Rio Grande do Norte
Rio Grande do Norte is one of the states of Brazil, located in the northeastern region of the country, occupying the northeasternmost tip of the South American continent. Because of its geographic position, Rio Grande do; the capital and largest city is Natal. It is the land of the folklorist Luís da Câmara Cascudo and, according to NASA, it has the purest air in the Americas, its 410 km of sand, much sun, coconut palms and lagoons are responsible for the fame of beaches. Rocas Atoll, the only such feature in the Atlantic Ocean, is part of the state; the main economic activity is tourism, followed by the extraction of petroleum, fruit growing and extraction of minerals, including considerable production of seasalt, among other economic activities. The state is famous for having many popular attractions such as the Cashew of Pirangi, the dunes and the dromedaries of Genipabu, the famous beaches of Ponta Negra, Maracajaú and Pipa's paradise, the Carnatal the largest off-season carnival in Brazil, the Forte dos Reis Magos is a sixteenth-century fortress, the hills and mountains of Martins, the Natal Dunes State Park the second largest urban park in the country, several other attractions.
The state is closest to the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha. Rio Grande do; the state is famed for its beaches and sand dunes, the air is, according to NASA, the second-cleanest in the world after Antarctica. Two climates predominate: humid tropical, in the oriental littoral, semi-arid, in the remaining of the State; the rainforest which once covered most of Brazil's coast had its northern end in the south of Rio Grande do Norte. The semi-arid climate is characterized not only by the low level but the irregularity of rainfall. There are many mangroves in the state, the interior is dominated by rainforest. Rocas Atoll in the Atlantic Ocean, 260 km Northeast of Natal belongs to the state of Rio Grande do Norte, it is contained in the protected Atol das Rocas Biological Reserve. See also: History of Rio Grande do NorteThe first European to reach the region may have been the Spaniard Alonso de Ojeda in 1499; the northeastern tip of South America, Cape São Roque, 20 miles to the north of Natal, was first visited by European navigators in 1501, in the 1501–1502 Portuguese expedition led by Amerigo Vespucci, who named the spot after the saint of the day.
The Vespucci expedition named the Potengi river, whose large mouth contrasted with the nearby bodies of water, "Rio Grande", after which the Captaincy and State were named. For decades thereafter, no permanent European settlement was established in the area, inhabited by the Potiguar tribe. In the 16th century, it was explored by French pirates in search for brazilwood. In 1598, the Portuguese built the Forte dos Reis Magos and, in the following year, founded the city of Natal. Rasing cattle and sugarcane plantation lifted the local economy. In 1633, the area became a battleground between the expansionist Portuguese, seeking to take more land for their Brazilian territories, the Dutch, who gained a foothold in South America. After a short period of peace and prosperity in Olinda and Recife, the sugar prices went down in the market of Amsterdam and the region entered into a serious economic crisis; the economic problems led the Portuguese settlers and native Brazilians to revolt against the Dutch in what is known today as the massacres of Cunhaú and Uruaçu.
The religious confrontations, Portugal's restoration of the throne in 1640 and the reconquest of Maranhão in 1643, lead the Portuguese-Brazilians to undertake the 1645 uprising, led by André Vidal de Negreiros and João Fernandes Vieira. The governor of Bahia promised new Portuguese troops, but most of the rebels were Africans and Amerindians. In 1654, the Dutch were cast out. During World War II, Rio Grande do Norte was used as an Allied airbase from which to launch air raids on German-occupied North Africa. In 1964, Latin America's first space launch site was constructed in Rio Grande do Norte; the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics estimates that the population of Rio Grande do Norte was 3,168,133 on December 1, 2010, a 14.3% increase since the 2000 census. Multiracial people make up 52.48% of the total population. The second largest group composed by white people was 41.15% of the total population, following by black people, Asian people and indigenous people 0.08%. 77,916 Migrants arrived in the state between 2000 and 2010, while 71,287 people left the state between 2000 and 2010.
The service sector is the largest component of GDP at 50.2%, followed by the industrial sector at 44.2%. Agriculture represents 5.6% of GDP. Rio Grande do Norte exports: fish and crustacean 30.5%, fruits 19.3%, woven of cotton 12.3%, petroleum 10.8%, cashew 8.5%, sugar 5.3%, chocolate 3.9%, sea salt 3.7%. Share of the Brazilian economy: 0.9%. Rio Grande do Norte has relied upon suga
A crown is an emblem of a sovereign state a monarchy, but used by some republics. A specific type of crown is employed in heraldry under strict rules. Indeed, some monarchies never had a physical crown, just a heraldic representation, as in the constitutional kingdom of Belgium. Crowns are often used as symbols of religious status or veneration, by divinities or by their representatives, e.g. the Black Crown of the Karmapa Lama, sometimes used a model for wider use by devotees. A crown can be a charge in a coat of arms, or set atop the shield to signify the status of its owner, as with the coat of arms of Norway. Oftentimes, the crown depicted and used in heraldry differs from any specific physical crown that may be used by a monarchy. If the bearer of a coat of arms has the title of baron or higher, he or she may display a coronet of rank above the shield below the helm in British heraldry, above the crest in Continental heraldry. In this case, the appearance of the crown or coronet follows a strict set of rules.
A royal coat of arms may display a royal crown, such as that of Norway. A princely coat of arms may display a princely crown, so on. A mural crown is displayed on coats of arms of towns and some republics. Other republics may omit the use of a crown altogether; the heraldic forms of crowns are inspired by the physical appearance of the respective country's actual royal or princely crowns. Ships and other units of some navies have a naval crown, composed of the sails and sterns of ships, above the shield of their coats of arms. Squadrons of some air forces have an astral crown, composed of stars. There is the Eastern crown, made up of spikes, when each spike is topped with a star, it becomes a celestial crown. Whereas most county councils in England use mural crowns, there is a special type of crown, used by Scottish county councils, it was composed of spikes, was shown vert and had golden wheat sheaves between the spikes. Today, most of the Scottish unitary authorities still use this "wheat sheaf crown", but it is now the usual gold.
In formal English, the word crown is reserved for the crown of a monarch, whereas the word coronet is used for all other crowns used by members of the British royal family and peers of the realm. In the British peerage, the design of a coronet shows the rank of its owner, as in German and various other heraldic traditions; the coronet of a duke has eight strawberry leaves, that of a marquess has four strawberry leaves and four silver balls, that of an earl has eight strawberry leaves and eight "pearls" raised on stalks, that of a viscount has sixteen "pearls", that of a peerage baron or lord of parliament has six "pearls". Between the 1930s and 2004, feudal barons in the baronage of Scotland were granted a chapeau or cap of maintenance as a rank insignia; this is placed between the helmet in the same manner as a peer's coronet. Since a person entitled to heraldic headgear customarily displays it above the shield and below the helm and crest, this can provide a useful clue as to the owner of a given coat of arms.
Members of the British royal family have coronets on their coats of arms, they may wear physical versions at coronations. They are according to regulations made by King Charles II in 1661, shortly after his return from exile in France and Restoration, they vary depending upon the holder's relationship to the monarch. Additional royal warrants vary the designs for individuals. In Canadian heraldry, special coronets are used to designate descent from United Empire Loyalists. A military coronet signifies ancestors who served in Loyalist regiments during the American Revolution, while a civil coronet is used by all others; the loyalist coronets are used only in heraldry, never worn. Because there are many traditions and more variation within some of these, there are a plethora of continental coronet types. Indeed, there are some coronets for positions that do not exist, or do not entitle use of a coronet, in the Commonwealth tradition; such a case in French heraldry of the Ancien Régime, where coronets of rank did not come into use before the 16th century, is the vidame, whose coronet is a metal circle mounted with three visible crosses.
Helmets are substitutes for coronets, some coronets are worn only on a helmet. Austrian Empire German Empire The older crowns are still seen in the heraldry of older families. Kingdom of Portugal Empire of Brazil During the Swedish reign, Swedish coronets were used. Crowns were used in the coats of arms of the historical provinces of Finland. For Finland Proper, Satakunta and Karelia, it was a ducal coronet, for others, a comital coronet. In 1917 with independence, the coat of arms of Finland was introduced with a Grand Ducal coronet, but it was soon removed, in 1920. Today, some cities use coronets, e.g. Pori has Vaasa a Crown of Nobility. In heraldry, a charge is an image occupying the field of a coat of arms. Many coats of arms incorporate crowns as charges. One notable example of this lies in the Three Crowns of the arms of Sweden. Additionally, many animal charges and sometimes human heads appear crowned. Animal charges gorged of an open coronet occur, though far less frequently. Crown jewels Imperial crown List of monarchies Cor
Dexter and sinister
Dexter and sinister are terms used in heraldry to refer to specific locations in an escutcheon bearing a coat of arms, to the other elements of an achievement. "Dexter" means to the right from the viewpoint of the bearer of the shield, i.e. the bearer's proper right, to the left from that of the viewer. "Sinister" means to the left from the viewpoint of the bearer, the bearer's proper left, to the right from that of the viewer. The dexter side is considered the side of greater honour, for example. Thus, by tradition, a husband's arms occupy the dexter half of his shield, his wife's paternal arms the sinister half; the shield of a bishop shows the arms of his see in the dexter half, his personal arms in the sinister half. King Richard II adopted arms showing the attributed arms of Edward the Confessor in the dexter half, the royal arms of England in the sinister. More by ancient tradition, the guest of greatest honour at a banquet sits at the right hand of the host; the Bible is replete with passages referring to being at the "right hand" of God.
Sinister is used to mark that an ordinary or other charge is turned to the heraldic left of the shield. A bend sinister is a bend which runs from the bearer's top left to bottom right, as opposed to top right to bottom left; as the shield would have been carried with the design facing outwards from the bearer, the bend sinister would slant in the same direction as a sash worn diagonally on the left shoulder. This division is key to dimidiation, a method of joining two coats of arms by placing the dexter half of one coat of arms alongside the sinister half of the other. In the case of marriage, the dexter half of the husband's arms would be placed alongside the sinister half of the wife's; the practice fell out of use as early as the 14th century and was replaced by impalement, as in some cases, it could render the arms that are cut in half unrecognizable and in some cases, it would result in a shield that looked like one coat of arms rather than a combination of two. The Great Seal of the United States features an eagle clutching an olive branch in its dexter talon and arrows in its sinister talon, indicating the nation's intended inclination to peace.
In 1945, one of the changes ordered for the arranged Flag of the President of the United States by President Harry S. Truman was having the eagle face towards its right and thus towards the olive branch; the sides of a shield were named for the purpose of military training of knights and soldiers long before heraldry came into use early in the 13th century so the only viewpoint, relevant was the bearer's. The front of the purely-functional shield was undecorated, it is that the use of the shield as a defensive and offensive weapon was as developed as that of the sword itself and so the various positions or strokes of the shield needed to be described to students of arms. Such usage may indeed have descended directly from Roman training techniques that were spread throughout Roman Europe and continued during the age of chivalry, when heraldry came into use
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. In wider definitions, the taller palms, tree ferns and bamboos are trees. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years, it is estimated. A tree has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground by the trunk; this trunk contains woody tissue for strength, vascular tissue to carry materials from one part of the tree to another. For most trees it is surrounded by a layer of bark. Below the ground, the roots spread out widely. Above ground, the branches divide into smaller shoots.
The shoots bear leaves, which capture light energy and convert it into sugars by photosynthesis, providing the food for the tree's growth and development. Trees reproduce using seeds. Flowers and fruit may be present, but some trees, such as conifers, instead have pollen cones and seed cones. Palms and bamboos produce seeds, but tree ferns produce spores instead. Trees play a significant role in moderating the climate, they remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store large quantities of carbon in their tissues. Trees and forests provide a habitat for many species of plants. Tropical rainforests are among the most biodiverse habitats in the world. Trees provide shade and shelter, timber for construction, fuel for cooking and heating, fruit for food as well as having many other uses. In parts of the world, forests are shrinking as trees are cleared to increase the amount of land available for agriculture; because of their longevity and usefulness, trees have always been revered, with sacred groves in various cultures, they play a role in many of the world's mythologies.
Although "tree" is a term of common parlance, there is no universally recognised precise definition of what a tree is, either botanically or in common language. In its broadest sense, a tree is any plant with the general form of an elongated stem, or trunk, which supports the photosynthetic leaves or branches at some distance above the ground. Trees are typically defined by height, with smaller plants from 0.5 to 10 m being called shrubs, so the minimum height of a tree is only loosely defined. Large herbaceous plants such as papaya and bananas are trees in this broad sense. A applied narrower definition is that a tree has a woody trunk formed by secondary growth, meaning that the trunk thickens each year by growing outwards, in addition to the primary upwards growth from the growing tip. Under such a definition, herbaceous plants such as palms and papayas are not considered trees regardless of their height, growth form or stem girth. Certain monocots may be considered trees under a looser definition.
Aside from structural definitions, trees are defined by use. The tree growth habit is an evolutionary adaptation found in different groups of plants: by growing taller, trees are able to compete better for sunlight. Trees tend some reaching several thousand years old. Several trees are among the oldest organisms now living. Trees have modified structures such as thicker stems composed of specialised cells that add structural strength and durability, allowing them to grow taller than many other plants and to spread out their foliage, they differ from shrubs, which have a similar growth form, by growing larger and having a single main stem. The tree form has evolved separately in unrelated classes of plants in response to similar environmental challenges, making it a classic example of parallel evolution. With an estimated 60,000-100,000 species, the number of trees worldwide might total twenty-five per cent of all living plant species; the greatest number of these grow in tropical regions and many of these areas have not yet been surveyed by botanists, making tree diversity and ranges poorly known.
The majority of tree species are angiosperms. There are about 1000 species of gymnosperm trees, including conifers, cycads and gnetales. Most angiosperm trees are eudicots, the "true dicotyledons", so named because the seeds contain two cotyledons or seed leaves. There are some trees among the old lineages of flowering plants called basal angiosperms or paleodicots. Wood gives structural strength to the trunk of most types of tree; the vascular system of trees allows water and other chemicals to be di
Royal Arms of England
The Royal Arms of England are the arms first adopted in a fixed form at the start of the age of heraldry as personal arms by the Plantagenet kings who ruled England from 1154. In the popular mind they have come to symbolise the nation of England, although according to heraldic usage nations do not bear arms, only persons and corporations do; the blazon of the Arms of Plantagenet is: Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or armed and langued azure, signifying three identical gold lions with blue tongues and claws, walking past but facing the observer, arranged in a column on a red background. Although the tincture azure of tongue and claws is not cited in many blazons, they are a distinguishing feature of the Arms of England; this coat, designed in the High Middle Ages, has been variously combined with those of the Kings of France, Scotland, a symbol of Ireland, the House of Nassau and the Kingdom of Hanover, according to dynastic and other political changes occurring in England, but has not altered since it took a fixed form in the reign of Richard I, the second Plantagenet king.
Although in England the official blazon refers to "lions", French heralds used the term "leopard" to represent the lion passant guardant, hence the arms of England, no doubt, are more blazoned, "leopards". Without doubt the same animal was intended, but different names were given according to the position. Royal emblems depicting lions were first used by Danish Vikings and Normans. With Plantagenets a formal and consistent English heraldry system emerged at the end of the 12th century; the earliest surviving representation of an escutcheon, or shield, displaying three lions is that on the Great Seal of King Richard I, which displayed one or two lions rampant, but in 1198 was permanently altered to depict three lions passant representing Richard I's principal three positions as King of the English, Duke of the Normans, Duke of the Aquitanians. In 1340, Edward III laid claim to the throne of France, thus adopted the Royal arms of France which he quartered with his paternal arms, the Royal Arms of England.
He placed the French arms in the 4th quarters. This quartering was adjusted and restored intermittently throughout the Middle Ages as the relationship between England and France changed; when the French king altered his arms from semée of fleur-de-lys, to only three, the English quartering followed suit. After the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland entered a personal union, the arms of England and Scotland were marshalled in what has now become the Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, it appears in a similar capacity to represent England in the Arms of Canada and on the Queen's Personal Canadian Flag. The coat of three lions continues to represent England on several coins of the pound sterling, forms the basis of several emblems of English national sports teams and endures as one of the most recognisable national symbols of England; when the Royal Arms are in the format of an heraldic flag, it is variously known as the Royal Banner of England, the Banner of the Royal Arms, the Banner of the King of England, or by the misnomer the Royal Standard of England.
This Royal Banner differs from England's national flag, the St George's Cross, in that it does not represent any particular area or land, but rather symbolises the sovereignty vested in the rulers thereof. The first documented use of royal arms dates from the reign of Richard I. Much antiquarians would retrospectively invented attributed arms for earlier kings, but their reigns pre-dated the systematisation of hereditary English heraldry that only occurred in the second half of the 12th century. Lions may have been used as a badge by members of the Norman dynasty: a late-12th century chronicler reports that in 1128, Henry I of England knighted his son-in-law, Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, gave him a gold lion badge; the memorial enamel created to decorate Geoffrey's tomb depicts a blue coat of arms bearing gold lions. His son, Henry II used a lion as his emblem, based on the arms used by his sons and other relatives, he may have used a coat of arms with a single lion or two lions, though no direct testimony of this has been found.
His children experimented with different combinations of lions on their arms. Richard I used a single lion rampant, or two lions affrontés, on his first seal, but used three lions passant in his 1198 Great Seal of England, thus established the lasting design of the Royal Arms of England. In 1177, his brother John had used a seal depicting a shield with two lions passant guardant, but when he succeeded his brother on the English throne he would adopt arms with three lions passant or on a field gules, these were used, unchanged, as the royal arms by him and his successors until 1340. In 1340, following the extinction of the House of Capet, Edward III claimed the French throne. In addition to initiating the Hundred Years' War, Edward III expressed his claim in heraldic form by quartering the royal arms of England with the Arms of France; this quartering continued until 1801, with intervals in 1360–1369 and 1420–1422. Following the death of Elizabeth I in 1603, the throne of England was inherited by the Scottish House of Stuart, resulting in the Union of the Crowns: the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland wer
Tinctures constitute the limited palette of colours and patterns used in heraldry. The need to define and blazon the various tinctures is one of the most important aspects of heraldic art and design; the use of these tinctures dates back to the formative period of European heraldry, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, but the range of tinctures and the manner of depicting and describing them has evolved over time, as new variations and practices have developed. The basic scheme and rules of applying the heraldic tinctures dates to the formative period of heraldry, during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. By the time of the earliest coloured heraldic illustrations, in the mid-thirteenth century, the use of two metals, five colours, two furs had become standardized, since that time, the great majority of heraldic art has employed these nine tinctures. Over time, variations on these basic tinctures were developed with respect to the furs, although the authorities differ as to whether these should be considered separate tinctures, or varieties of existing ones.
Two additional colours appeared, were accepted by heraldic writers, although they remained scarce, were termed stains, from the belief that they were used to signify some dishonour on the part of the bearer. The practice of depicting certain charges as they appear in nature, termed proper, was established by the seventeenth century. Other colours have appeared since the eighteenth century in continental heraldry, but their use is infrequent, they have never been regarded as heraldic, or numbered among the tinctures that form the basis of heraldic design; the frequency with which different tinctures have been used over time has been much observed, but little studied. There are, some general trends of note, both with respect to the passage of time, noted preferences from one region to another. In medieval heraldry, gules was by far the most common tincture, followed by the metals argent and or, at least one of which appeared on the majority of arms. Among the colours, sable was the second most common, followed by azure.
Over time, the popularity of azure increased above that of sable, while gules, still the most common, became less dominant. A survey of French arms granted during the seventeenth century reveals a distinct split between the trends for the arms granted to nobles and commoners. Among nobles, gules remained the most common tincture followed by or by argent and azure at nearly equal levels. Among commoners, azure was the most common tincture, followed by or, only by gules and sable, used more by commoners than among the nobility. Purpure is so scarce in French heraldry that some authorities do not regard it as a "real heraldic tincture". On the whole, French heraldry is known for its use of azure and or, while English heraldry is characterized by heavy use of gules and argent, unlike French heraldry, it has always made regular use of vert, occasional, if not extensive, use of purpure. German heraldry is known for its extensive use of or and sable. German and Nordic heraldry make use of purpure or ermine, except in mantling and the lining of crowns and caps.
In fact, furs occur infrequently in Nordic heraldry. The colours and patterns of the heraldic palette are divided into three groups known as metals and furs; the metals are or and argent, representing gold and silver although in practice they are depicted as yellow and white. Or derives its name from the Latin aurum, "gold", it may be depicted using either metallic gold, at the artist's discretion. Argent is derived from the Latin argentum, "silver". Although sometimes depicted as metallic silver or faint grey, it is more represented by white, in part because of the tendency for silver paint to oxidize and darken over time, in part because of the pleasing effect of white against a contrasting colour. Notwithstanding the widespread use of white for argent, some heraldic authorities have suggested the existence of white as a distinct heraldic colour. Five colours have been recognized since the earliest days of heraldry; these are: red. Gules is of uncertain derivation. Sable is named for a type of marten, known for its luxuriant fur.
Azure comes through the Arabic lāzaward, from the Persian lāžavard both referring to the blue mineral lapis lazuli, used to produce blue pigments. Vert is from Latin viridis, "green"; the alternative name in French, sinople, is derived from the ancient city of Sinope in Asia Minor, famous for its pigments. Purpure is in turn from Greek porphyra, the dye known as Tyrian purple; this expensive dye, known from antiquity, produced a much redder purple than the modern heraldic colour. As a heraldic colour, purpure may have originated as a variation of gules. Two more were acknowledged by most heraldic authoriti
A galero is a broad-brimmed hat with tasselated strings worn by clergy in the Catholic Church. Over the centuries, the red galero was restricted to use by individual cardinals while such other colors as green and violet were reserved to clergy of other ranks and styles; when creating a cardinal, the pope used to place a scarlet galero on the new cardinal's head in consistory, the practice giving rise to the phrase "receiving the red hat." In 1969, a Papal decree ended the use of the galero. Since that time, only the scarlet zucchetto and biretta are placed over the heads of cardinals during the consistory; some cardinals continue to obtain a galero so that the custom of suspending it over their tombs may be observed. Cardinal Raymond Burke has been known to wear the galero on occasion in the 21st century. A few cardinals from eastern rites wear distinctive oriental headgear. Other ecclesiastical hats are used by ministers of other Christian communities. Alongside Catholic clergy, the Scots Public Register records its use by Episcopalian and Presbyterian ministers.
The Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland uses a black hat, with blue cords and ten tassels Traditionally, the galero remains over the tomb until it is reduced to dust, symbolizing how all earthly glory is passing. In a cathedral that has no crypt, the galeri are suspended from the ceiling. For example, following the death of Cardinal Basil Hume, Archbishop of Westminster, in 1999, his relatives had a galero installed above his tomb in Westminster Cathedral, alongside those of his predecessors; the privilege of wearing the red galero was first granted to cardinals by Pope Innocent IV in 1245 at the First Council of Lyon. Tradition in the Archdiocese of Lyon is that the red color was inspired by the red hats of the canons of Lyon. Pope Innocent wanted his favorites to be distinct and recognizable in the lengthy processions at the council. Anachronistically, some early Church Fathers are shown wearing a galero, notably Jerome is pictured in art either wearing a galero, or with one close by.
Though the office of cardinal did not exist in Jerome's day, he had been secretary to Pope Damasus I, which in days would have made him a cardinal ex officio. Cardinal Jean Cholet used his galero to crown Charles of Valois in 1285 at Girona during the Aragonese Crusade, pronouncing him King of Aragon; as a result, roi du chapeau became Charles's nickname. The use of the galero was abolished in 1969 with instruciton Ut sive sollicite; the galero continues to appear today in ecclesiastical heraldry as part of the achievement of the coat of arms of an armigerous Catholic cleric. The ecclesiastical hat replaces the helmet and crest, because those were considered too belligerent for men in the clerical estate; the color of the hat and number of tassels indicate the cleric's place in the hierarchy. Priests and ministers have a black hat with cords and tassels, the number depending upon their rank. Bishops use a green hat with green cords and six green tassels on each side, archbishops have a green hat with green cords and ten green tassels on each side, cardinals have a red hat with red cords and fifteen red tassels on each side.
Depiction in arms can vary depending on the artist's style. Philippi, Dieter. Sammlung Philippi – Kopfbedeckungen in Glaube, Religion und Spiritualität. St. Benno Verlag, Leipzig. ISBN 978-3-7462-2800-6. Pictures of clerical headgear and literature in German language Picture of a cardinal's galero, hanging