In law, an appeal is the process in which cases are reviewed, where parties request a formal change to an official decision. Appeals function both as a process for error correction as well as a process of clarifying and interpreting law. Although appellate courts have existed for thousands of years, common law countries did not incorporate an affirmative right to appeal into their jurisprudence until the 19th century. Appellate courts and other systems of error correction have existed for many millennia. During the first dynasty of Babylon and his governors served as the highest appellate courts of the land. Ancient Roman law employed a complex hierarchy of appellate courts, where some appeals would be heard by the emperor. Additionally, appellate courts have existed in Japan since at least the Kamakura Shogunate. During this time, the Shogunate established hikitsuke, a high appellate court to aid the state in adjudicating lawsuits. In the Eighteenth century, William Blackstone observed in his Commentaries on the Laws of England that appeals existed as a form of error correction in the common law during the reign of Edward III of England.
Although some scholars argue that "the right to appeal is itself a substantive liberty interest", the notion of a right to appeal is a recent advent in common law jurisdictions. In fact, commentators have observed that common law jurisdictions were "slow to incorporate a right to appeal into either its civil or criminal jurisprudence". For example, the United States first created a system of federal appellate courts in 1789, but a federal right to appeal did not exist in the United States until 1889, when Congress passed the Judiciary Act to permit appeals in capital cases. Two years the right to appeals was extended to other criminal cases, the United States Courts of Appeals were established to review decisions from district courts; some states, such as Minnesota, still do not formally recognize a right to criminal appeals. Although some courts permit appeals at preliminary stages of litigation, most litigants appeal final orders and judgments from lower courts. A fundamental premise of many legal systems is that appellate courts review questions of law de novo, but appellate courts do not conduct independent fact-finding.
Instead, appellate courts will defer to the record established by the trial court, unless some error occurred during the fact-finding process. Many jurisdictions provide a statutory or constitutional right for litigants to appeal adverse decisions. However, most jurisdictions recognize that this right may be waived. In the United States, for example, litigants may waive the right to appeal, as long as the waiver is "considered and intelligent"; the appellate process begins when an appellate court grants a party's petition for review or petition for certiorari. Unlike trials, appeals are presented to a judge, or a panel of judges, rather than a jury. Before making any formal argument, parties will submit legal briefs in which the parties present their arguments. Appellate courts may grant permission for an amicus curiae to submit a brief in support of a particular party or position. After submitting briefs, parties have the opportunity to present an oral argument to a judge or panel of judges. During oral arguments, judges ask question to attorneys to challenge their arguments or to advance their own legal theories.
After deliberating in chambers, appellate courts will issue formal opinions that resolve the legal issues presented for review. When considering cases on appeal, appellate courts affirm, reverse, or vacate the decision of a lower court; some courts maintain a dual function, where they consider both appeals as well as matters of "first instance". For example, the Supreme Court of the United States hears cases on appeal but retains original jurisdiction over a limited range of cases; some jurisdictions maintain a system of intermediate appellate courts, which are subject to the review of higher appellate courts. The highest appellate court in a jurisdiction is sometimes referred to as a "court of last resort". Civil procedure List of legal topics Judicial review Appellate procedure in the United States Scope of review
In English common law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is land, the property of some person and all structures integrated with or affixed to the land, including crops, machinery, dams, mines and roads, among other things. The term is historic, arising from the now-discontinued form of action, which distinguished between real property disputes and personal property disputes. Personal property was, continues to be, all property, not real property. In countries with personal ownership of real property, civil law protects the status of real property in real-estate markets, where estate agents work in the market of buying and selling real estate. Scottish civil law calls real property "heritable property", in French-based law, it is called immobilier; the word "real" derives from Latin res, used in Middle English to mean "relating to things real property". In common law, real property was property that could be protected by some form of real action, in contrast to personal property, where a plaintiff would have to resort to another form of action.
As a result of this formalist approach, some things the common law deems to be land would not be classified as such by most modern legal systems, for example an advowson was real property. By contrast the rights of a leaseholder originate in personal actions and so the common law treated a leasehold as part of personal property; the law now broadly distinguishes between real personal property. The conceptual difference was between immovable property, which would transfer title along with the land, movable property, which a person would retain title to. In modern legal systems derived from English common law, classification of property as real or personal may vary somewhat according to jurisdiction or within jurisdictions, according to purpose, as in defining whether and how the property may be taxed. Bethell contains much historical information on the historical evolution of real property and property rights. To be of any value a claim to any property must be accompanied by a verifiable and legal property description.
Such a description makes use of natural or manmade boundaries such as seacoasts, streams, the crests of ridges, highways and railroad tracks or purpose-built markers such as cairns, surveyor's posts, official government surveying marks, so forth. In many cases, a description refers to one or more lots on a plat, a map of property boundaries kept in public records; the law recognizes different sorts of interests, called estates, in real property. The type of estate is determined by the language of the deed, bill of sale, land grant, etc. through which the estate was acquired. Estates are distinguished by the varying property rights that vest in each, that determine the duration and transferability of the various estates. A party enjoying an estate is called a "tenant"; some important types of estates in land include: Fee simple: An estate of indefinite duration, that can be transferred. The most common and most absolute type of estate, under which the tenant enjoys the greatest discretion over the disposal of the property.
Conditional Fee simple: An estate lasting forever as long as one or more conditions stipulated by the deed's grantor does not occur. If such a condition does occur, the property reverts to the grantor, or a remainder interest is passed on to a third party. Fee tail: An estate which, upon the death of the tenant, is transferred to his or her heirs. Life estate: An estate lasting for the natural life of the grantee, called a "life tenant". If a life estate can be sold, a sale does not change its duration, limited by the natural life of the original grantee. A life estate pur; such an estate may arise if the original life tenant sells her life estate to another, or if the life estate is granted pur autre vie. Leasehold: An estate of limited term, as set out in a contract, called a lease, between the party granted the leasehold, called the lessee, another party, called the lessor, having a longer estate in the property. For example, an apartment-dweller with a one-year lease has a leasehold estate in her apartment.
Lessees agree to pay a stated rent to the lessor. Though a leasehold relates to real property, the leasehold interest is classified as personal property. A tenant enjoying an undivided estate in some property after the termination of some estate of limited term, is said to have a "future interest". Two important types of future interests are: Reversion: A reversion arises when a tenant grants an estate of lesser maximum term than his own. Ownership of the land returns to the original tenant; the original tenant's future interest is a reversion. Remainder: A remainder arises when a tenant with a fee simple grants someone a life estate or conditional fee simple, specifies a third party to whom the land goes when the life estate ends or the condition occurs; the third party is said to have a remainder. The third party may have a legal right to limit the life tenant's use of the land. Estates may be held jointly as joint tenants as tenants in common; the difference in these two types of joint ownership of an estate in land is the inheritability of the estate and the shares of interest that each tenant owns.
In a joint tenancy with rights of survivorshi
Advisory Neighborhood Commission
Advisory Neighborhood Commissions are bodies of local government in District of Columbia Created in 1974 through a District referendum in the District of Columbia Home Rule Act, ANCs consider a wide range of policies and programs affecting their neighborhoods, including traffic, recreation, street improvements, liquor licenses, economic development, police protection and trash collection, the District's annual budget. Commissioners serve two-year terms and receive no salary, but commissions do receive funds for the general purpose of improving their area and hiring staff; this policy has come under scrutiny because of the misuse of funds by commissioners and their employees. Candidates can accept campaign donations up to $25 per person; the powers of the ANC system are enumerated by the DC Code § 1-207.38: May advise the District government on matters of public policy including decisions regarding planning, recreation, social services programs, health and sanitation in that neighborhood commission area.
The ANCs present their positions and recommendations on issues to various District government agencies, the Executive Branch, the Council. They present testimony to independent agencies and commissions under the rules of procedure specific to those entities. By law, the ANCs may present their positions to Federal agencies. One of the most common cases of ANC involvement is in the giving of liquor licenses, where the approval or disapproval of the commission, despite having no legal power, represents a veto to the district government; each ANC Commissioner is nominated and elected by the registered voters who reside in the same Single Member District as the candidate. The ANC Commissioner is an official representing his or her neighborhood community on the Advisory Neighborhood Commission. In order to hold the office of Advisory Neighborhood Commissioner, an individual must be a registered voter in the District, as defined by DC Code Section 1-1001.02. In order to enter the public ballot, they must receive 25 signatures from registered voters in their district.
The basic area of Advisory Neighborhood Commissions are Single Member Districts. There are 299 Single Member Districts, which in turn are subdivisions of 39'Commission Districts', which are in turn subdivisions of Wards; each Commissioner represents about 2,000 residents in their Single Member District area. Due to population growth and redistribution, these boundaries change, causing shifts in power and election turnout. Single Member Districts are named according to Ward and Single Member District. For instance, 3B05 is Ward 3, subdivision B, SMD 05. 1A - Columbia Heights, Park View, Pleasant Plains 1B - U Street, Howard University, Pleasant Plains, LeDroit Park, Shaw 1C - Adams Morgan, Kalorama Heights, Lanier Heights, Western U Street 1D - Mount Pleasant 2A - Foggy Bottom, West End 2B - Dupont Circle 2C - Chinatown, Penn Quarter 2D - Kalorama, Sheridan 2E - Burleith, Hillandale 2F - Logan Circle 3B - Cathedral Heights, Glover Park 3C - Cathedral Heights, Cleveland Park, Massachusetts Heights, McLean Gardens, Woodley Park 3D - American University, Kent, The Palisades, Spring Valley, Wesley Heights 3E - American University Park, Friendship Heights, Tenleytown 3F - Forest Hills, North Cleveland Park, Wakefield 3/4G - Chevy Chase 4A - Brightwood, Colonial Village, Shepherd Park, Sixteenth Street Heights 4B - Brightwood, Lamond-Riggs, Manor Park, Riggs Park, South Manor Park, Fort Stevens Ridge 4C - Columbia Heights, Sixteenth Street Heights 4D - Petworth, Brightwood Park 5A - North Michigan Park, Michigan Park, Fort Totten, Pleasant Hills, Fort Totten Park, parts of Catholic University and other Catholic Institutions, parts of Riggs Park 5B - Brookland, University Heights, parts of Woodridge, parts of Queens Chapel, parts of Michigan Park 5C - Langdon, Fort Lincoln, Arboretum, Gateway, Mt. Olivet Cemetery 5D - Carver Langston, Gallaudet University, Ivy City, Capital City Market 5E - Bloomingdale, Eckington, Truxton Circle, Glenwood/St.
Mary's Cemeteries, McMillan Sand Filtration Site 6A - North Lincoln Park, Rosedale, H St. corridor 6B - Barney Circle, Capitol Hill, Eastern Market 6C - Near Northeast, NoMa, Union Station, H St. corridor 6D - Carrollsburg, Fort McNair, Navy Yard, Near Southwest/Southeast, Waterfront 6E - LeDroit Park, Mount Vernon Triangle 7B - Fairfax Village, Penn Branch, Randle Highlands 7C - Burrville, Grant Park, Lincoln Heights 7D - Eastland Gardens, Kingman Park, Mayfair 7E - Benning Heights, Capitol View, Fort Davis, Marshall Heights 7F - Fort Dupont, River Terrace 8A - Anacostia, Fort Stanton, Hillsdale 8B - Garfield Heights, Knox Hill, Shipley Terrace 8C - Barry Farm, Bolling Air Force Base, Congress Heights, St. Elizabeths Hospital 8D - Bellevue, Far Southwest 8E - Congress Heights, Valley Green, Washington Highlands Neighborhoods in Washington, D. C. Advisory Neighborhood Commissions DC Board of Elections and Ethics Run for ANC ANC Finder
A landlord is the owner of a house, condominium, land or real estate, rented or leased to an individual or business, called a tenant. When a juristic person is in this position, the term landlord is used. Other terms include owner; the term landlady may be used for female owners, lessor may be used regardless of gender. The manager of a UK pub speaking a licensed victualler, is referred to as the landlord/lady; the concept of a landlord may be traced back to the feudal system of manoralism, where a landed estate is owned by a Lord of the Manor members of the lower nobility which came to form the rank of knights in the high medieval period, holding their fief via subinfeudation, but in some cases the land may be directly subject to a member of higher nobility, as in the royal domain directly owned by a king, or in the Holy Roman Empire imperial villages directly subject to the emperor. The medieval system continues the system of villas and latifundia of the Roman Empire. In modern times, landlord describes any individual or entity providing housing for persons who cannot afford or do not want to own their own homes.
They may be peripatetic, stationed on a secondment away from their home, not want the risk of a mortgage and/or negative equity, may be a group of co-occupiers unwilling to enter into the ties of co-ownership, or may be improving their credit rating or bank balance to obtain a better-terms future mortgage. Renters at the lowest end of the payment scale may be in social or economic difficulty and due to their address or length of tenure may suffer a social stigma. A sometimes promoted social stigma can impact certain for-profit owners of rental property in troubled neighborhoods; the term "slumlord" / "slum landlord" is sometimes used to describe landlords in those circumstances. Public improvement money/private major economic investment can negate the stigma. In the extreme government compulsory purchase powers in many countries enable slum clearance to replace the worst of neighbourhoods. Examples: In Minneapolis, downmarket landlords vocally and financially opposed a major reform and redevelopment plan of city officials and, in the 2001 election, succeeded in defeating the incumbent mayor and half the city council.
Peter Rachman was a landlord who operated in Notting Hill, London in the 1950s and until his 1962 death. He became notorious for exploitation of his tenants, with the word "Rachmanism" entering the Oxford English Dictionary, his henchmen included Michael de Freitas, who created a reputation as a black-power leader, Johnny Edgecombe, who became a promoter of jazz and blues, which helped to keep him in the limelight. A rental agreement, or lease, is the contract defining such terms as the price paid, penalties for late payments, the length of the rental or lease, the amount of notice required before either the homeowner or tenant cancels the agreement. In general, responsibilities are given as follows: the homeowner is responsible for making repairs and performing property maintenance, the tenant is responsible for keeping the property clean and safe. Many owners hire a property management company to take care of all the details of renting their property out to a tenant; this includes advertising the property and showing it to prospective tenants and preparing the written leases, once rented, collecting rent from the tenant and performing repairs as needed.
In the United States, residential homeowner–tenant disputes are governed by state law regarding property and contracts. State law and, in some places, city law or county law, sets the requirements for eviction of a tenant. There are a limited number of reasons for which a landlord or landlady can evict his or her tenant before the expiration of the tenancy, though at the end of the lease term the rental relationship can be terminated without giving any reason; some cities and States have laws establishing the maximum rent a landlord can charge, known as rent control, or rent regulation, related eviction. There is an implied warranty of habitability, whereby a landlord must maintain safe and habitable housing, meeting minimum safety requirements such as smoke detectors and a locking door; the most common disputes result from either the landlord's failure to provide services or the tenant's failure to pay rent—the former can lead to the latter. The withholding of rent is justifiable cause for eviction, as explained in the lease.
In Canada, residential homeowner–tenant disputes are governed by provincial law regarding property and contracts. Provincial law sets the requirements for eviction of a tenant. There are a limited number of reasons for which a landlord can evict a tenant; some provinces have laws establishing the maximum rent a landlord can charge, known as rent control, or rent regulation, related eviction. There is an implied warranty of habitability, whereby a landlord must maintain safe and habitable housing, meeting minimum safety requirements. Residential rental market Private sector renting is governed by many of the Landlord and Tenant Acts, in particular the Landlord and Tenant Act 1985 which sets bare minimum standards in tenants' rights against their landlords. Another key statute is the Housing Act 2004. Rents can be increased at the end of a usual six-month duration, on proper notice given to the tenant. A Possession Order under the most common type, the Assured Shorthold Tenanc
A misdemeanor is any "lesser" criminal act in some common law legal systems. Misdemeanors are punished less than felonies, but theoretically more so than administrative infractions and regulatory offences. Many misdemeanors are punished with monetary fines. A misdemeanor is considered a crime of low seriousness, a felony one of high seriousness. A principle of the rationale for the degree of punishment meted out is that the punishment should fit the crime. One standard for measurement is the degree. Measurements of the degree of seriousness of a crime have been developed. In the United States, the federal government considers a crime punishable with incarceration for one year or less to be a misdemeanor. All other crimes are considered felonies. Many states employ the same or a similar distinction; the distinction between felonies and misdemeanors has been abolished by several common law jurisdictions. These jurisdictions have adopted some other classification: in the Commonwealth nations of Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the crimes are divided into summary offences and indictable offences.
The Republic of Ireland, a former member of the Commonwealth uses these divisions. In the United States if a criminal charge for the defendant's conduct is a misdemeanor, sometimes a repeat offender will be charged with a felony offense. For example, the first time a person commits certain crimes, such as spousal assault, it is a misdemeanor, but the second time it may become a felony. In some jurisdictions, those who are convicted of a misdemeanor are known as misdemeanants. Depending on the jurisdiction, examples of misdemeanors may include: petty theft, public intoxication, simple assault, disorderly conduct, vandalism, reckless driving, discharging a firearm within city limits, possession of cannabis and in some jurisdictions first-time possession of certain other drugs, other similar crimes. Misdemeanors do not result in the loss of civil rights, but may result in loss of privileges, such as professional licenses, public offices, or public employment; such effects are known as the collateral consequences of criminal charges.
This is more common when the misdemeanor is related to the privilege in question, or when the misdemeanor involves moral turpitude—and in general is evaluated on a case-by-case basis. In the United States, misdemeanors are crimes with a maximum punishment of 12 months of incarceration in a local jail as contrasted with felons, who are incarcerated in a prison. Jurisdictions such as Massachusetts are a notable exception where the maximum punishment of some misdemeanors is up to 2.5 years. People who are convicted of misdemeanors are punished with probation, community service, short jail term, or part-time incarceration such as a sentence that may be served on the weekends; the United States Constitution provides that the President may be impeached and subsequently removed from office if found guilty by Congress for "high crimes and misdemeanors". As used in the Constitution, the term misdemeanor refers broadly to criminal acts as opposed to employing the felony-misdemeanor distinction used in modern criminal codes.
The definition of what constitutes a "high crime" or "misdemeanor" for purposes of impeachment is left to the judgment of Congress. In Singapore, misdemeanors are sentenced to months of jail sentence but with individual crimes suspects are sentenced to a harsher sentence; the penalty of vandalism is a fine not exceeding S$2,000 or imprisonment not exceeding three years, corporal punishment of not less than three strokes and not more than eight strokes of the cane. Depending on the jurisdiction, several classes of misdemeanors may exist. For example, the federal and some state governments in the United States divide misdemeanors into several classes, with certain classes punishable by jail time and others carrying only a fine. In New York law, a Class A Misdemeanor carries a maximum sentence of one year of imprisonment, while a Class B Misdemeanor "shall not exceed three months". In the United States, when a statute does not specify the class of a misdemeanor, it may be referred to as an unclassified misdemeanor.
Legislators enact such laws when they wish to impose penalties that fall outside the framework specified by each class. For example, Virginia has four classes of misdemeanors, with Class 1 and Class 2 misdemeanors being punishable by twelve-month and six-month jail sentences and Class 3 and Class 4 misdemeanors being non-jail offenses payable by fines. First-time cannabis possession is an unclassified misdemeanor in Virginia punishable by up to 30 days in jail rather than the normal fines and jail sentences of the four classes. New York has three classes of misdemeanor: A, B, Unclassified. All distinctions between felony and misdemeanour were abolished by section 1 of the Criminal Law Act 1967. Prior to this, a person prosecuted for misdemeanour was called a defendant. Convicted felon Federal crime Felony Indictable offence Infraction Misdemeanor murder Summary offence The dictionary definition of misdemeanor at Wiktionary
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
District of Columbia Court of Appeals
The District of Columbia Court of Appeals is the highest court of the District of Columbia. Established in 1970, it is equivalent to a state supreme court, except that its authority is derived from the United States Congress rather than from the inherent sovereignty of the states; the court is located in the former District of Columbia City Hall building at Judiciary Square. The D. C. Court of Appeals should not be confused with the District's federal appellate court, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit; the D. C. Court of Appeals and the Superior Court of the District of Columbia comprise the District's local court system; as the court of last resort for the District of Columbia, the Court of Appeals is authorized to review all final orders and specified interlocutory orders of the associate judges of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, as well as decisions of certain D. C. agencies. The court has jurisdiction to review decisions of administrative agencies and commissions of the District government, as well as to answer questions of law presented by the Supreme Court of the United States, a United States court of appeals, or the highest appellate court of any state.
As authorized by Congress, the court reviews proposed rules of the trial court and develops its own rules for proceedings. Cases before the court are determined by randomly selected three-judge divisions, unless a hearing or rehearing before the court sitting en banc is ordered. A hearing or rehearing before the court sitting en banc may be ordered by a majority of the judges in regular active service only when consideration by the full court is necessary to maintain uniformity of its decisions, or when the case involves a question of exceptional importance; the en banc court consists of the nine judges of the court in regular active service, except that a retired judge may sit to rehear a case or controversy if he or she heard the original hearing. The Chief Judge may designate and assign temporarily one or more judges of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia to serve on the District of Columbia Court of Appeals when required. Members of the court are empowered to adjudicate the oath of office ceremony for the executive cabinet of the President.
In the exercise of its inherent power over members of the legal profession, the court established the District of Columbia Bar and has the power to approve the rules governing attorney disciplinary proceedings. The court reviews the rules of professional conduct and has established rules governing the admission of members of the District of Columbia Bar and the resolution of complaints concerning the unauthorized practice of law in the District of Columbia; the court consists of eight associate judges. The court is assisted by the service of retired judges who have been recommended and approved as senior judges. Despite being the District's local appellate court, judges are appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the U. S. Senate for 15-year terms. There has been a vacant seat since the retirement of Judge Kathryn A. Oberly, effective November 1, 2013. In February 2014, President Obama nominated Todd Kim to fill this vacancy, but his nomination never received a final vote in the Senate.
On April 30, 2015, President Obama re-nominated Kim to the position, but the Senate declined again to act on that nomination. A second seat became vacant when Chief Judge Eric T. Washington took senior status effective March 18, 2017. On June 29, 2017, President Trump nominated Joshua A. Deahl to replace Washington; the Senate took no action, on January 4, 2019, his nomination was returned to the President under Rule XXXI, Paragraph 6, of the United States Senate. The senior judges are William C. Pryor, Eric T. Washington, Frank Q. Nebeker, John M. Ferren, John M. Steadman, Vanessa Ruiz. Superior Court of the District of Columbia United States District Court for the District of Columbia District of Columbia Court of Appeals – Official webpage of the DC Court of Appeals, part of the DC Courts' website