Super Bowl I

The first AFL-NFL World Championship Game in professional American football, known retroactively as Super Bowl I and referred to in some contemporaneous reports, including the game's radio broadcast, as the Super Bowl, was played on January 15, 1967 at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum in Los Angeles, California. The National Football League champion Green Bay Packers defeated the American Football League champion Kansas City Chiefs by the score of 35–10. Coming into this game, considerable animosity existed between the AFL and NFL, thus the teams representing the two rival leagues felt pressure to win; the Chiefs posted an 11–2–1 record during the 1966 AFL season, defeated the Buffalo Bills 31–7, in the AFL Championship Game. The Packers finished the 1966 NFL season at 12–2, defeated the Dallas Cowboys 34–27 in the NFL Championship Game. Still, many sports writers and fans believed any team in the older NFL was vastly superior to any club in the upstart AFL, so expected Green Bay would blow out Kansas City.

The first half of Super Bowl I was competitive, as the Chiefs outgained the Packers in total yards, 181–164, to come within 14–10 at halftime. Early in the 3rd quarter, Green Bay safety Willie Wood intercepted a pass and returned it 50 yards to the 5-yard line; the turnover sparked the Packers to score 21 unanswered points in the second half. Green Bay quarterback Bart Starr, who completed 16 of 23 passes for 250 yards and two touchdowns, with one interception, was named MVP, it remains the only Super Bowl to have been simulcast in the United States by two networks. NBC had the rights to nationally televise AFL games, while CBS held the rights to broadcast NFL games; when the NFL began its 41st season in 1960, it had a new and unwanted rival: the American Football League. The NFL had fended off several other rival leagues in the past, so the older league ignored the new upstart and its eight teams, figuring it would be made up of nothing but NFL rejects, that fans were unlikely to prefer it to the NFL.

But unlike the NFL's prior rivals, the AFL survived and prospered, in part by signing "NFL rejects" who turned out to be talented players the older league had badly misjudged. Soon the NFL and AFL found themselves locked in a massive bidding war for the top free agents and prospects coming out of college. There was a tacit agreement between the two not to raid each other by signing players who were under contract with a team from an opposing league; this policy broke down in early 1966 when the NFL's New York Giants signed Pete Gogolak, a placekicker, under contract with the AFL's Buffalo Bills. The AFL owners considered this an "act of war" and struck back, signing several contracted NFL players, including eight of their top quarterbacks; the NFL had enough and started negotiations with the AFL in an attempt to resolve the issue. As a result of the negotiations, the leagues signed a merger agreement on June 9, 1966. Among the details, both leagues agreed to share a common draft in order to end the bidding war for the top college players, as well as merge into a single league after the 1969 season.

In addition, an "AFL-NFL World Championship Game" was established, in which the AFL and NFL champions would play against each other in a game at the end of the season to determine which league had the best team. Los Angeles wasn't awarded the game until December 1, less than seven weeks prior to the kickoff. Since the AFL Championship Game was scheduled for Monday, December 26, the NFL Championship Game for Sunday, January 1, the "new" championship game was suggested to be played Sunday, January 8. An unprecedented TV doubleheader was held on January 1, with the AFL Championship Game telecast from Buffalo on NBC and the NFL Championship Game telecast from Dallas on CBS three hours later. Coming into this "first" game, considerable animosity still existed between the two rival leagues, with both of them putting pressure on their respective champions to trounce the other and prove each league's dominance in professional football. Still, many sports writers and fans believed the game was a mismatch, any team from the long-established NFL was far superior to the best team from the upstart AFL.

The Green Bay Packers played the Kansas City Chiefs, with the Packers winning 35–10. The players' shares were $7,500 each for the losing team; this was in addition to the league championship money earned two weeks earlier: the Packers shares were $8,600 each and the Chiefs were $5,308 each. The Chiefs entered the game after recording an 11–2–1 mark during the regular season. In the AFL championship game, they defeated the Buffalo Bills 31–7. Kansas City's high-powered offense led the AFL in points total rushing yards, their trio of running backs, Mike Garrett, Bert Coan, Curtis McClinton all ranked among the top-ten rushers in the AFL. Quarterback Len Dawson was the top-rated passer in the AFL, completing 159 of 284 of his passes for 2,527 yards and 26 touchdowns. Wide receiver Otis Taylor provided the team with a great deep threat by recording 58 receptions for 1,297 yards and eight touchdowns. Receiver Chris Burford added 58 receptions for 758 yards and eight touchdowns, tight end Fred Arbanas, who had 22 catches for 305 yards and four touchdowns, was one of six Chiefs offensive players who were named to the All-AFL team.

The Chiefs had a strong defense, with All-AFL players Jerry Mays and Buck Buchanan anchoring their line. Linebacker Bobby Bell, named to the All-AFL team, was great at run stopping and pass cov


Nyarlathotep is a character in the works of H. P. Lovecraft and other writers; the character is known in association with its role as a malign deity in the Lovecraft Mythos fictional universe, where it is known as the Crawling Chaos. First appearing in Lovecraft's 1920 prose poem of the same name, he was mentioned in other works by Lovecraft and by other writers and in the tabletop role-playing games making use of the Cthulhu Mythos. Writers describe him as one of the Outer Gods. In his first appearance in "Nyarlathotep", he is described as a "tall, swarthy man" who resembles an ancient Egyptian pharaoh. In this story he wanders the Earth gathering legions of followers, the narrator of the story among them, through his demonstrations of strange and magical instruments; these followers lose awareness of the world around them, through the narrator's unreliable accounts, the reader gets an impression of the world's collapse. Nyarlathotep subsequently appears as a major character in The Dream Quest of Unknown Kadath, in which he again manifests in the form of an Egyptian pharaoh when he confronts protagonist Randolph Carter.

The 21st sonnet of Lovecraft's poem-cycle Fungi from Yuggoth is a retelling of the original prose poem. In "The Dreams in the Witch House", Nyarlathotep appears to Walter Gilman and witch Keziah Mason in the form of "the'Black Man' of the witch-cult", a black-skinned avatar of the Devil described by witch hunters. In "The Haunter of the Dark", the nocturnal, bat-winged monster dwelling in the steeple of the Starry Wisdom sect's church is identified as another manifestation of Nyarlathotep; this avatar cannot tolerate the slightest light. Lovecraft suggests that the fake Henry Akeley that appears at the end of The Whisperer in Darkness is Nyarlathotep. In the story, the Mi-Go chant his name in reverential tones, stating "To Nyarlathotep, Mighty Messenger, must all things be told, and he shall put on the semblance of man, the waxen mask and the robes that hide, come down from the world of Seven Suns to mock". At the end of The Whisperer in Darkness, the main character to his horror discovers a loose dressing gown and the dismembered head and arms of Akeley lying on the couch, presumed in the story to have been a Mi-Go in disguise.

But due to the mention in the chant to Nyarlathotep wearing the "waxen mask and the robes that hide", S. T. Joshi writes that "this seems a clear allusion to Nyarlathotep disguised with Akeley's face and hands. Joshi notes this is problematic, because "if Nyarlathotep is a'shapeshifter', why would he have to don the face and hands of Akeley instead of reshaping himself as Akeley?"Though Nyarlathotep appears as a character in only four stories and two sonnets, his name is mentioned in other works. In "The Rats in the Walls", Nyarlathotep is mentioned as a faceless god in the caverns of Earth's center.. In "The Shadow Out of Time", the "hideous secret of Nyarlathotep" is revealed to the protagonist by Khephnes during their imprisonment by the Great Race of Yith. Nyarlathotep does not appear in Lovecraft's story "The Crawling Chaos", despite the similarity of the title to the character's epithet. In a 1921 letter to Reinhardt Kleiner, Lovecraft related the dream he had had—described as "the most realistic and horrible I have experienced since the age of ten"—that served as the basis for his prose poem "Nyarlathotep".

In the dream, he received a letter from his friend Samuel Loveman that read: Don't fail to see Nyarlathotep if he comes to Providence. He is horrible—horrible beyond anything you can imagine—but wonderful, he haunts one for hours afterwards. I am still shuddering at. Lovecraft commented: I had never heard the name NYARLATHOTEP before, but seemed to understand the allusion. Nyarlathotep was a kind of itinerant showman or lecturer who held forth in public halls and aroused widespread fear and discussion with his exhibitions; these exhibitions consisted of two parts—first, a horrible—possibly prophetic—cinema reel. As I received the letter, I seemed to recall that Nyarlathotep was in Providence.... I seemed to remember that persons had whispered to me in awe of his horrors, warned me not to go near him, but Loveman's dream letter decided me.... As I left the house I saw throngs of men plodding through the night, all whispering affrightedly and bound in one direction. I fell in with them, afraid yet eager to see and hear the great, the obscure, the unutterable Nyarlathotep.

Will Murray has speculated that this dream image of Nyarlathotep may have been inspired by the inventor Nikola Tesla, whose well-attended lectures did involve extraordinary experiments with electrical apparatus and whom some saw as a sinister figure. Robert M. Price proposes that the name Nyarlathotep may have been subconsciously suggested to Lovecraft by two names from Lord Dunsany, an author he much admired. Alhireth-Hotep, a false prophet, appears in Dunsany's The Gods of Pegana, Mynarthitep, a god described as "angry", appears in Dunsany's "The Sorrow of Search". Nyarlathotep differs from the other beings in a number of ways. Most of them are exiled to stars, like Yog-Sothoth and Hastur, or sleeping and dreaming like Cthulhu, he has "a thousand" other forms, most of t

Ivy Wallace

Ivy Lilian Wallace was a British author/illustrator and actress, best known for writing the Pookie series and The Animal Shelf series of illustrated children's stories. Born in Grimsby, the daughter of a Scottish doctor, Ivy's lifelong love of nature was born in early childhood when she accompanied her father on outings into the bluebell woods and flower-filled meadows of the Lincolnshire countryside, her father, a keen amateur botanist and entomologist, encouraged her to paint plants in a botanically accurate way. Showing a lively imagination, she started writing stories and drawing pictures, encouraged by her parents who recognised her talents and thought that she might become an artist. Educated locally, she attended Harrogate Ladies College where she became well known for her drawings and playful poems. However, when she left school, Ivy became a successful actress with Felixstowe Repertory Theatre and Hull New Theatre Company; when the Second World War broke out, she joined the British film industry to make Ministry of Information films.

In the War she joined the police and it was when working for them that she first thought of Pookie, the winged rabbit. While working on a police switchboard, she doodled a picture of a fairy sitting on a toadstool with a little rabbit in front and by chance it appeared that the wings belonged to the rabbit, she decided that fairies were "two a penny" so she erased the fairy and kept the little winged rabbit. She named him Pookie because "he wrote his story, it began “This is the story of Pookie, a little white furry rabbit, with soft, floppity ears, big blue eyes and the most lovable rabbit smile in the world.” Ivy illustrated her stories with delicate, detailed watercolour paintings that captured her evocative tales. In 1945, just after war ended, encouraged by friends to find a publisher for her manuscript, she visited William Collins & Sons in London without an appointment, she was turned away, but asked to leave her manuscript. A few weeks she was contacted by William Hope Collins and asked to attend the Glasgow office where the Children's Books section was based.

Borrowing some money from her brother to buy a new dress and a'big hat' to make her appear more'serious', she took the train north to Glasgow. She met with William Hope Collins in the Cathedral Street offices and not only did William accept the book, he fell in love with its author. In 1950 Ivy and William went to live in the Scottish Borders, they had two daughters Heather and Cherry. Ivy founded her own company Pookie Productions Ltd. In all, she wrote ten'Pookie' books as well as the successful'Animal Shelf' series for younger children and'The Young Warrenders' series for older ones. For over 20 years, Ivy's beautiful books became a publishing phenomenon and were worldwide bestsellers. Translated into several languages, Pookie was read as far afield as Australia, New Zealand and South Africa; the stories were broadcast in Australia in Pookie's Half-Hour and thousands of children attended Pookie rallies. Ivy enjoyed a successful career as a writer-illustrator for Wm Collins & Sons and for other international publishers.

In 1950 she created the first baby record book'Baby Days, A Record Year by Year'. In 1967, her husband died leaving Ivy heartbroken, she closed her studio, too consumed with grief to continue something that had meant so much to them both. In 1994, spurred on by decades of letters and pleas from fans now grown up and wishing to share Pookie with their own children and her daughters relaunched Pookie Productions Ltd, republished her books which once again became international bestsellers; the Animal Shelf, animated by award-winning Cosgrove Hall Films, was a Children's BAFTA-nominated TV series on CITV, running to 52 episodes and broadcast in over 50 countries. In 1997 Ivy was the subject of the BBC Scotland documentary “Pookie Flies Again”. An exhibition of her life and work'The Magical World of Pookie and The Animal Shelf' toured the UK from 1997 until 2000. Ivy enjoyed spending time with her family and dogs and tending her beloved garden, she remained at her home near Biggar until 2002 when she moved to Auchlochan Garden Village where she died peacefully in her sleep at the age of 90.

Pookie Productions Ltd is the copyright holder and worldwide licensing agent for Ivy Wallace's work including the Pookie series and The Animal Shelf series of children's books. Today vintage copies of Ivy's books as well as the more published editions are regarded as collectable. Pookie series Pookie Pookie and the Gypsies Pookie Puts the World Right Pookie in Search of a Home Pookie believes in Santa Claus Pookie at the Seaside Pookie's Big Day Pookie and the Swallows Pookie in Wonderland Pookie and his Shop Animal Shelf series Stripey to the Rescue Kinker visits the Animal Shelf Woeful and the Waspberries Getup Crusoe The Huge Adventure of Little Mut Gumpa and the Paint Box The Treasure Hunt Young Warrenders series The Young Warrenders Thanks to Peculiar Strangers at Warrender's Halt The Snake Ring Mystery Other books Baby Days The Kitty-poosies My Book of Kittens and Puppies Obituary at The Daily Telegraph Obituary at The Scotsman Ivy Wallace on IMDb