Assistens Cemetery (Copenhagen)
Assistens Cemetery in Copenhagen, Denmark, is the burial site of a large number of Danish notables as well as an important greenspace in the Nørrebro district. Among the latter are the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Niels Bohr and a number of American jazz musicians who settled in Copenhagen during the 1950s and 1960s, including Ben Webster and Kenny Drew. The cemetery is one of five run by Copenhagen Municipality, the cemeteries are Vestre Cemetery, Brønshøj Cemetery, Sundby Cemetery. In Medieval times intramural interment was the rule although outdoor graveyards gradually became more common, in 1666 the Naval Holmens Cemetery was moved from its original location at Church of Holmen to a site outside the Eastern City Gate as the first burial facility to be located outside the city. An outbreak of plague in 1711 which killed an estimated 23,000 citizens put the burial sites under so much pressure that up to five coffins were sometimes buried on top of each other. After some negotiations it was decided to place it outside the Northern City Gate, the new cemetery was inaugurated on 6 November 1760.
It was enclosed by a built by Philip de Lange. Originally the cemetery was intended as a ground for paupers. Simon, der dort Gräber ist, gesprochen habe and he was soon followed by other leading figures from the elite and the cemetery soon developed into the most mondain burial ground of the city. Around that time, excursions to the cemetery with picnic baskets and it is certainly one of the most beautiful graveyards in Europe. The excursions sometimes evolved into rowdy gatherings and legislation was passed to prevent this, a commission established in 1805 issued instructions which prohibited the consumption of food or drink as well as music or any other kind of cheerful behaviour in the cemetery. The gravediggers, who lived on the premises, were to enforce these restrictions, legislation from 1813 prohibited them to sell alcohol to visitors to the cemetery. Despite all these efforts, the peace and quiet was a long time in coming. For particularly grand funerals, crowds of spectators would gather, to reduce numbers of visitors, there was talk of introducing admission fees, but this was never carried out.
The oldest part is Section A and features the graves of Søren Kierkegaard, Section D is dedicated to religious minorities, containing Roman Catholic and Reformed graves as well as Russian graves. Section E is the section which served under Church of Our Lady. Apart from the permanent exhibition, the museum contains an exhibition space for special exhibitions, a picture workshop for children and young people
Superflex is a Danish artists group founded in 1993 by Jakob Fenger, Rasmus Nielsen and Bjørnstjerne Christiansen. Superflex describe their projects as Tools, as proposals that invite people to participate in, often the projects are assisted by experts who bring in their special interest, these tools can be further used and modified by their users. Often their projects are related to economic forces, democratic production conditions, Superflex has gained international recognition for their projects. They contributed to the exhibition Rethink Kakotopia shown at the Nikolaj Centre of Contemporary Art in Copenhagen 2009, burning Car Flooded McDonalds The Financial Crisis Modern Times Forever An Artist with 6 Legs Editor, Pernille Albrethsen. 336 pages, ISBN 978-87-88944-97-6 Published by Kunsthal Charlottenborg 2014 Superflex The Corrupt Show Editor,224 pages, Format,225 x 265 mm, Publication date, October 2013. ISBN 978-91-87543-02-9 Tools Editor Babara Steiner in cooperation with Superdesign, Published by Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König 2003.
ISBN 3-88375-612-1 Self-organisation/Counter-economic Strategies Edited by Will Bradley, Mika Hannula, Cristina Ricupero, while the red square designates the modern, urban life with café, music and sports, the black market is the classic square with fountain and benches. The green park is a park for picnics and walking the dog, the people living in the vicinity of the park are of more than 50 nationalities. These objects were chosen from a country of the national origin or from somewhere else encountered through traveling. The objects were produced in a 1,1 copy or bought, five groups traveled to Palestine, Thailand and Jamaica in order to acquire five objects. The objects have been installed throughout the park, the park has more than 100 objects from than 50 countries. Commissioned by the City of Copenhagen and Realdania, the concept for Superkilen was developed by Superflex in collaboration with architectural firms Bjarke Ingels Group, Power Toilets is a permanent public art work erected on a beach in the recreation area Park van Luna in Heerhugowaard, The Netherlands.
Typical for the 1950s corporate style the design includes marble, big mirrors, stainless steel, yellow tiles, grey anthracite mosaic floor tiles. Power Toilets was designed in collaboration with Nezu Aymo architects, Bouwbedrijf Gerrits and Sinnige b. v. and Sculpfiction. Statens kunstfonds 3 årige arbejdslegat, Denmark 2000, the Great Indoors Award, Frame Magazine 2011. AIA - American Institute of Architects -2013 Institute Honor Awards for Regional and Urban Design, ARCHITECT MAGAZINE - Design Review 2013 Citation - Category, Play,2013. IEDC - International Economic Development Council Promotional awards,2012, mvdR Prize - Mies van der Rohe Prize 2013 - Finalist. Carl Nielsen and Anne Marie Carl-Nielsen Award 2014, Superflex Free Beer Guaraná Power Copyshop Supergas Eating in Public Fallen Fruit Stealing Free Beer
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Amaliehaven is a small park located between Amalienborg Palace and the waterfront in the Frederiksstaden neighbourhood of central Copenhagen, Denmark. A relatively new park, it was established in 1983 as a gift from the A. P. Møller, the park is now part of the so-called Frederiksgade axis, the shorter but more distinctive of the two axes on which Frederiksstaden is centred. Amaliehaven is located on a site where there used to be an established in 1802 by a wealthy ship-owner named Lars Larsen. The shipyard and its large lumberyard were situated right beside Amalienborg Palace, in 1898 the Thingvalla Line was acquired by DFDS, another Danish based shipping company, and the Scandinavian-American passenger service was operated under the name Scandinavian America Line. The park is the result of a donation from the A. P. Møller, construction started in 1981 and it was inaugurated in 1983. The garden was designed by the Belgian landscape architect Jean Delogne, amaliehaven is a rectangular park built to a stringent, symmetrical design centred on a large fountain to respect and accentuate the Frederiksgade axis which unifies the entire area.
On both sides of the fountain, the gardens continue on two levels, with shrubs and walls enclosing it from the waterfront on one side and the street on the other. The garden abounds with different varieties of plants and fragrant flowers whose colours, japanese cherry trees, blooming in April, plays a particularly distinctive role among the parks vegetation. Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Amager Strandpark is a seaside public park in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located on the island of Amager and includes an artificial island, from the beach, the Middelgrunden wind farm can be seen on the horizon. The park was founded in 1934 and in 2005 a 2 km-long artificial island was added, the island is separated from the original beach by a lagoon which is crossed by three bridges. The northern section has a beach environment with winding paths, broad sandy beaches. The southern section offers a so-called city beach with a broad promenade, there is a small marina and parking facilities at the southern end. The lagoon has low-water areas for children as well as a 1,000 m swimming course, the area is used for, runners and kayakers, among many others. From a small headland, it is possible to go diving, there is an area for outdoor fitness training. A grassy area at the end of the park, known as femøren, is often used for open-air rock concerts in summer. There are many Danish skaters, who skate there, the American pro skater Torey Pudwill has a picture-ad, where he kick-flips down double set stairs at Bunker 2. Øresund is a strait which allows rather fast temperature rises.
Possible bathing season is between mid-May and mid-September, however, to reach fairly good bathing temperatures in the afternoons, air temperature needs to be above 25 °C for about a week in May, while just a few days of heat is enough in August. During longer heat waves, water temperatures rise above 22 °C during the period of late June until early September. The water quality is very good. All local outlets to Øresund has been cleaned and disinfected since the 1970s. Water salinity is highly dependent on the current, with northbound current salinity may drop down a bit below 10 PSU, but with southbound current salinity rises to above 25 PCU, not so far from the northern Atlantic salinity of 30–33 PCU. The park is served by three stations, Øresund station to the north, Femøren station to the south. All stations are on the M2 line of the Copenhagen Metro and it is easily reached on bicycle in about 15 minutes from the city centre. Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen Copenhagen Harbour Baths Bellevue Beach Official website
Realdania is a private association in Denmark which supports philanthropic projects in the realms of architecture and planning. Realdania is often called a private charitable foundation, but Realdanias legal structure is that of an association operating as a business. Only owners of real estate in Denmark can become members of Realdania, Realdanias closed structure has provoked criticism, and the associations funds has been called stray billions since they are controlled by a small network of people. Its activity is concentrated on supporting projects in architecture and the environment and is focused on three areas, cities and architectural heritage. Realkredit Danmark was owned and controlled by its members, and this structure was kept in Realdania, at the end of 2011 Realdanias endowment stood at EUR2.1 billion. Realdania Development and Change Architecture of Denmark List of wealthiest charitable foundations Jørgen Nue Møller, penge til Huse - Fra kreditforening til filantropisk virksomhed
Churchillparken is a public park in Copenhagen, occupying a tract of land between Kastellet, a 17th-century fortress, and the street Esplanaden. St. Albans Church, the Anglican church in Copenhagen, access to Kastellet through its main entrance, The Kings Gate, is reached through the park. The grounds were part of the esplanade which surrounded Kastellet. In the 1880s, after Kastellet had lost its role in the defence of the city. After World War II the site was chosen as the home of the Museum of Danish Resistance which was completed in 1957. Over the next few years, several war memorials were erected in the area which finally, in 1965, the namesake of the park, Winston Churchill, is commemorated with a bust designed by Oscar Nemon from 1955. Another bust, designed by Svend Lindhard and placed outside the Resistance Museum, commemorates Major Anders Lassen, the only Dane to have received the Victoria Cross for his efforts in World War II. Lindhard is the artist behind a Memorial to fallen Danish soldiers in the Allied Forces, which stands on Sjællands Ravelin and it depicts a soldier in English uniform.
The park features a statue of a valkyrie, a female figure in Norse mythology who chooses who will die and battle and brings her chosen to Valhalla. It was designed by Stephan Sinding and executed in Paris in 1908 but is based on a sketch from 1872. A smaller version in painted wood and coloured stone was exhibited in 1901 and another version from 1910, in bronze and open spaces in Copenhagen
American Institute of Architects
The American Institute of Architects is a professional organization for architects in the United States. The AIA works with members of the design and construction team to help coordinate the building industry. The AIA is currently headed by Robert Ivy, FAIA as EVP/Chief Executive Officer and Thomas V. Vonier, with Richard Upjohn serving as the first president. They met on February 23,1857 and decided to invite 16 other prominent architects to join them, including Alexander Jackson Davis, Thomas U. Prior to their establishment of the AIA, anyone could claim to be an architect and they drafted a constitution and bylaws by March 10,1857, under the name New York Society of Architects. Walter, of Philadelphia, suggested the name be changed to American Institute of Architects, the members signed the new constitution on April 15,1857, having filed a certificate of incorporation two days earlier. As of 2008, AIA has more than 300 chapters, the AIA is headquartered at 1735 New York Avenue, NW in Washington, D. C.
A design competition was held in the mid-1960s to select an architect for a new AIA headquarters in Washington, mitchell/Giurgola won the design competition but failed to get approval of the design concept from the United States Commission of Fine Arts. The firm resigned the commission and helped select The Architects Collaborative to redesign the building, the design, led by TAC principals Norman Fletcher and Howard Elkus, was ultimately approved in 1970 and completed in 1973. More than 90,000 licensed architects and associated professionals are members, AIA members adhere to a code of ethics and professional conduct intended to assure clients, the public, and colleagues of an architects dedication to the highest standards in professional practice. There are five levels of membership in the AIA, Architect members are licensed to practice architecture in the United States, international associate members hold an architecture license or the equivalent from a licensing authority outside the United States.
Emeritus members have been AIA members for 15 successive years and are at least 65 years of age or are incapacitated, allied membership is a partnership with the AIA and the American Architectural Foundation. The AIA’s most prestigious honor is the designation of a member as a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects and this membership is awarded to members who have made contributions of national significance to the profession. Slightly more than 2,600, or 2% of all members, have elevated to the AIA College of Fellows. Foreign architects of prominence may be elected to the College as Honorary Fellows of the AIA, the AIA is governed by a Board of Directors and has a staff of over 200 full-time employees. Although the AIA functions as an organization, at its heart are some 300 local. The components are spread throughout the United States, United Kingdom, Japan, by speaking with a united voice, AIA architects influence government practices that affect the practice of the profession and the quality of American life.
The AIA monitors legislative and regulatory actions and uses the power of its membership to participate in decisionmaking by federal, state
Frederiksberg Gardens is one of the largest and most attractive greenspaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. Together with the adjacent Søndermarken it forms an area of 64 hectares at the western edge of Inner Copenhagen. It is a landscape garden designed in the English style. Frederiksberg Gardens was established by King Frederik IV in connection with the construction of Frederiksberg Palace as his new summer retreat on high grounds atop Valby Hill. Work on the began in the last half of the 1690s with inspiration from Italy and France which Frederick. He commissioned the eminent Swedish architect Nicodemus Tessin to draw a proposal and the plan was subsequently made by Hans Heinrich Scheel. The plan involved a parterre with a system of cascades on the sloping terrain in front of the new palace. It was fed by a complicated but inefficient system of pumps which never came to work properly. In the end, Johan Cornelius Krieger, who was at the time working on an extension and adaption of Fredensborg Palace.
Unusually of the time, he gave up the parterre completely, in the 1790s, as fashion changed, the park was adapted into an English landscape garden. P. Petersen created a new plan in 1795. He created a typical English-style landscape garden with winding lawns, lakes and spinneys as well as grottos, pavilions, the final result may well have been based on Johan Ludwig Mansas book on English-style gardening written in 1798. Frederik VI was particularly fond of the garden, from 1804, he sailed the canals in a gondola. Not until 1865 did access to the park become unrestricted, in line with what was the case elsewhere in the city, smørrebrødsplænen, on the corner of Toskildevej and Pile Allé, where K. B. s tennis halls are today, became a popular picnic destination. Frederiksberg Gardens is an English-style Romantic landscape garden with winding paths, lakes, small islands, a large variety of plants and birds can be seen, including mute swans, greylag geese, grey herons, and Canada geese. Typically of the landscape garden, the park houses two follies, waterfalls and other garden features.
The gate was designed by Lauritz de Thurah who had become general master builder after Eigtveds death, the vases at the top of the two sandstone pillars were executed by the sculptor Johann Friedrich Hännel. The gate opens to a path which passes between two long, yellow buildings with white details and they are the two surviving wings of the Princes House