, were so-called because they were some of the first transparent crystals known.
Green vitriol is iron sulfate heptahydrate, FeSO4·7H2O.
Pymble Ladies' College is an independent, non-selective and boarding school for girls, located in Pymble, a suburb on the Upper North Shore of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Twenty hectares in size, the grounds of the College feature a 50m swimming pool, several fields, tennis courts, an agriculture plot, buildings dedicated to specific subjects: an art building, a technology and applied studies building, a languages building, a science block. There is a music building, a chapel, healthcare centre, three boarding houses and the most recent additions - the Gillian Moore Centre for Performing Arts in 2005, the Senior School Centre - Kate Mason Building in 2011, the Centenary Sports Precinct in 2016; the college a school of the Presbyterian Church of Australia, is now administered by the Uniting Church in Australia, is a founding member of the Association of Heads of Independent Girls' Schools. Girls of any faith may attend the school, although they are expected to attend a fortnightly chapel service.
The school caters for all classes from Kindergarten to Year 12. There are eight houses in the secondary school, including the original three, Lang and Marden, five more added in 2009, Bennett, Ingleholme and Thomas. There are three houses in the Preparatory and Junior Schools named after famous Australian authors, Gibbs and Turner. Pymble Ladies' College was founded in 1916 by Dr John Marden. In 2014 the school participated in the Community Development and Leadership Summit in India, hosted by the Modern School, New Delhi. Entertainment and the artsJenny Coupland – Miss Australia 1982 Jacqueline McKenzie – actress, artist - actress 1987 Melissa Doyle – co-host of the Seven Network breakfast television programme Sunrise Dame Joan Hammond – soprano, singing coach and golfer Amber Higlett – finance presenter/reporter and newsreader, National Nine News Kerrie Lester – artist Amy Lyons - internet personality active in China Caroline Pemberton – Miss Australia 2007 Sarah Song – winner of Miss Sydney Chinese 2006 and Miss Chinese International 2007.
She is working as an actress in TVB in Hong Kong. Anita Jacoby – TV and film producer Alex the Astronaut – artistPolitics, public service and the lawMarie Byles – female solicitor in New South Wales, explorer and feminist Elizabeth Evatt – judge of an Australian federal courtSportSophie Ferguson – Professional Tennis Player Ellyse Perry – member of Australian women's national football team and cricket team Edwina Tops-Alexander – equestrian athlete representative to 2012 London Olympics Brittany O'Brien – Australian Olympic Diving Team 2016 Chloe Dalton – Australian Women's Rugby Sevens Team, Olympic gold medalists ^ P. L. C council had acquired further land between 1916 and 1924; the reason for the sale is unknown. List of non-government schools in New South Wales List of boarding schools Coleman, M. 1991. This is Pymble College: The First 75 years, 1916-1991. Pymble Ladies' College. McFarlane, J. 1998. The Golden Hope: Presbyterian Ladies' College, 1888-1988. P. L. C Council, Presbyterian Ladies' College, Sydney.
ISBN 0-9597340-1-5. Pymble Ladies' College website
The PLW New England Championship is a professional wrestling championship in Power League Wrestling. It is the second most important championship in the promotion, after the PLW Heavyweight Championship. Overall, there have been 34 reigns shared between 29 wrestlers with eleven vacancies; the inaugural champion was Scott Z. who defeated "Ruthless" Ryan Amaral in a tournament final on December 16, 1991 to become the first PLW New England Champion. Maniacal Mark holds the record for most reigns, with three. At 966 days, Nicholas Night's first and only reign is the longest in the title's history. Shane Simons's only reign was the shortest in the history of the title holding it for only 35 days. Only four men in history have held the championship for a continuous reign of more, they are Scott Thomas, Nicholas Night, Eric Dylan, Keanu. Key As of January 1, 2016 As of April 22, 2016. General"Power League Wrestling Champions". Power League Wrestling. Retrieved 2010-01-06. Oliver, Earl. "PLW New England Heavyweight Title History".
Wrestling Title Histories by Royal Duncan. Solie.org. Gary Will and Royal Duncan. "". Wrestling Title Histories. Archeus Communications. ISBN 0-9698161-5-4. "Power League Wrestling". The New England Independent. September 25, 2005. Specific PowerLeagueWrestling.com PLW New England Championship at Cagematch.net PLW New England Championship at Wrestlingdata.com