Pagaruyung was the seat of the Minangkabau kings of Western Sumatra, though little is known about it. Modern Pagaruyung is a village in Tanjung Emas subdistrict, Tanah Datar regency, located near the town of Batusangkar, Indonesia. Adityawarman is believed to have founded the kingdom and presided over the central Sumatra region between 1347 and 1375, most to control the local gold trade; the few artefacts recovered from Adityawarman's reign include a number of stones containing inscriptions, statues. Some of these items were found at Bukit Gombak, a hill near modern Pagarruyung, it is believed a royal palace was located there. There is a major gap in the historical picture in the Minangkabau highlands between the last date of Adityawarman's inscription in 1375 and Tomé Pires Suma Oriental, written some time between 1513 and 1515. By the 16th century, the time of the next report after the reign of Adityawarman, royal power had been split into three recognised reigning kings, they were the King of the World, the King of Adat, the King of Religion.
Collectively they were called the Kings of the Three Seats. The first European to enter the region was Thomas Dias, a Portuguese employed by the Dutch governor of Malacca, he travelled from the east coast to reach the region in 1684 and reported from hearsay, that there was a palace at Pagaruyung and that visitors had to go through three gates to enter it. The primary local occupations at the time were gold panning and agriculture, he reported. A civil war started in 1803 with the Padri fundamentalist Islamic group in conflict with the traditional syncretic groups, elite families and Pagarruyung royals; the original Pagaruyung Palace on Batu Patah Hill was burned down during a riot in Padri War back in 1804. During the conflict most of the Minangkabau royal family were killed in 1815, on the orders of Tuanku Lintau; the British controlled the west coast of Sumatra between 1795 and 1819. Stamford Raffles visited Pagarruyung in 1818, reaching it from the west coast, by it had been burned to the ground three times.
It was rebuilt after the first two fires, but abandoned after the third, Raffles found little more than waringin trees. The Dutch returned to Padang in May 1819; as a result of a treaty with a number of penghulu and representatives of the murdered Minangkabau royal family, Dutch forces made their first attack on a Padri village in April 1821. The prestige of Pagaruyung remained high among the Minangkabau communities in the rantau, when the members of the court were scattered following a failed rebellion against the Dutch in 1833, one of the princes was invited to become ruler in Kuantan
The Banten Sultanate was founded in the 16th century and centred in Banten, a port city on the northwest coast of Java. It is said to have been founded by Sunan Gunungjati, who had founded Cirebon. Once a great trading centre in Southeast Asia of pepper, its importance was overshadowed by Batavia, annexed to Dutch East Indies in 1813, its core territory now forms the Indonesian province of Banten. Today, in Old Banten, the Grand Mosque of Banten is an important destination for tourists and for pilgrims from across Indonesia and from overseas. Before 1526 CE, a settlement called Banten was situated about ten kilometres inland from the coast on the Cibanten River, in the area, today occupied by the southern suburbs of the town of Serang, it was known as Banten Girang. Sunan Gunungjati was an educated class of Muslim legal scholars, he was educated in Middle East, can trace his ancestry to the Kingdom of Sunda. Sharif Hidayatullah become the Sultan of Cirebon in 1479. In 1482 Sharif Hidayatullah sent a letter to King of Sunda, proclaiming Cirebon independent from Sunda Pajajaran.
Cirebon settlement was founded in 1445 by his uncle Prince Cakrabuana. In the early 16th century, Gunungjati arrived in the town with the intention of spreading the word of Islam in this still-Hindu area. According to Suma Oriental, written in 1512–1515, Tomé Pires, a Portuguese explorer reported that the port of Banten still belonged to the Kingdom of Sunda, while Cirebon had been established as an Islamic state. Although at first well received by Sunda authorities, after news of the Portuguese-Sunda alliance in 1522 became known, Gunungjati asked Demak sultanate to send troops to Banten, it was his son, who commanded this military operation in 1527, just as the Portuguese fleet was arriving of the coast at Sunda Kelapa, to capture these towns. Sunan Gunungjati crowned Hasanudin king of Banten by the Sultan of Demak who, in turn, offered Hasanudin his sister's hand in marriage. Thus, a new dynasty was born at the same time. Banten was the capital of this kingdom, held as a province under Sultanate of Cirebon.
From the beginning it was Hasanuddin's intention to revive the fortunes of the ancient kingdom of Sunda for his own benefit. One of his earliest decision was to travel to southern Sumatra, which had traditionally belonged to the kingdom of Sunda, from which the bulk of the pepper sold in the Sundanese region came, he was keen to assure himself of the loyalty of these wealthy areas as soon as possible and to guarantee supplies of pepper for his ports, since it was on this spice that all international trade was based and, hence, in which the wealth of his kingdom lay. Having established control over the ports and the pepper trade, Hasanuddin decided to build a new capital, to symbolise the new era, beginning. On the advice of his father, Sunan Gunungjati, he choose to construct it on the coast at the mouth of the Cibanten River; that a settlement existed at this place is evidence by its harbour activities, but at this time the seat of political power was in Banten Girang. The royal city was founded on the delta, formed by the two arms of the river.
Two main streets running north-south and east-west divided the city into quarters. The royal palace surrounded by residences of the principal minister of state, was built on the south side of the royal square and the great mosque on the west side. Foreigners, for the most part merchants, had to live outside the royal city, on either side of the delta. After some twenty years the new dynasty was so established that Hasanuddin had no hesitation in leaving the kingdom in 1546 to take part in a military expedition against Pasuruan in eastern Java, at the request of Sultan Trenggana, third sultan of Demak; the Sultan lost his life in this venture, it is that Hasanuddin took advantage of his suzerain's death and the troubles which ensued to free his kingdom from any further obligations to this royal house. From the 1550s onwards the kingdom enjoyed a period of great prosperity. According to tradition, the development of this kingdom was managed by Hasanuddin's son, Maulana Yusuf, who had become co-sovereign with his father, following a custom long practised in the archipelago..
During this period, Hasanuddin decided to launch the final blow to what remained of the kingdom of Sunda. Maulana Yusuf led the attack on its capital city located in modern Bogor. After losing its most important port Sunda Kelapa, the kingdom deprived of its trading revenues, was of symbolic importance only; the kingdom put up little resistance and henceforth Banten ruled over the entire territory of the former kingdom of Sunda, which corresponds to most of current Indonesian province of West Java. The sacred stone, serving as the sovereign's throne of Sunda kingdom was taken away and put at the street intersection in the royal square of Banten, thus marking the end of the Sundanese dynasty. Henceforth, this stone was to serve as the Banten sovereign's throne; when Hasanuddin died in 1570, the royal kingdom of Banten comprised all of Sunda, except for Cirebon, all of southern Sumatra, as far as Tulangbawang in the northeast and Bengkulu in the northwest. Trade was expanding to become one of the largest in Southeast Asia.
Traders coming from China, Turkey, England and the Netherlands were frequent visitors to the Banten harbour. Spices, Chinese ceramics, gold and other Asian goods attracted European merchants. Banten was a pioneer in international trade. Banten was known as
Tarumanagara or Taruma Kingdom or just Taruma is an early Sundanese Indianised kingdom, whose 5th-century ruler, produced the earliest known inscriptions on Java island. The kingdom was located not far from modern Jakarta, according to Tugu inscription Purnavarman built a canal that changed the course of the Cakung River, drained a coastal area for agriculture and settlement. In his inscriptions, Purnavarman associated himself with Vishnu, Brahmins ritually secured the hydraulic project. Tarumanagara is believed was existed between 358–669 CE in Western Java region, in and around modern day Bogor and Jakarta corresponds to modern Greater Jakarta area; the earliest known written records of Tarumanagara existence were inscribed in stone inscriptions. Inscribed stone is called prasasti in Indonesian. Numbers of stone inscriptions dated from Tarumanagara period was discovered in Western Java region. In 1863, Dutch East Indies, a huge boulder of inscribed stone was spotted near Ciampea not far from Buitenzorg.
The stone inscription was discovered on the river bed of Ciaruteun river, a tributary of Cisadane River. It is today known as the Ciaruteun inscription, dated from the 5th century, written in Vengi letters and in Sanskrit language; this is the earliest inscription that mentioned the kingdom's name "Tarumanagara". The inscription reports the most famous king of Tarumanagara. Located nearby is the Prasasti Kebon Kopi I called Telapak Gadjah stone, with an inscription and the engraving of two large elephant footprints; the inscription read: These elephant foot soles, akin to those of the strong Airavata, belongs to Tarumanagara King, successful and full of control. Not only stones testify of the existence of his Tarumanagara kingdom. There are Chinese historical sources, since Tarumanagara maintained extended trade and diplomatic relations in the territory stretching between India and China; the Chinese Buddhist Monk Fa Xian reported in his book fo-kuo-chi that he stayed on the island of Ye-po-ti, most the western part of Java island, for six months, from December 412 until May 413.
He reported that the Law of Buddha was not much known, but that the Brahmans flourished, heretics too. Between the period 528 to 669, Tarumanagara sent their embassy to Chinese court; the kingdom was mentioned in the annals of the Sui dynasty, the king of To-lo-mo has sent diplomatic mission, which arrived in China in 528 and 535. It was mentioned; the annals of Tang dynasty mentioned in the year 666 and 669 the envoys of To-lo-ma has visited the court of Tang. The name Tarumanagara was found in several inscriptions in the Western Java region dated from circa 4th century; the Chinese chronicle recorded the name To-lo-ma or To-lo-mo which suggest the Chinese pronunciation of "Taruma". Tarumanagara means the kingdom of Taruma; the name "Taruma" itself is connected to the Citarum River of West Java. In Sundanese language, ci means river while tarum means indigo plant. Tarum is local name of indigo plant. According to the book Nusantara, Maharshi Rajadirajaguru Jayasingawarman founded the Tarumanagara kingdom in 358.
Jayasingawarman originated from Salankayana, India that collapsed after the invasion of Samudragupta from Gupta Empire. After re-settling in Western Java, he married a Sundanese princess daughter of King Dewawarman VIII of Salakanagara, he was buried at the bank of Kali Gomati river. His son, Dharmayawarman ruled from 382 to 395, his burial site is at Chandrabaga river. His grandson Purnawarman was the third king of Tarumanagara and reigned from 395 to 434. Book Nusantara, parwa II sarga 3 notes that under the reign of King Purnawarman, Tarumanagara held control over 48 small kingdoms with area stretching from Salakanagara or Rajatapura to Purwalingga. Traditionally Cipamali river was the border between Java. In 397, King Purnawarman established a new capital city for the kingdom, located near to a beach, called Sunda Pura meaning Holy Town or Pure Town. Thus, word “Sunda” was introduced for the first time by King Purnawarman in 397. Sunda Pura could have been near present-day Bekasi, he left seven memorial stones with inscriptions bearing his name spread across current Banten and West Java provinces.
The prasasti tugu, a few years older than the Parasasti Ciaruteun, is considered the oldest of all the inscriptions. There are more stones with inscriptions from the time of some close to Bogor city, they are Prasasti Muara Cianten, Prasasti Pasir Awi, Prasasti Cidanghiang, Parasasti Jambu. Prasasti Cidanghiang, consisting of two lines, proclaiming Purnawarman as the standard for rulers around the world. Prasasti Jambu, with a two-line inscription in Pallava/Sanskrit, bears the large footprints of the king; the inscription translates as: The name of the king, famous of faithfully executing his duties and, incomparable is Sri Purnawarman who reigns Taruma. His armour cannot be penetrated by the arrows of his enemies; the prints of the foot soles belong to him, always successful to destroy the fortresses of his enemies, was always charitable and gave honorable receptions to those who are loyal to him and hostile to his enemies. Purnawarman is the most well-known king of Tarumanagara because he produced quite a number of
The Sultanate of Mataram was the last major independent Javanese kingdom on Java before the island was colonised by the Dutch. It was the dominant political force radiating from the interior Central Java from the late 16th century until the beginning of the 18th century. Mataram reached its peak of power during the reign of Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo, began to decline after his death in 1645. By the mid-18th century, Mataram lost both territory to the Dutch East India Company, it had become a vassal state of the company by 1749. The name Mataram itself was never the official name of any polity, as the Javanese refer to their realm as Bhumi Jawa or Tanah Jawi. Mataram refers to the historical areas of plains south of Mount Merapi around present-day Muntilan, Yogyakarta, to Prambanan. More it refers to Kota Gede area, the capital of the Sultanate in the outskirt of southern Yogyakarta. A common practise in Java is to refer to their kingdom by metonymy by the location of its capital. There were two kingdoms that have existed in this region and both are called Mataram.
The kingdom however, is called as Mataram Islam or "Mataram Sultanate" to distinguish it from the Hindu-Buddhist 9th-century Kingdom of Mataram. The key sources to uncover the history of Mataram Sultanate are local Javanese historical accounts called Babad, Dutch accounts of Dutch East India Company; the problem with traditional Javanese Babad, are undated and incorporates non-historic and fantastic elements. Most of this Javanese historical account are used as the tool to legitimise the authority of the ruler; the example of a mythical element is the sacred bonds between Panembahan Senapati with mythical Ratu Kidul, the ruler of Java's Southern Seas as his spiritual consort, as claimed in the Babad Tanah Jawi. The dates for events before the Siege of Batavia in the reign of Sultan Agung, third king of Mataram, are difficult to determine. There are several annals used by H. J. de Graaf in his histories such as Babad Sangkala and Babad Momana which contain list of events and dates in Javanese calendar, but besides de Graaf's questionable practice of adding 78 to Javanese years to obtain corresponding Christian years, the agreement between Javanese sources themselves is less than perfect.
The Javanese sources are selective in putting dates to events. Events such as the rise and fall of kratons, the death of important princes, great wars, etc. are the only kind of events deemed important enough to be dated, by using a poetic formula chronogram called candrasengkala, which can be expressed verbally and pictorially, the rest being described in narrative succession without dates. Again these candrasengkalas do not always match the annals. Therefore, it is suggested to follow the following rule of thumb: the dates from de Graaf and Ricklefs for the period before the Siege of Batavia can be accepted as best guess. For the period after the Siege of Batavia until the first War of Succession, the years of events in which foreigners participated can be accepted as certain, but –again- are not always consistent with Javanese version of the story; the events in the period 1704–1755 can be dated with greater certainty since in this period the Dutch interfered in Mataram affairs but events behind kraton walls are in general difficult to be dated precisely.
Details in Javanese sources about the early years of the kingdom are limited, the line is unclear between the historical record and myths since there are indications of the efforts of rulers Agung, to establish a long line of legitimate descent by inventing predecessors. However, by the time more reliable records begin in the mid-17th century the kingdom was so large and powerful that most historians concur it had been established for several generations. According to Javanese records, the kings of Mataram were descended from one Ki Ageng Sela. In the 1570s, one of Ki Ageng Sela's descendants, Kyai Gedhe Pamanahan was awarded to rule the land of Mataram by King of Pajang, Sultan Hadiwijaya, as the reward for his service on defeating Arya Panangsang, Hadiwijaya's enemy. Pajang was located near the current site of Surakarta, Mataram was a vassal of Pajang. Pamanahan was referred to as Kyai Gedhe Mataram. Meanwhile, in Pajang, there were major power struggles took place after the death of Sultan Hadiwijaya in 1582.
Pamanahan's son, Sutawijaya or Panembahan Senapati Ingalaga, replaced his father around 1584, he began to released Mataram from Pajang's control. Under Sutawijaya, Mataram grew through military campaigns against Mataram's overlord of Pajang and Pajang's former overlord, Demak; the new Pajang Sultan, Arya Pangiri, was an unpopular ruler, Benowo rallied support to regain his throne and recruited Sutawijaya's support against Pajang. Subsequently, Pajang was attacked from two directions, by Prince Benowo from Jipang and by Sutawijaya from Mataram, was defeated. After the defeat of Pajang, Prince Benowo did not dare to stand against Senapati and agreed to bowed down to him and submitted Pajang under Mataram's rule; this event in 1586, marked the end of Pajang kingdom and the rise of its former vassal, the Mataram Sultanate. Senapati assumed royal status by wearing the title "Panembahan", he revealed the expansive nature of his reign and began the fateful campaign to the East along the course of Solo River that would bring endless conflicts.
The Post-Suharto era in Indonesia began with the fall of Suharto in 1998 during which Indonesia has been in a period of transition, an era known in Indonesia as Reformasi. A more open and liberal political-social environment ensued following the resignation of authoritarian President Suharto, ending the three decades of the New Order period. Issues over this period have included a push for a stronger democracy and civilian rule, elements of the military trying to retain their influence, a growing Islamism in politics and society, demands for greater regional autonomy; the process of reformasi in Indonesia has resulted in a greater degree of freedom of speech, in contrast to the pervasive censorship under the New Order. This has led to increased expression in the arts. Events that have shaped Indonesia in this period include a bombing campaign by Islamic terrorists, the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami; the Reformasi of 1998 led to changes in Indonesia's various governmental institutions, reforms upon the structures of the judiciary and executive office.
The fall of Suharto in 1998 is traced from events starting in 1996, when forces opposed to the New Order began to rally around Megawati Sukarnoputri, head of the PDI and daughter of the founding president Sukarno. When Suharto attempted to have Megawati removed as head of this party in a back-room deal, student activists loyal to Megawati occupied the headquarters of PDI in Jakarta; this culminated in Black Saturday on 27 July, when the Indonesian military broke up the demonstrations. These actions, along with increasing concerns over human rights violations in Indonesian-occupied East Timor, began to unsettle Suharto's friendly relations with Western countries such as Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States; these further worsened when the 1997 Asian financial crisis reached Indonesia, highlighting the corruption of the New Order. Economic instability from the crisis affected much of the country, in the form of increased prices for staple foods and goods, lowered standards of living and quality of life.
These touched off riots. In West Kalimantan, there was communal violence between Dayaks and Madurese in 1996, in the Sambas riots in 1999 and the Sampit conflict 2001, resulting in large scale massacres of Madurese. In the Sambas conflict, both Malays and Dayaks massacred Madurese. Growing dissatisfaction with Suharto's authoritarian rule and the rapid erosion of the economy led many, chiefly the younger generation, to renew their protests directly against the New Order. During the years 1997–1998, a massive riot broke out in Indonesia. People were burning everything within the city including cars, motorcycles and monuments in addition to pillaging and looting from stores; this was further worsened when many were killed and raped, most of which were Indonesians of Chinese descent. No action was taken by the police. In 1998, Suharto won; the result was considered so outrageous. Suharto soon stood down from the presidency, named B. J. Habibie his successor. Considered the unseen power behind the throne, General Wiranto of the Chief of Staff over the military, central to the New Order, is believed to have been behind the decision of Suharto to step down.
On Suharto's resignation, Vice-President B. J. Habibie was sworn in as President of Indonesia; as President, Habibie undertook numerous political reforms. In February 1999, Habibie's Government passed the Political Parties Law. Under this law, political parties were not limited to just three as had been the case under the Suharto regime. Political parties were not required to have Pancasila as their ideology; this resulted in the emergence of many political parties and 48 would go on to compete in the 1999 legislative election. In May 1999, Habibie's Government passed the Regional Autonomy Law; this law was the first step in decentralising Indonesia's government and in allowing provinces to have more part in governing their province. The Press became liberated under Habibie's Government, although the Ministry of Information continued to exist. Political prisoners such as Sri Bintang Pamungkas, Muchtar Pakpahan, Xanana Gusmão were released under Habibie's orders. Habibie presided over the 1999 legislative elections, the first free election since 1955.
This election was supervised by the independent General Elections Commission instead of an elections commission filled with government ministers as had been the case during the New Order. In a move that surprised many, angered some, Habibie called for a referendum on the future of East Timor. Subsequently, on 30 August, the inhabitants of East Timor voted to break away from Indonesian rule and become an independent country; the territorial loss to Indonesia harmed Habibie's popularity and political alliances. Following Habibie's presidency, Abdurrahman Wahid and Megawati Sukarnoputri served as president. In 2004, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono was elected President, his coalition, which brings together figures from the military, business community, conservative Islam, has restabilised the office of the Presidency. In 1999, Abdurrahman Wahid became President of Indonesia, his first Cabinet, dubbed the National Unity Cabinet, was a coali
Java Man is an early human fossil discovered on the island of Java in 1891 and 1892. Led by Eugène Dubois, the excavation team uncovered a tooth, a skullcap, a thighbone at Trinil on the banks of the Solo River in East Java. Arguing that the fossils represented the "missing link" between apes and humans, Dubois gave the species the scientific name Anthropopithecus erectus later renamed it Pithecanthropus erectus; the fossil aroused much controversy. Less than ten years after 1891 eighty books or articles had been published on Dubois's finds. Despite Dubois's argument, few accepted that Java Man was a transitional form between apes and humans; some dismissed the fossils as apes and others as modern humans, whereas many scientists considered Java Man as a primitive side branch of evolution not related to modern humans at all. In the 1930s Dubois made the claim that Pithecanthropus was built like a "giant gibbon", a much misinterpreted attempt by Dubois to prove that it was the "missing link". Similarities between Pithecanthropus erectus and Sinanthropus pekinensis led Ernst Mayr to rename both Homo erectus in 1950, placing them directly in the human evolutionary tree.
To distinguish Java Man from other Homo erectus populations, some scientists began to regard it as a subspecies, Homo erectus erectus, in the 1970s. Other fossils found in the first half of the twentieth century in Java at Sangiran and Mojokerto, all older than those found by Dubois, are considered part of the species Homo erectus. Estimated to be between 700,000 and 1,000,000 years old, at the time of their discovery the fossils of Java Man were the oldest hominin fossils found; the fossils of Java Man have been housed at the Naturalis in the Netherlands since 1900. Charles Darwin had argued that humanity evolved in Africa, because this is where great apes like gorillas and chimpanzees lived. Though Darwin's claims have since been vindicated by the fossil record, they were proposed without any fossil evidence. Other scientific authorities disagreed with him, like Charles Lyell, a geologist, Alfred Russel Wallace, who thought of a similar theory of evolution around the same time as Darwin; because both Lyell and Wallace believed that humans were more related to gibbons and orangutans, they identified Southeast Asia as the cradle of humanity because this is where these apes lived.
Dutch anatomist Eugène Dubois favored the latter theory, sought to confirm it. In October 1887, Dubois abandoned his academic career and left for the Dutch East Indies to look for the fossilized ancestor of modern man. Having received no funding from the Dutch government for his eccentric endeavor – since no one at the time had found an early human fossil while looking for it – he joined the Dutch East Indies Army as a military surgeon; because of his work duties, it was only in July 1888. Having found abundant fossils of large mammals, Dubois was relieved of his military duties, the colonial government assigned two engineers and fifty convicts to help him with his excavations. After he failed to find the fossils he was looking for on Sumatra, he moved on to Java in 1890. Again assisted by convict laborers and two army sergeants, Dubois began searching along the Solo River near Trinil in August 1891, his team soon excavated a skullcap. Its characteristics were a long cranium with heavy browridge.
Dubois first gave them the name Anthropopithecus. He chose this name because a similar tooth found in the Siwalik Hills in India in 1878 had been named Anthropopithecus, because Dubois first assessed the cranium to have been about 700 cubic centimetres, closer to apes than to humans. In August 1892, a year Dubois's team found a long femur shaped like a human one, suggesting that its owner had stood upright; the femur bone was found 50 feet from the original find one year earlier. Believing that the three fossils belonged to a single individual, "probably a aged female", Dubois renamed the specimen Anthropopithecus erectus. Only in late 1892, when he determined that the cranium measured about 900 cubic centimetres, did Dubois consider that his specimen was a transitional form between apes and humans. In 1894, he thus renamed it Pithecanthropus erectus, borrowing the genus name Pithecanthropus from Ernst Haeckel, who had coined it a few years earlier to refer to a supposed "missing link" between apes and humans.
This specimen has been known as Pithecanthropus 1. There were three human skulls found at the site, which led Dubois to determine the skull of the ”Java man” to belong to a gibbon, or gibbon-like ape. In 1927, Canadian Davidson Black identified two fossilized teeth he had found in Zhoukoudian near Beijing as belonging to an ancient human, named his specimen Sinanthropus pekinensis, now better known as Peking Man. In December 1929, the first of several skullcaps was found on the same site, it appeared similar but larger than Java Man. Franz Weidenreich, who replaced Black in China after the latter's death in 1933, argued that Sinanthropus was a transitional fossil between apes and humans, was in fact so similar to Java's Pithecanthropus that they should both belong to the family Hominidae. Eugène Dubois categorically refused to entertain this possibility, dismissing Peking Man as a kind of Neanderthal, closer to humans than the Pithecanthropus, insisting that Pithecanthropus belonged to its own family, the Pithecanthropoidae.
After the discovery of Java M