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Supreme court

The supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions. Other descriptions for such courts include court of last resort, apex court, high court of appeal. Broadly speaking, the decisions of a supreme court are not subject to further review by any other court. Supreme courts function as appellate courts, hearing appeals from decisions of lower trial courts, or from intermediate-level appellate courts. However, not all highest courts are named as such. Civil law states tend not to have a single highest court. Additionally, the highest court in some jurisdictions is not named the "Supreme Court", for example, the High Court of Australia. On the other hand, in some places the court named the "Supreme Court" is not in fact the highest court; the idea of a supreme court owes much to the framers of the Constitution of the United States. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.

Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. It was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to exercise a veto or to revise laws. In the end, the Framers of the Constitution compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting of federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish." They delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Judicial Branch as a whole. Some countries have multiple "supreme courts" whose respective jurisdictions have different geographical extents, or which are restricted to particular areas of law; some countries with a federal system of government may have both a federal supreme court, supreme courts for each member state, with the former having jurisdiction over the latter only to the extent that the federal constitution extends federal law over state law. However, other federations, such as Canada, may have a supreme court of general jurisdiction, able to decide any question of law.

Jurisdictions with a civil law system have a hierarchy of administrative courts separate from the ordinary courts, headed by a supreme administrative court as is the case in the Netherlands. A number of jurisdictions maintain a separate constitutional court, such as Austria, Germany, Portugal, Russia and South Africa. Within the former British Empire, the highest court within a colony was called the "Supreme Court" though appeals could be made from that court to the United Kingdom's Privy Council. A number of Commonwealth jurisdictions retain this system, but many others have reconstituted their own highest court as a court of last resort, with the right of appeal to the Privy Council being abolished. In jurisdictions using a common law system, the doctrine of stare decisis applies, whereby the principles applied by the supreme court in its decisions are binding upon all lower courts. In civil law jurisdictions the doctrine of stare decisis is not considered to apply, so the decisions of the supreme court are not binding beyond the immediate case before it.

The High Court of Australia is the supreme court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal in Australia. It has both original and appellate jurisdiction, the power of judicial review over laws passed by the Parliament of Australia and the parliaments of the states, the ability to interpret the Constitution of Australia and thereby shape the development of federalism in Australia; the High Court is mandated by section 71 of the Constitution, which vests in it the judicial power of the Commonwealth of Australia. The Court was constituted by, its first members were appointed under, the Judiciary Act 1903, it now operates under sections 71 to 75 of the Constitution, the Judiciary Act, the High Court of Australia Act 1979. It is composed of seven Justices: the Chief Justice of Australia Susan Kiefel, six other Justices, they are appointed by the Governor-General of Australia on the advice of the federal government, under the constitution must retire at age 70. The Supreme Court of Bangladesh is created by the provisions of the Constitution of Bangladesh, 1972.

There are two Divisions of i.e. Appellate Division and High Court Division. Appellate Division is the highest Court of Appeal and does not exercise the powers of a court of first instance. Whereas, the High Court Division is a Court of first instance in writ/judicial review and admiralty matters. In Hong Kong, the Supreme Court of Hong Kong was the final court of appeal during its colonial times which ended with transfer of sovereignty in 1997; the final adjudication power, as in any other British Colonies, rested with the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council

Deportes Castro

Club Deportes Castro is a Chilean professional basketball team located in Castro, Chile. The team competes in the Liga Nacional de Básquetbol de Chile. Deportes Castro was established in 2003; the team's first coach was Jose Fernandez, who led the team until 2010. The most notable performance were at the Liga Nacional 2011-2012. Liga Nacional: 1 2011-12 Liga Saesa/Libsur: 1 2010 To appear in this section a player must have either:Set a club record or won an individual award as a professional player. Played at least one official international match for his senior national team or one NBA game at any time. Samuel Bravo Juan Fontena Brandon Cole Presentation at Presentation on Facebook

Matacoan languages

Matacoan is a language family of northern Argentina, western Paraguay, southeastern Bolivia. Matacoan consists of four clusters of languages. Gordon in Ethnologue divides Wichí into Chorote into two languages. Wichí Vejoz Noktén Wiznay Matawayo. Chorote Manhui Eklenhui. Nivaclé Forest Nivaclé River Nivaclé Maká Ma’ká Enimaga Internal classification by Mason: Mataco-MacaMataco Mataco-Mataguayo Mataco Guisnay Nocten Mataguayo Northern: Hueshuo, Abucheta Southern: Vejoz Chorotí-Ashluslay Chorotí Ashluslay Macá Enimagá Macá Guentusé Cochaboth-Lengua Loukotka lists the following basic vocabulary items for the Matacoan languages. Adelaar, Willem F. H.. The languages of the Andes. Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press. Campbell, Lyle.. American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1. Fabre, Alain Los Mataguayo Proel: Familia matákoan

1992 Leeds City Council election

The Leeds City Council elections were held on Thursday, 7 May 1992, with one third of the council's seats up for election. Held one month after the 1992 general election where Conservatives won a surprise fourth term, the Conservatives in Leeds shared in that success, surpassing Labour's vote for the first time in a decade, winning their greatest share since 1978. Despite these feats, their vote remained constant with recent elections - in stark contrast to the opposition parties, whose votes had seen dramatic falls, with the Liberal Democrat vote their lowest since 1978, Labour's their lowest recorded since the council's creation in 1973; the minor parties saw disappointment, with the Liberal vote more than halved the previous year and comfortably their worst, whilst the Greens - in spite of a record number of candidates, up from the year before - seen a decrease in their vote. All of which resulted in a record low in turnout, suggesting the Tory revival was driven more by their national result hurting opposition moral than any resurgence in their support.

The Conservatives were able to win their greatest number of wards since 1983, gaining a seat each from Labour and the Lib Dems in their respective marginals of Morley North and Horsforth. The Tory gain in Horsforth, as well as Labour's rise in Armley, left the Lib Dem victories confined to just two wards for the first time since 1979, their councillor total the lowest since 1980; the sole Independent standing, Peter Kersting, won his fourth term in Pudsey South with ease. This result has the following consequences for the total number of seats on the council after the elections

Luni, Italy

Luni is a comune in the province of La Spezia, in the easternmost end of the Liguria region of northern Italy. It was founded by the Romans as Luna, it gives its name to Lunigiana, a region spanning northern Tuscany. The commune was known as Ortonovo until April 2017, it is now named after the frazione of Luni. Located in a plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea and close to the borders with Tuscany, Luni is crossed by the river Magra and lies between Sarzana and Carrara, it is 4 km far from 15 from Massa and 30 from La Spezia. The village is served by the National Highway 1 "Aurelia", crossed at Luni Mare by the A12 motorway and counts a railway station on the Pisa-Genoa line. Luna was the frontier town of Etruria, on the left bank of the river Macra, the boundary in imperial times between Etruria and Liguria; when the Romans first appeared in these parts and the Ligurians were in possession of the territory. The Roman city was established in 177 BC by Publius Aelius, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Gnaeus Sicinius It was a military stronghold for the campaigns against the Ligures.

An inscription of 155 BC, found in the forum of Luna in 1851, was dedicated to M. Claudius Marcellus in honor of his triumph over the Ligurians and Apuani. In 109 BC it was connected to Rome by the Via Aemilia Scauri, rebuilt in the 2nd century AD as the Via Aurelia, it flourished when exploitation of white marble quarries in the nearby Alpi Apuane and neighboring mountains of Carrara, which in ancient times bore the name of Luna marble.. Pliny speaks of the quarries as only discovered in his day. Pliny the Elder considered the big wheels of cheese from Luna the best in Etruria. Good wine was produced. Luni derived its importance from its harbour, on a gulf of the Tyrrhenian Sea now known as the Gulf of La Spezia, not the estuary of the Macra as some authors supposed. While the town was not established until 177 BC, when a colony of 2000 Roman citizens was founded there, the harbour is mentioned by Ennius, who sailed from there to Sardinia in 205 BC under Manlius Torquatus, it was being contested by the Romans as early as 195 BC, when they were fighting the Ligurians and Apuans in the area.

The site was used as a base for the quarrying of marble from the quarries of modern-day Carrara, as the marble in that quarry is fine, the harbour allowed the marble to be shipped to Rome easily. In the 5th century, it was still notable. Captured by the Goths in the following century, it was reconquered by the Byzantines in 552, who however lost it to the Lombards in 642; the latter damaged the city's economy, favouring the trades routes that passed through the nearby port of Lucca to the south. Luni had been reduced to a small village by the time of the Lombard king Liutprand, it was a countship and see under Charlemagne on the border between the Kingdom of Italy and the Papal States. It was sacked by sea pirates, Saracens in 849 and Vikings who settled in 860. Luna is supposed to have been mistakenly sacked by the Viking leader Björn Järnsida, who thought it was Rome, he tricked his way in by pretending to be a dying Christian convert. The 9th-century Bishop Saint Ceccardo, believed to have been martyred by the Vikings, is celebrated on June 16.

In the mid-10th century it experienced the last period of splendour under count Oberto I, lord of the whole Ligurian Mark, momentarily repulsed the pirate threat. However, in the 990s the situation worsened again, the episcopal see was moved, first to Carrara definitively, to Sarzana in 1207. In 1015 Luna was conquered by the Andalusian emir of Denia, Mujāhid with his Sardinian ships: when Pisa and Genoa beat back his forces, Luni was left destroyed; the spreading of malaria in the area and the silting up of the port contributed to the steep decline of Luni. In 1058 the whole population moved to Sarzana, while other refugees founded Nicola; the title of bishop and count of Luni remained in use for various centuries, but Petrarch noted Luni as "once famous and powerful and now only a naked and useless name". It was only in 1442 that the visible remains were identified with Luni and the Gulf of La Spezia recognized as its harbour; the depredation of the Roman ruins of Luni aroused the concern of the local Cardinal Filippo Calandrini, who urged the Humanist pope Pius II to issue a brief forbidding any further dilapidations.

It was of little practical use: when the Palazzo del Commune of Sarzana was constructed in 1471 dressed stone from Luni supplied a considerable part of the building material. In 1510 the city council of Sarzana made a gift to the French governor at Genoa of a marble triton found at Luni. Luni was excavated in the 1970s and many of the material brought to light is now housed in the adjacent museum. Archeological evidence suggests that the Roman forum had been abandoned as a public space by the end of the sixth century CE, its buildings fell to ruin or were demolished and decorative marbles removed. Remains of small wooden houses were found in the space occupied by the forum. A theatre and an amphitheatre may still be distinguished on the site. No Etruscan remains have come to light. Cuntz's investigations seem to lead to the conclusion that an ancient road crossed the Apennines from it, following the line of the modern road, dividing near Pontremoli, one branch going to Borgotaro, Veleia

United States Post Office–Taunton Main

US Post Office-Taunton Main is the main post office facility in Taunton, Massachusetts. It is located at 37 Taunton Green in the city center. Built in 1930 with funding from the Works Progress Administration, it is a fine example of Classical Revival architecture; the building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1987. The main Taunton Post Office is located on the west side of Taunton Green, bounded on the south by Cohannet Street, it is a single-story limestone-faced Classical Revival building with a truncated hip roof. The prominent features of its main facade are a series of monumental Tuscan columns, behind which the recessed entry is located; the columns, along with paired square pilasters at the outside of the recessed area, support an entablature, above which a dentillated cornice surrounds the building. The interior has a narrow but wide public lobby space, with terrazzo marble flooring and a high marble wainscoting; the building was designed by the Office of the Supervising Architect under James A. Wetmore, was built in 1931-32 with funding from the Works Progress Administration.

It replaced a Richardsonian Romanesque building dating to the late 19th century, was built on land once belonging to Samuel Crocker, one of Taunton's leading businessmen. National Register of Historic Places listings in Taunton, Massachusetts List of United States Post Offices