Surat

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Surat
Suryapur
Metropolis
Surat
Surat
Surat is located in Gujarat
Surat
Surat
Location of Surat in Gujarat, India
Coordinates: 21°10′12.864″N 72°49′51.819″E / 21.17024000°N 72.83106083°E / 21.17024000; 72.83106083Coordinates: 21°10′12.864″N 72°49′51.819″E / 21.17024000°N 72.83106083°E / 21.17024000; 72.83106083
Country  India
State Gujarat
District Surat
Official Language Gujarati
Zone 7
Government
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Body
 • Mayor Ashmita Shiroya(BJP)[1]
 • Municipal Commissioner M Thennarasan
 • Police Commissioner Satish Sharma[2]
Area[3]
 • Metropolis 326.515 km2 (126.068 sq mi)
Elevation 13 m (43 ft)
Population (2011)[5]
 • Metropolis 4,467,797
 • Rank

8th

2nd (in Gujarat state)
 • Density 14,000/km2 (35,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 5,935,000[4]
 • Metro rank 9th
 • Demonym Surti
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Pincode(s) 394 XXX, 395 XXX
Area code(s) 91-261-XXX-XXXX
Vehicle registration GJ-05, GJ-19, GJ-28[6]
Sex ratio 1.27[7] /
Coastline 35 kilometres (22 mi)
Literacy rate 86.65%[8]
Website www.suratmunicipal.gov.in

Surat is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat. It used to be a large seaport and is nowadays the biggest center of diamond cutting and polishing in the world, it is the eighth largest city and ninth largest urban agglomeration in India.

It is the administrative capital of the Surat district, the city is located 284 kilometres (176 mi) south of the state capital, Gandhinagar; 265 kilometres (165 mi) south of Ahmedabad; and 289 kilometres (180 mi) north of Mumbai. The city centre is located on the Tapti River, close to Arabian Sea.[9]

Surat is the 4th-fastest growing city in a study conducted by international think tank City Mayors Foundation,[10] the city registered an annualised GDP growth rate of 11.5 per cent over the seven fiscal years between 2001 and 2008.[11] Surat was awarded "best city" by the Annual Survey of India's City-Systems (ASICS) in 2013.[12] Surat is selected as the first smart IT city in India which is being constituted by the Microsoft CityNext Initiative tied up with IT services majors Tata Consultancy Services and Wipro,[13] the city has 2.97 million internet users which is about 65% of total population.[14] Surat was selected in 2015 for an IBM Smarter Cities Challenge grant.[15][16] Surat has been selected as one of twenty Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.[17] Surat is the 3rd "cleanest city of India" according to the Indian Ministry of Urban Development,[18]

History[edit]

Surat in 1877

The area was initially called Surajpur or Suryapur; in 1512 and again in 1530 Surat was ravaged by the Portuguese Empire. In 1514, the Portuguese traveller Duarte Barbosa described Surat as an important seaport, frequented by many ships from Malabar and various parts of the world. By 1520, the name of the city was Surat; in 1612 England established its first Indian trading factory here. It was sacked by Shivaji twice, but remained prosperous until the rise of Mumbai[19][9]

Between 1790-1, an epidemic killed and wiped out 100,000 Gujaratis in Surat.[20]

Geography[edit]

Tapi river

Surat is a port city situated on the banks of the Tapi river. Damming of the Tapi caused the original port facilities to close; the nearest port is now in the Magadalla and Hazira area of Surat Metropolitan Region. The city is located at 21°10′N 72°50′E / 21.17°N 72.83°E / 21.17; 72.83.[21] It has an average elevation of 13 meters. The Surat district is surrounded by the Bharuch, Narmada, Navsari, to the west is the Gulf of Cambay and the surrounding districts. The climate is tropical and monsoon rainfall is abundant (about 2,500 mm a year). According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the town falls under seismic zone-III, in a scale of I to V (in order of increasing vulnerability to earthquakes)[22]

Climate[edit]

Surat has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen: Aw), moderated strongly by the Sea to the Gulf of Cambay, the summer begins in early March and lasts till June. April and May are the hottest months, the average maximum temperature being 37 °C (99 °F). Monsoon begins in late June and the city receives about 1,200 millimetres (47 in) of rain by the end of September, with the average maximum being 32 °C (90 °F) during those months. October and November see the retreat of the monsoon and a return of high temperatures till late November. Winter starts in December and ends in late February, with average mean temperatures of around 23 °C (73 °F), and negligible rain.

Climate data for Surat, Gujarat
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 38.3
(100.9)
41.7
(107.1)
44.0
(111.2)
45.6
(114.1)
45.6
(114.1)
45.6
(114.1)
38.9
(102)
37.2
(99)
41.1
(106)
41.4
(106.5)
39.4
(102.9)
38.9
(102)
45.6
(114.1)
Average high °C (°F) 30.8
(87.4)
32.3
(90.1)
35.4
(95.7)
36.7
(98.1)
35.8
(96.4)
34.0
(93.2)
31.2
(88.2)
30.8
(87.4)
32.3
(90.1)
35.1
(95.2)
34.1
(93.4)
31.9
(89.4)
33.4
(92.1)
Average low °C (°F) 15.2
(59.4)
16.7
(62.1)
20.7
(69.3)
24.0
(75.2)
26.8
(80.2)
27.0
(80.6)
25.9
(78.6)
25.5
(77.9)
25.4
(77.7)
23.3
(73.9)
19.6
(67.3)
16.5
(61.7)
22.2
(72)
Record low °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
5.6
(42.1)
8.9
(48)
15.0
(59)
19.4
(66.9)
20.2
(68.4)
19.9
(67.8)
21.0
(69.8)
20.6
(69.1)
14.4
(57.9)
10.6
(51.1)
6.7
(44.1)
4.4
(39.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 1.5
(0.059)
0.3
(0.012)
0.4
(0.016)
0.2
(0.008)
3.9
(0.154)
245.2
(9.654)
466.3
(18.358)
283.8
(11.173)
151.8
(5.976)
41.8
(1.646)
7.1
(0.28)
0.6
(0.024)
1,202.9
(47.358)
Average rainy days 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 8.0 14.3 12.1 7.1 1.6 0.6 0.1 44.2
Average relative humidity (%) 57.5 56.0 55.1 62.9 71.8 79.0 86.2 86.4 82.3 70.2 62.0 61.3 69.2
Source #1: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[23][24]
Source #2: Climatebase.ru (humidity)[25]

Finance and economy[edit]

Surat growth map
Metropolitan Surat economic centers and industries map.

Surat ranked 10th in India with a GDP of 2.60 lakh crore in fiscal year 2016($14 billion in 2010). Surat GDP in 2020 will be around $57 billion estimated by The City Mayors Foundation, an international think tank on urban affairs[3][26]

Diamond polishing[edit]

Diamond polisher

Surat is a major hub of diamond cutting and polishing.[27] Gujarati diamond cutters, emigrating from East Africa, established the industry in 1901 and, by the 1970s, Surat-based diamond cutters began exporting stones to the US for the first time.

Textiles[edit]

Surat's Textile District Ring Road

Since it is known for producing textiles, including silk, Surat is known as the textile hub of the nation or the Silk City of India, it is very famous for its cotton mills and Surat Zari Craft. Surat is the biggest centre of MMF (man-made fibre) in India, it has a total of 381 dyeing and printing mills and 41,100 powerloom units. There are over a hundred thousand units and mills in total, the overall annual turnover is around 5 billion rupees. There are over 800 cloth wholesalers in Surat,[28] it is the largest manufacturer of clothes in India, and Surti dress material can be found in any state of India. Surat produces 9 million metres of fabric annually, which accounts for 60% of the total polyester cloth production in India. Now the city is focusing on increasing the exports of its textile.[29]

Information technology[edit]

There are many SME Domestic IT Companies present in Surat. MNC IT companies like IBM,[30] HCL have satellite or virtual branches in Surat, on 14 February 2014 Govt of Gujarat DST had handover STPI Surat[31][32] at Bhestan-Jiav Road, Bhestan Near Udhana-Sachin BRTS Route.

Surat city administration will demand for setting up of an Information Technology (IT) hub and an Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) on the outskirts of the city.[33]

Microsoft CityNext initiative has tied up with IT services majors Tata Consultancy Services and Wipro to leverage technology for sustainable growth of cities in India. The first smart IT city in India is being constituted by the Microsoft CityNext Initiative in Surat, Gujarat;[13] in 2011 Surat hosted India's first Microsoft DreamSpark Yatra (a tech event) with speakers from Microsoft Headquarters at Redmond, Washington. The event was organised by Ex-Microsoft Student Partner Samarth Zankharia.[34]

In May, 2015 Tech giant IBM has chosen Surat among 16 global locations for its smart cities programme to help them address challenges like waste management, disaster management and citizen services. Under the programme, IBM will send a team of experts to each of the chosen cities where they will spend three weeks working closely with city staff analysing data about critical issues faced by its local bodies;[15][16] the co-operation continued into 2016.[35]

Diamond Research And Mercantile City (DREAM)[edit]

The government of Gujarat plans another project near Surat similar to Gujarat International Finance Tec-City (GIFT). The Chief Minister has suggested that the government wishes to develop DREAM to have a five-seven star hotel, bank, IT, corporate trading house, entertainment zone and other facilities while the Surat Diamond Bourse (SBD) will be based there. Allotment of Khajod land for the project is convenient for the state government because they have 2,000 acres (810 ha) of available land. The Trade Centre, located near Sarsana village, will have a 100,160-square-metre (1,078,100 sq ft) pillar-less air-conditioned hall with a 90-by-35-metre (295 by 115 ft) pillar-less dome.[36][37]


Municipal institutions[edit]

The Surat Municipal Corporation is responsible for the maintaining city's civic infrastructure as well as carrying out associated administrative duties, at present, BJP is the ruling party with a majority. Under the Provisions of Bombay Provincial Municipal Corporations Act, 1949, Section – 4, the powers have been vested in three Distinct Statutory Authorities: the General Board, the Standing Committee, and the Municipal Commissioner.

SMC office at Surat

It ranked 7 out of 21 cities for best administrative practices in India in 2014, it scored 3.5 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3. It is the only city in India to disclose municipal budgets on a weekly basis.[38]

Public safety[edit]

Surat began the 'Safe City Project' in 2011 aimed at keeping the city safe using surveillance cameras, the project was headed by Mr. Sanjay Srivastava (IPS) who was the Joint-Commissioner of Surat Police at that time, the 280-square-foot video wall, claimed to be the largest surveillance screen in the country, is being installed at the control room of Police Commissioner Mr. Rakesh Asthana (IPS), this will help the police view the entire city live through 10,000 CCTV cameras across the city. Surat police have decided to install 5,000 CCTV cameras at sensitive points across the city. While 1,000 cameras will be night vision cameras, 4,000 others will be simple CCTV cameras, this has been installed on PPP base with the help of city's businessmen, city's social persons, Surat Municipal Corporation & Surat City Police. [39]

Demographics[edit]

Religions in surat
Hinduism
87%
Islam
7%
Jainism
4.7%
Christianity
0.4%
Others♦
0.9%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (0.2%).
Population Growth of Surat 
Census Pop.
1871 107,100
1881 109,800 2.5%
1891 109,200 -0.5%
1901 119,300 9.2%
1911 114,900 -3.7%
1921 117,400 2.2%
1931 98,900 -15.8%
1941 171,400 73.3%
1951 223,200 30.2%
1961 288,000 29.0%
1971 492,700 71.1%
1981 912,600 85.2%
1991 1,519,000 66.4%
2001 2,811,614 85.1%
2011 4,591,246 63.3%
source:[40]

According to the 2011 India census, the population of Surat is 4,462,002. Surat has an average literacy rate of 89%, higher than the national average of 79.5%: male literacy is 93%, and female literacy is 84%.[41] Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%.

Gujarati, Sindhi, Hindi, Marwari, Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, and Odia are the main languages spoken in Surat. In Surat, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Education[edit]

Universities[edit]

Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat one of 30 National Institute of Technology in India that are recognised as Institute of National Importance by Government of India, is situated on Athwa-Dumas road. Most of the regional colleges are affiliated to Veer Narmad South Gujarat University (VNSGU) (named after the Great Kavi Veer Narmad). Apart from that colleges are also affiliated to SNDT, GTU-Gujarat Technological University and other universities. VNSGU-Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Uka Tarsadia University are having Headquarter in Surat Metropolitan Region. Auro University has also started to provide education in Surat.[42]

Notable residents[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ashmita Shiroya is Surat's New Mayor". tv9gujarati. 12 February 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2015. 
  2. ^ "પોલીસ કમિશનરશ્રીની કચેરી, સુરત". 
  3. ^ "Statistics for Surat Municipal Corporation". Official website of Surat Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 4 June 2015. 
  4. ^ World urban areas
  5. ^ "District Census Handbook - Surat" (PDF). Census of India. p. 40. Retrieved 10 February 2016. 
  6. ^ "SURAT GETS ADDL GJ-5 & GJ-28 SERIES FOR VEHICLE REGISTRATION". dnaindia.com. 
  7. ^ "Distribution of Population, Decadal Growth Rate, Sex-Ratio and Population Density". 2011 census of India. Government of India. Retrieved 12 February 2016. 
  8. ^ "Literacy Rates by Sext for State and District". 2011 census of India. Government of India. Retrieved 25 June 2012. 
  9. ^ a b "History of Surat". Archived from the original on 5 January 2012. 
  10. ^ "City Mayors: World's fastest growing urban areas (1)". www.citymayors.com. Retrieved 2016-02-06. 
  11. ^ Agencies. "GDP growth: Surat fastest, Mumbai largest". The Financial Express. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  12. ^ "Best City in India". The Times of India. 
  13. ^ a b "Microsoft CityNext initiative set to the launch First smart IT city in India". Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  14. ^ "Mumbai has highest number of Internet users in India: Study". 4 November 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014. 
  15. ^ a b "IBM picks Surat, Allahabad & Vizag among 16 global locations for smart cities project". The Economic Times. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  16. ^ a b "Surat, India 2015 challenge". IBM Smarter Cities. IBM. Retrieved January 21, 2017. 
  17. ^ "Government releases list of 20 smart cities - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2016-02-06. 
  18. ^ Ministry of Urban Development: RANK OF CITIES ON SANITATION 2009–2010, Ministry of Urban Development, 10 May 2010.
  19. ^ "Surat". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 16 November 2017. 
  20. ^ Ghulam A. Nadri. Eighteenth-Century Gujarat: The Dynamics of Its Political Economy, 1750-1800. p. 193. 
  21. ^ "Location". Falling Rain.  [dead link]
  22. ^ "Performance of buildings during the 2001 Bhuj earthquake" (PDF). Jag Mohan Humar, David Lau, and Jean-Robert Pierre. The Canadian Association for Earthquake Engineering. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 July 2007. Retrieved 3 August 2008. 
  23. ^ "Surat Climatological Table Period: 1981–2010". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved March 25, 2015. 
  24. ^ "Ever Recorded Maximum temperature, Minimum temperature up to 2010, India" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2014. 
  25. ^ "Surat, India". Climatebase.ru. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  26. ^ "The 150 richest cities in the world by GDP in 2020". 
  27. ^ "Indian diamond cutting and polishing sector". Rough&Polished. March 6, 2013. 
  28. ^ "Industries Information". Collectorate Surat District, Government of India. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  29. ^ Thomas, Melvyn R. (15 February 2015). "Surat's textile exporters eyeing US market". The Times of India. Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  30. ^ BS Reporter (7 July 2010). "IBM opens virtual branch office in Surat". Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  31. ^ [1] Archived 20 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  32. ^ [2] Archived 9 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  33. ^ "SMC to seek setting up of IT hub and IIT". The Times of India. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  34. ^ "Microsoft Kick Starts DreamSpark Yatra 2011". Microsoft India. Microsoft. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 18 April 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  35. ^ "City of Surat to Improve Citizen Services with IBM Smarter Cities Program - India". IBM News room. February 12, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2017. 
  36. ^ "Althan, Khajod next in line for mega development". The Times of India. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  37. ^ "Gujarat govt plans GIFT city like project close to Surat". DeshGujarat. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  38. ^ Gumber, Anurag (6 June 2014). Annual Survey of India's City-Systems (PDF) (2nd ed.). Bangalore: Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy. pp. 64–68. Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  39. ^ Business Standard (19 January 2013). "Surat to have new security system". Business Standard. Retrieved 3 February 2013. 
  40. ^ "Historical Census of India". 
  41. ^ "Surat City Population Census 2011 - Gujarat". Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  42. ^ "AURO University – MBA, BBA, Hospitality Management Degree Programs, BBA+LLB, BSc IT Courses in Surat Gujarat India". Aurouniversity.edu.in. Retrieved 3 February 2013. 
  43. ^ Nayak, Elina Priyadarshini (2 July 2011). "Ismail Darbar wants to serve the people of Surat - Times of India". The Times of India. Times News Network. Retrieved 9 October 2017. 
  44. ^ Ghai, Rajat (9 December 2007). "I am lucky:Prachi Desai - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  45. ^ Dhawan, M.L. (13 August 2000). "He was an actor for all seasons". The Tribune. Retrieved 26 September 2017. 
  46. ^ "Farooq Shaikh - Movies, Biography, News, Age & Photos". BookMyShow. Retrieved 9 October 2017. 

External links[edit]