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Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the Sun's photosphere that appear as spots darker than the surrounding areas. They are regions of reduced surface temperature caused by concentrations of magnetic field flux that inhibit convection. Sunspots appear in pairs of opposite magnetic polarity, their number varies according to the 11-year solar cycle. Individual sunspots or groups of sunspots may last anywhere from a few days to a few months, but decay. Sunspots expand and contract as they move across the surface of the Sun, with diameters ranging from 16 km to 160,000 km. Larger sunspots can be visible from Earth without the aid of a telescope, they may travel at relative speeds, or proper motions, of a few hundred meters per second when they first emerge. Indicating intense magnetic activity, sunspots accompany secondary phenomena such as coronal loops and reconnection events. Most solar flares and coronal mass ejections originate in magnetically active regions around visible sunspot groupings. Similar phenomena indirectly observed on stars other than the Sun are called starspots, both light and dark spots have been measured.

The earliest extant report of sunspots dates back to the Chinese Book of Changes, c. 800 BC. The first clear mention of a sunspot in Western literature, around 300 BC, was by the ancient Greek scholar Theophrastus, student of Plato and Aristotle and successor to the latter; the earliest surviving record of deliberate sunspot observation dates from 364 BC, based on comments by Chinese astronomer Gan De in a star catalogue. By 28 BC, Chinese astronomers were recording sunspot observations in official imperial records; the first drawings of sunspots were made by an English monk named John of Worcester in December 1128. Sunspots were first observed telescopically in late 1610 by English astronomer Thomas Harriot and Frisian astronomers Johannes and David Fabricius, who published a description in June 1611. Although they are at temperatures of 3,000–4,500 K, the contrast with the surrounding material at about 5,780 K leaves sunspots visible as dark spots; this is because the luminance of a heated black body at these temperatures varies with temperature—considerably more so than the variation in the total black-body radiation at all wavelengths.

Isolated from the surrounding photosphere a sunspot would be brighter than the Moon. Sunspots have two parts: the central umbra, the darkest part, where the magnetic field is vertical and the surrounding penumbra, lighter, where the magnetic field is more inclined. Any given appearance of a sunspot may last anywhere from a few days to a few months, though groups of sunspots and their active regions tend to last weeks or months, but all do decay and disappear. Sunspots expand and contract as they move across the surface of the Sun, with diameters ranging from 16 km to 160,000 km. Although the details of sunspot generation are still a matter of research, it appears that sunspots are the visible counterparts of magnetic flux tubes in the Sun's convective zone that get "wound up" by differential rotation. If the stress on the tubes reaches a certain limit, they puncture the Sun's surface. Convection is inhibited at the puncture points; the Wilson effect implies. Observations using the Zeeman effect show that prototypical sunspots come in pairs with opposite magnetic polarity.

From cycle to cycle, the polarities of leading and trailing sunspots change from north/south to south/north and back. Sunspots appear in groups. Magnetic pressure should tend to remove field concentrations, causing the sunspots to disperse, but sunspot lifetimes are measured in days to weeks. In 2001, observations from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory using sound waves traveling below the photosphere were used to develop a three-dimensional image of the internal structure below sunspots. Sunspot activity cycles are with some variation in length. Over the solar cycle, sunspot populations rise and fall more slowly; the point of highest sunspot activity during a cycle is known as solar maximum, the point of lowest activity as solar minimum. This period is observed in most other solar activity and is linked to a variation in the solar magnetic field that changes polarity with this period. Early in the cycle, sunspots appear in the higher latitudes and move towards the equator as the cycle approaches maximum, following Spörer's law.

Spots from two adjacent cycles can co-exist for some time. Spots from adjacent cycles can be distinguished by direction of their magnetic field; the Wolf number sunspot index counts the average number of sunspots and groups of sunspots during specific intervals. The 11-year solar cycles are numbered sequentially, starting with the observations made in the 1750s. George Ellery Hale first linked magnetic fields and sunspots in 1908. Hale suggested that the sunspot cycle period is 22 years, covering two periods of increased and decreased sunspot numbers, accompanied by polar reversals of the solar magnetic dipole field. Horace W. Babcock proposed a qualitative model for the dynamics of the solar outer layers; the Babcock Model exp

Mindy Escobar-Leanse

Mindy Escobar-Leanse is an American actress and puppeteer based in New York City. Although from El Paso, Escobar-Leanse has performed all over the country and several parts of Europe, she is an alumna of the American Academy of Dramatic Arts, class of 2009. Escobar-Leanse was born in Dallas, Texas, in 1988, she moved to El Paso, when she was a year old. Raised by a mother who owned a party decorating company, Escobar-Leanse grew up in a household that always emphasized creating things by hand and reusing materials around the house; this influenced her eventual career in puppetry, which focuses on utilizing recyclable material. Escobar-Leanse began acting at the age of four at the El Paso Jewish Community Center. At the age of six, she joined Kids-N-Co, a theater company geared towards hands-on production training for young people, she stayed with this company. Escobar-Leanse remained in El Paso. After receiving a scholarship through the University Interscholastic League, Escobar-Leanse attended the University of Texas at El Paso in the year 2006, where she studied theater for a year.

In 2007, she moved to New York City to attend the American Academy of Dramatic Arts. There, she learned a wide range of acting techniques, including the Alexander movement technique, which has contributed to her puppetry, she graduated in the year of 2009. In the year of 2012, Escobar-Leanse was the recipient of the Eugene O'Neill Theater Center's Pandemic Scholarship, allowing her to attend the annual National Puppetry Conference, she continued to attend the conference for two more years. Under the guidance of Chinese rod puppeteer Hua Hua Zhang and Sesame Street performer Martin P. Robinson, Escobar-Leanse's acting career began to incorporate puppetry. After graduating in 2009, Escobar-Leanse began work in various acting roles. In the year of 2011, she began work with playwright Georgina Escobar on her play The Ruin. Other works with Escobar include roles in the plays The Ash Tree, The Unbearable Likeness of Jo, Jones, Species Human, Then They Forgot About the Rest, Alebrijes, it was her performance as Sybil Rosenblum in Then They Forgot About the Rest that earned Escobar-Leanse her Actors' Equity Association card.

Other selected acting credits include The Tibetan Book of the Dead, Egg Layers, A Ribbon About a Bomb. These works have been supported by various theater companies, such as INTAR, Lincoln Center, the Bushwick Starr, Exquisite Corpse Company, Dixon Place, many more. Escobar-Leanse is the cofounder of the company Maniacal Works, a puppet company geared towards connecting artists around the world. With this company, she toured Europe for six weeks in 2012, performing with self-created puppets and collaborating with various other artists in different art forms. Escobar-Leanse's work with the company Puppet Shakespeare Players began in 2012, her work with the Puppet Shakespeare Players includes Puppet Hamlet in 2012, Puppet Romeo and Juliet in 2013 and 2017, Puppet Titus Andronicus in 2014. Escobar-Leanse was lauded for her work in Puppet Titus Andronicus in the New York Times article "Shakespeare with Strings, the Silly Kind":As Titus’s daughter, Lavinia — a subordinate victim role — Mindy Leanse does wonders.

Lavinia may lose her hands and tongue, but Ms. Leanse turns her puppet, an innocent red countenance surrounded by curly blond locks, into a marvel of movement and guttural utterances who sticks up for herself, her role in the Puppet Shakespeare Players has grown from performer to puppet wrangler to puppet captain over the years. Escobar-Leanse began work with The Puppet Kitchen in 2015, on the LG Corporation Twin Wash National Commercial; this involved handling two fifteen-tall puppets performing in Times Square seven times in one day. In 2016, Escobar-Leanse was one of three ensemble members in The Puppet Kitchen's production of A Soldier’s Tale at The Bushwick Starr. In 2017, Escobar-Leanse was an ensemble member in The Puppet Kitchen's production of Little Red Fish at Theatre Row. On in the same year, Escobar-Leanse worked with The Puppet Kitchen in their production of the Carnival of the Animals for The Little Orchestra's Society, a part of the New York Philharmonic. In 2014, Escobar-Leanse toured nationally for nine months with Dinosaur Train Live under direction of John Tartaglia, as the role of Tiny.

In 2016, Escobar-Leanse was the assistant stage manager, puppet wrangler, understudy of the Off-Broadway production of The Very Hungry Caterpillar. The show broke box office records, has been nominated for a Drama Desk Award; some of Escobar-Leanse's most recent works include The Last Rat of Theresienstadt. Both have been touring since 2017, with The Last Rat of Theresienstadt taking her to Maine, Bulgaria and more, her work as a puppeteer in The Last Rat of Theresienstadt has won Escobar-Leanse the 2018 award of Outstanding Moment of Puppetry at the Lalka Festival in Warsaw, Poland. Escobar-Leanse states that she is always looking to utilize the arts to creatively shine a light on the issues in our society that need to be rectified, her work in The Last Rat of Theresienstadt is a perfect example of this:While the subject matter is the Holocaust, whose victims we honor through remembrance of that time, our themes are relevant today, with anti-Semitism on the rise and bigotry and racism creating chasms between people struggling to live as neighbors in countries all over the world.

Escobar-Leanse has been an actress and puppeteer with the Wildlife Conservation Society since 2015. She helps bring environmental education to children throughout New York City. In 2015, Escobar-Leanse performed at the Bronx Zoo in Reusable the Musical, a play written by John Tart

The Drama

There are two magazines with the name The Drama. Around 1923, The Drama was a monthly review of the allied arts of the theatre sponsored by the Drama League of America. VOL 13 NOS. 8 and 9 was dated May-June 1923. It was edited by 59 Van Buren St. Chicago, Ill.. In 2000,The Drama was a quarterly arts magazine for contemporary art and illustration, it was founded by publisher Joel Speasmaker and ran nine issues with the last being published in 2007. Each issue of the magazine revolved around topic; the Drama is notable for being DIY movements of the 2000s. The majority of the magazine's readers were individual issue purchasers, with subscription rates for The Drama being 10% in 2005, compared to 50-60% for many mainstream publications; the publishers estimate a readership of 20,000 per issue. The Drama ran an online store at and a series of gallery exhibitions under the moniker'The Drama Presents'. Both included merchandise from artists featured in the magazine; the collective began creating under the umbrella The Drama You've Been Craving and it is unknown when or why the name change occurred.

Forest - A multi-purpose design studio founded by Joel Speasmaker Media related to The Drama at Wikimedia Commons


Agafon is a Russian Christian male first name. The name is derived from meaning kindness, goodness. Variants of this name used by the common people include Agafony, Ogafon and Ogafony. Other colloquial forms include Gafon; the substandard colloquial form Agapon was used. The diminutives of "Agafon" are Aga and Gasha, as well as Agafonka, Afonya, Agafosha, Aganya, Agaposha and Gapa; the patronymics derived from "Agafon" are "Агафо́нович" and its colloquial form "Агафо́ныч", "Агафо́новна"."Agaton" is the Westernized form of this first name. Last names derived from this first name include Agafonov and Agin and Agishev. А. В. Суперанская. "Современный словарь личных имён: Сравнение. Происхождение. Написание". Айрис-пресс. Москва, 2005. ISBN 5-8112-1399-9 А. В. Суперанская. "Словарь русских имён". Издательство Эксмо. Москва, 2005. ISBN 5-699-14090-5 Н. А. Петровский. "Словарь русских личных имён". ООО Издательство "АСТ". Москва, 2005. ISBN 5-17-002940-3 Ю. А. Федосюк. "Русские фамилии: популярный этимологический словарь".

Москва, 2006. ISBN 978-5-89349-216-3 И. М. Ганжина. "Словарь современных русских фамилий". Москва, 2001. ISBN 5-237-04101-9

East Kerry (UK Parliament constituency)

East Kerry was a UK Parliament constituency in Ireland, returning one Member of Parliament 1885–1922. Prior to the 1885 United Kingdom general election the area was part of the Kerry constituency. Following the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the formation of the Irish Free State in 1922, the area was no longer represented in the UK Parliament, as it was no longer part of the UK; the successor constituency in the new Dáil Éireann was Kerry–Limerick West first established under the Government of Ireland Act 1920 to elect members to the House of Commons of Southern Ireland in 1921. This constituency comprised the eastern part of County Kerry. 1885–1922: The barony of Magunihy and that part of the barony of Trughanacmy not included in the constituency of West Kerry. 1 This remains the largest majority by percentage of the vote in any contested UK Parliamentary election. Davitt stood unopposed in South Mayo, he took up the South Mayo seat and Kerry East remained vacant until the by-election the following year.

James Roche was returned but with fewer votes than his Nationalist predecessors. It was thought he lost some support because as a divorced man he was less popular with the Catholic vote. In the fought contest of the 1906 election between two nationalist factions, Murphy was returned by a narrow margin: In the January 1910 election, the incumbent Murphy was beaten by Independent candidate, Eugene O'Sullivan, a follower of William O'Brien's All-for-Ireland League. Shortly after being elected, O'Sullivan re-joined the official Nationalists, but Murphy petitioned the courts claiming that the vote had been rigged and that O'Sullivan had only won through violence and intimidation; the court found him guilty of intimidation. The election was declared unseating O'Sullivan and creating a vacancy. In the December 1910 election, Eugene O'Sullivan's cousin, Timothy O'Sullivan, stood for the Nationalists; the All-for-Ireland candidate, Patrick Guiney, contested both North Cork. Although he lost in East Kerry, he was elected unopposed in North Cork, so both candidates became Members of Parliament, albeit for different constituencies.

As earlier in the year, the election was marred by election violence, which included a riot at Castleisland. In accordance with his party's policy, Béaslaí declined to take his seat in the British House of Commons, sitting instead in the Irish revolutionary assembly, Dáil Éireann

Lil' Red

Lil' Red is one of two mascots representing University of Nebraska–Lincoln's athletic teams. Lil' Red is the newest mascot, having been created for the 1993 season after a statewide contest run for that purpose. Associate athletic director Dr. Barbara Hibner was the driving force behind Lil' Red. Lil' Red can be seen on the sideline at Nebraska college football games at Memorial Stadium, along with other university sporting venues such as Pinnacle Bank Arena during basketball games and at the Bob Devaney Sports Center for volleyball matches; the mascot is produced by Signs & Shapes International, Inc. based in Omaha, Nebraska. The operator of the costume wears a "PowerBelt," a belt with an air circulation system, which brings in over 100 cubic feet of fresh outside air per minute, enough fresh air to accommodate 1,000 people. Due to the mascot's light weight, the larger-than-life mascot can run, crowd surf and shake hands. Since its installment, Lil' Red has won the national championship at the NCAA National Mascot Competition in 1999, was inducted into the Mascot Hall of Fame in 2007, which selected its winners by an online vote.

The costume was designed to appeal to children and has become a recognizable piece of Nebraska athletics culture. Lil' Red was designed in a state–wide contest, organized by Dr. Barbara Hibner to find a mascot design that could represent the school's volleyball team. Since Lil Red's introduction, he has come to represent other sporting events alongside Herbie Husker, such as football