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Supreme Court of New Zealand

The Supreme Court of New Zealand is the highest court and the court of last resort of New Zealand. It formally came into being on 1 January 2004 and sat for the first time on 1 July 2004, it replaced the right of appeal based in London. It was created with the passing of the Supreme Court Act 2003, on 15 October 2003. At the time, the creation of the Supreme Court and the abolition of appeals to the Privy Council were controversial constitutional changes in New Zealand; the Act was repealed on 1 March 2017 and superseded by the Senior Courts Act 2016. It should not be confused with New Zealand's "old" Supreme Court, a superior court, established in 1841 and continued in 1980 as the High Court of New Zealand; the name was changed in anticipation of the eventual creation of a final court of appeal for New Zealand that would be called the "Supreme Court". The inaugural bench were the most senior judges of the New Zealand Court of Appeal at the time, their appointment to the new Court was said to have been based on merit.

The maximum bench under statute is six judges. Several acting judges have been appointed to sit whenever a permanent judge was unable to do so due to illness or a conflict of interest; these judges were appointed from the retired judges of the Court of Appeal and including Justices Sir John Henry, Sir Ted Thomas, former President of the Court of Appeal Sir Ivor Richardson and former Chief Justice Sir Thomas Eichelbaum. Acting judges only sit on substantive appeals, not applications for leave, due to the requirement for appeals to be heard en banc by five judges. On 4 May 2005, Attorney General Michael Cullen announced the appointment of Justice Sir John McGrath of the Court of Appeal to the Supreme Court bench as its sixth permanent judge. On 21 February 2006, the Honourable Sir Noel Anderson was appointed to the Supreme Court, thus the promotion of the most senior Court of Appeal member has continued. This practice was broken with the appointment of Justice Bill Wilson in December 2007 after having served less than a year as a judge of the Court of Appeal.

Under section 94 of the Senior Courts Act 2016 an existing judge can only be appointed a Supreme Court justice if a member of the Court of Appeal or the High Court. If the person is not a member of either of those courts, the candidate must be appointed as a High Court judge at the same time as taking office in the Supreme Court. While the suggestion of ending appeals to the Privy Council had been around since the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1947, proposals to end appeals to the Privy Council began in the late 1970s, when a Royal Commission on the judiciary canvassed arguments for replacing the Privy Council. In the early 1980s, Minister of Justice Jim McLay suggested their abolition. Proposals for an indigenous final appellate court can be traced back to 1985. In 1996, Paul East, Attorney-General of the Bolger government, proposed to end the status of the Privy Council as the country's highest court of appeal; the proposal got as far as a Bill being introduced into Parliament. However, this Bill met with little support from within the National Party, the Bill was not carried over by the next Parliament following the 1996 general election.

The policy was resurrected in 1999 by the Fifth Labour Government of 1999 – 2008. A discussion paper, Reshaping New Zealand's Appeal Structure attracted 70 submissions. A year a Ministerial Action Group was formed to assist Ministers in designing the purpose and make-up of a final court of appeal; the Group's report, Replacing the Privy Council: A New Supreme Court was published in April 2002, before the general election a few months later. Upon the re-election at the 2002 New Zealand general election, as part of the Labour Party's election manifesto, the Attorney-General, Labour's Margaret Wilson, introduced the Supreme Court Bill to create the Supreme Court and abolish appeals to the Privy Council on 9 December 2002. A Campaign for the Privy Council was established to lobby against the abolition of appeals. Many business and community groups joined the opposition to the ending of appeals; the Monarchist League of New Zealand opposed the abolition of appeals, stating Margaret Wilson argued in favour of the Bill, stating: At select committee, the Bill attracted numerous submissions for and against creating the Supreme Court.

Notable supporters of the Supreme Court were former President of the Court of Appeal, Lord of Appeal in Ordinary, Privy Councillor Lord Cooke of Thorndon and former Prime Minister Sir Geoffrey Palmer, while most senior lawyers were opposed to the change. The Monarchist League complained the majority of members of the select committee were motivated by a "republican agenda"; the Supreme Court Act 2003 passed its third reading by a small margin – the governing Labour and Progressive parties, supported by the Greens, voted in favour, while the National, New Zealand First, ACT New Zealand, United Future parties voted against. It received Royal Assent on 17 October 2003, with commencement on 1 January 2004. In 2008, National leader John Key ruled out any abolition of the Supreme Court and return to the Privy Council. After the Opposition parties unsuccessfully called for a national referendum on the matter, Auckland lawyer Dennis J Gates launched a petition for a non-binding citizens initiated referendum on 3 April 2003, asking the question "Should all rights of appeal to the Privy Council be abolished?".

The petition failed to gain the 310,000 signatures of registered electors needed and lapsed on 2 July 2004. One issue, conten

Troy Hayden

Troy Hayden is the weekday morning news anchor for Fox 10 News in Phoenix, Arizona. He has been an anchor at the station since 1994, serving as weeknight 10pm anchor for nearly 20 years, he made the move to mornings in August 2016. He started his media career as a sports writer at the Sacramento Bee worked in television in Sacramento and Reno, he graduated from Sacramento State University. He has been named Anchor of the Year by the Associated Press, he is a five time Emmy winner as "Best Anchor," has been named "Best 10pm Anchor" by Phoenix Magazine, "Best Live Reporter" by the Phoenix New Times. In May 2013, Hayden conducted an exclusive interview with murderer Jodi Arias just 20 minutes after her conviction, aired internationally, he won multiple awards for that coverage. Other award-winning stories include an embark on the aircraft carrier USS Reagan, a dive to a sunken WWII aircraft in Lake Mead and a use of force scenario with anti police demonstrators that went viral. Hayden is married to former news anchor Stephanie Angelo and they have two daughters

Walter C. Whitaker

Walter Chiles Whitaker was an American farmer and soldier. He served as an officer in the United States Army during the Mexican–American War, was a Union general during the American Civil War. After the war he returned to his profession as an attorney. Whitaker was born in the Kentucky, he attended Bethany College in modern-day West Virginia. Whitaker was working as a lawyer. In 1847 Whitaker volunteered for service during the war with Mexico, was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 6th Kentucky Infantry Regiment beginning on October 1, he served until July 1848, when he was mustered out of the volunteers. After Mexico, Whitaker returned to home to Kentucky, he became a criminal law attorney in Shelbyville. He was elected as a legislator to the Kentucky General Assembly, serving until the American Civil War was well underway. While in the state senate, Whitaker proposed the resolution that set Kentucky on the side of the Union, ending the state's brief period of neutrality in the war. In late 1861 Whitaker chose to follow the Union cause and re-entered the U.

S. Army, he was appointed the colonel of his old regiment, the 6th Kentucky, on December 24. The 6th fought at the Battle of Stones River in 1862, Whitaker was wounded in his left elbow during the battle's first day on December 31. During the first day of the battle, his regiment defended the Round Forest as part of Col. William B. Hazen's brigade. On June 25, 1863, Whitaker was promoted to brigadier general, given brigade command in the Army of the Cumberland that August, he fought at the Union defense at the Battle of Chickamauga that fall as part of Brig. Gen. Gordon Granger's Reserve Corps, was again wounded, hit in his abdomen on September 20, he continued to serve in Army of the Cumberland, fighting at Lookout Mountain and Rossville Gap during the Third Battle of Chattanooga on November 23 and was once more wounded in action during the fight. He was so drunk at Chickamauga that his regimental commanders had to fend for themselves. At Lookout Mountain he was "deep in his cups" though he was sober enough to order a charge that contributed to the Union success.

Whitaker and his brigade fought during the Atlanta Campaign of 1864. He participated in the inconclusive Battle of Resaca that spring, received his last Civil War wound there on May 15 when he was injured by the concussion of an artillery shell which exploded nearby, he recovered by that fall and was given divisional command in the Army of the Cumberland beginning on September 19. Whitaker participated in the Battle of Franklin on November 30, 1864, at the Battle of Nashville on December 15 and 16, serving under Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas. On March 13, 1865, Whitaker was appointed a brevet major general for his actions near Atlanta, Georgia, on that date, he was mustered out of the Union Army on August 24, after the end of the American Civil War. After leaving the U. S. Army, Whitaker was a lawyer in Louisville, again in criminal cases, he reportedly drank to excess most of his life, spent some years in a mental asylum after the war. Whitaker died at the age of 63 in Lyndon, Kentucky in full mental health, was buried in Shelbyville's Grove Hill Cemetery.

List of American Civil War generals Cozzens, Peter. No Better Place to Die: The Battle of Stones River. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1991. ISBN 0-252-06229-9. Cozzens, Peter; the Shipwreck of Their Hopes: The Battles for Chattanooga. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1994. ISBN 0-252-01922-9. Cozzens, Peter; this Terrible Sound: The Battle of Chickamauga. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1996. ISBN 0-252-06594-8. Eicher, John H. and Eicher, David J. Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Blue: The Lives of the Union Commanders, Louisiana State University Press, 1964, ISBN 0-8071-0822-7