A chiton was a form of clothing. There are two forms of chiton, the Doric chiton and the Ionic chiton; the Doric chiton is a single rectangle of linen fabric. It can be worn plain or with an overfold called an apoptygma, more common to women, it can be fastened at the shoulder by pins or sewing, or by buttons. The Ionic chiton could be made from linen or wool and was draped without the fold and held in place from neck to wrist by several small pins. A large belt called a zoster could be worn over the chiton under the breast or around the waist or a narrower "zone" or girdle could be used; the chiton's length was greater than the height of the wearer, so excessive fabric was pulled above the belt, like a blouse. A double-girdled style existed; the chiton was worn in combination with the heavier himation over it, which had the role of a cloak. When used alone, the chiton was called a monochiton. A long chiton which reached the heels was called a chiton poderes, while a longer one which dragged the ground was called a chiton syrtos or an elkekhitōnes.
A woman's chiton would always be worn at ankle length. Men wore the long chiton during the Archaic period, but wore it at knee length, except for certain occupations such as priests and charioteers, the elderly. A sleeved form was worn by actors; the colour or pattern would indicate status, but varied over time. The chiton was the outfit of Aphrodite because it was considered feminine, although men wore it. Dionysus is depicted wearing it; the chiton was worn by the Romans after the 3rd century BCE. However, they referred to it as a tunica. An example of the chiton can be seen, worn by the caryatids, in the porch of the Erechtheion in Athens. A charioteer's chiton can be seen on the Charioteer of Delphi. Spartan women's clothing was notoriously short, they wore the Dorian peplos, with slit skirts. The Dorian peplos was made of a heavier woolen material than was common in Ionia, was fastened at the shoulder by pins called fibulae; when running races, Spartan girls wore a distinctive single-shouldered knee-length chiton.
Clothing in the ancient world Exomis Himation Peplos Tunic Zoster Pomeroy, Sarah B. Goddesses, Whores and Slaves: Women in Classical Antiquity, London: Pimlico, ISBN 978-0-712-66054-9 Pomeroy, Spartan Women, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-195-13067-7 "Chiton" Encyclopædia Britannica Greek Dress Greek clothes
Stephen I of Hungary
Stephen I known as King Saint Stephen, was the last Grand Prince of the Hungarians between 997 and 1000 or 1001, the first King of Hungary from 1000 or 1001 until his death in 1038. The year of his birth is uncertain, but many details of his life suggest that he was born in or after 975 in Esztergom. At his birth, he was given the pagan name Vajk; the date of his baptism is unknown. He was the only son of Grand Prince Géza and his wife, descended from the prominent family of the gyulas. Although both of his parents were baptized, Stephen was the first member of his family to become a devout Christian, he married Gisela of a scion of the imperial Ottonian dynasty. After succeeding his father in 997, Stephen had to fight for the throne against his relative, Koppány, supported by large numbers of pagan warriors, he defeated Koppány with the assistance of foreign knights, including Vecelin, Hont and Pázmány, but with help from native lords. He was crowned on 25 December 1000 or 1 January 1001 with a crown sent by Pope Sylvester II.
In a series of wars against semi-independent tribes and chieftains—including the Black Hungarians and his uncle, Gyula the Younger—he unified the Carpathian Basin. He protected the independence of his kingdom by forcing the invading troops of Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, to withdraw from Hungary in 1030. Stephen established six bishoprics and three Benedictine monasteries, he encouraged the spread of Christianity with severe punishments for ignoring Christian customs. His system of local administration was based on counties organized around fortresses and administered by royal officials. Hungary, which enjoyed a lasting period of peace during his reign, became a preferred route for pilgrims and merchants traveling between Western Europe and the Holy Land or Constantinople, he survived all of his children. He died on 15 August 1038 and was buried in his new basilica, built in Székesfehérvár and dedicated to the Holy Virgin, his death caused civil wars. He was canonized by Pope Gregory VII, together with his son and Bishop Gerard of Csanád, in 1083.
Stephen is a popular saint in the neighboring territories. In Hungary, his feast day is a public holiday commemorating the foundation of the state. Stephen's birth date is uncertain. Hungarian and Polish chronicles written centuries give three different years: 967, 969 and 975; the unanimous testimony of his three late 11th-century or early 12th-century hagiographies and other Hungarian sources, which state that Stephen was "still an adolescent" in 997, substantiate the reliability of the year. Stephen's Lesser Legend adds that he was born in Esztergom, which implies that he was born after 972 because his father, Géza, Grand Prince of the Hungarians, chose Esztergom as royal residence around that year. Géza promoted the spread of Christianity among his subjects by force, but never ceased worshipping pagan gods. Both his son's Greater Legend and the nearly contemporaneous Thietmar of Merseburg described Géza as a cruel monarch, suggesting that he was a despot who mercilessly consolidated his authority over the rebellious Hungarian lords.
Hungarian chronicles agree that Stephen's mother was Sarolt, daughter of Gyula, a Hungarian chieftain with jurisdiction either in Transylvania or in the wider region of the confluence of the rivers Tisza and Maros. Many historians—including Pál Engel and Gyula Kristó—propose that her father was identical with "Gylas", baptized in Constantinople around 952 and "remained faithful to Christianity", according to Byzantine chronicler John Skylitzes. However, this identification is not unanimously accepted. In contrast with all Hungarian sources, the Polish-Hungarian Chronicle and Polish sources state that Stephen's mother was Adelhaid, an otherwise unknown sister of Duke Mieszko I of Poland, but the reliability of this report is not accepted by modern historians. Stephen was born as Vajk, a name derived from the Turkic word baj, meaning "hero", "master", "prince" or "rich". Stephen's Greater Legend narrates that he was baptized by the saintly Bishop Adalbert of Prague, who stayed in Géza's court several times between 983 and 994.
However, Saint Adalbert's nearly contemporaneous Legend, written by Bruno of Querfurt, does not mention this event. Accordingly, the date of Stephen's baptism is unknown: Györffy argues that he was baptized soon after birth, while Kristó proposes that he only received baptism just before his father's death in 997. Stephen's official hagiography, written by Bishop Hartvic and sanctioned by Pope Innocent III, narrates that he "was instructed in the knowledge of the grammatical art" in his childhood; this implies that he studied Latin, though some scepticism is warranted as few kings of this era were able to write. His two other late 11th-century hagiographies do not mention any grammatical studies, stating only that he "was brought up by receiving an education appropriate for a little prince". Kristó says that the latter remark only refers to Stephen's physical training, including his participation in hunts and military actions. According to the Illuminated Chronicle, one of his tutors was a Count Deodatus from Italy, who founded a monastery in Tata.
According to Stephen's legends, Grand Prince Géza convoked an assembly of the Hungarian chieftains and warriors when Steph
A tabard is a type of short coat, worn by men during the late Middle Ages and early modern period in Europe. Worn outdoors, the coat was either sleeveless or had short sleeves or shoulder pieces. In its more developed form it was open at the sides, it could be worn with or without a belt. Though most were ordinary garments workclothes, tabards might be emblazoned on the front and back with a coat of arms, in this form they survive as the distinctive garment of officers of arms. In modern British usage, the term has been revived for what is known in American English as a cobbler apron: a lightweight open-sided upper overgarment, of similar design to its medieval and heraldic counterpart, worn in particular by workers in the catering and healthcare industries as protective clothing, or outdoors by those requiring high-visibility clothing. Tabards may be worn by percussionists in marching bands in order to protect their uniforms from the straps and rigging used to support the instruments. A tabard was a humble outer garment of tunic form without sleeves, worn by peasants and foot-soldiers.
In this sense, the earliest citation recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary dates from c.1300. By the second half of the 15th century, now open at the sides and so belted, were being worn by knights in military contexts over their armour, were emblazoned with their arms; the Oxford English Dictionary first records this use of the word in English in 1450. Tabards were distinguished from surcoats by being open-sided, by being shorter. In its form, a tabard comprised four textile panels – two large panels hanging down the wearer's front and back, two smaller panels hanging over his arms as shoulder-pieces or open "sleeves" – each emblazoned with the same coat of arms. Tabards became an important means of battlefield identification with the development of plate armour as the use of shields declined, they are represented on tomb effigies and monumental brasses of the late 15th and early 16th centuries. A expensive, but plain, garment described as a tabard is worn by Giovanni Arnolfini in the Arnolfini Portrait of 1434.
This may be made of silk and or velvet, is trimmed and lined with fur sable. At The Queen's College, the scholars on the foundation were called tabarders, from the tabard which they wore. A surviving garment similar to the medieval tabard is the monastic scapular; this is a wide strip of fabric worn front back of the body, with an opening for the head and no sleeves. It may have a hood, may be worn under or over a belt. By the end of the 16th century, the tabard was associated with officers of arms; the shift in emphasis was reported by John Stow in 1598, when he described a tabard as: a Jacquit, or sleevelesse coat, whole before, open on both sides, with a square collor, winged at the shoulders: a stately garment of olde time worne of Noble men and others, both at home and abroade in the Warres, but theyr Armes embrodered, or otherwise depicte uppon them, that every man by his Coate of Armes might bee knowne from others: but now these Tabardes are onely worne by the Heraults, bee called their coates of Armes in service.
In the case of Royal officers of arms, the tabard is emblazoned with the coat of arms of the sovereign. Private officers of arms, such as still exist in Scotland, make use of tabards emblazoned with the coat of arms of the person who employs them. In the United Kingdom the different ranks of officers of arms can be distinguished by the fabric from which their tabards are made; the tabard of a king of arms is made of velvet, the tabard of a herald of arms of satin, that of a pursuivant of arms of damask silk. The oldest surviving English herald's tabard is that of Sir William Dugdale as Garter King of Arms, it was at one time the custom for English pursuivants to wear their tabards "athwart", to say with the smaller panels at the front and back, the larger panels over the arms. The derisive Scots nickname of "Toom Tabard" for John Balliol may originate from either an alleged incident where his arms were stripped from his tabard in public, or a reference to the Balliol arms which are a plain shield with an orle known as an inescutcheon voided.
In the Diamond Jubilee year of the Queen of Canada, the Governor General unveiled a new tabard for the use of the Chief Herald of Canada. This new royal blue tabard, for Canadian use and of uniquely Canadian design, is a modern take on the traditional look; the tabard differs from others of more traditional design in that the Canadian royal arms appear on the sleeves, while the front and back of the tabard are covered with Native Canadian-inspired emblematic representations of the raven-polar bears of the Canadian Heraldic Authority's coat of arms. A tabard was the inn sign of the Tabard Inn in Southwark, established in 1307 and remembered as the starting point for Geoffrey Chaucer's pilgrims on their journey to Canterbury in The Canterbury Tales, dating from about the 1380s. In E. C. Bentley's short story "The genuine tabard", published in his collection Trent Intervenes in 1938, a wealthy American couple purchase an antique heraldic tabard, having been told that it was worn in 1783 by Sir Rowland Verey, Garter King of Arms, when proclaiming the Peace of Versailles from the steps of St James's Palace: the amateur detective Philip Trent is able to point out that it in fact bears the post-1837 royal arms.
A tunic is a garment for the body simple in style, reaching from the shoulders to a length somewhere between the hips and the knees. The name derives from the Latin tunica, the basic garment worn by both men and women in Ancient Rome, which in turn was based on earlier Greek garments that covered wearers' waists. Indus valley civilization figurines depict both men wearing tunic like garment. A terracotta model called"Lady of the spiked throne" depicts two standing turban wearing men wearing what appears to be conical gown marked by dense series of thin vertical incisions that might suggest a stiffened cloth. A similar gold disc in al-Sabah Collection from Kuwait National Museum which appears to be an Indus valley civilization arts depicts similar conical tunic wearing men holding two bulls by their tails under a pipal tree shown in a Indus like mirror symmetry.. A mother goddess figurine from National Museum new Dehli shows a female wearing short tight tunic.. Worn in Indian Sub-Continent, including India and Bangladesh, tunic is referred to as Kurta and is now an emerging women's top style liked by many in the West.
An Asian tunic is adorned with delicate embroidery, bead-work or intricate threadwork as well. Embroidery or thread work on such tunics combines threads of many different colors. Tunics worn by the Celts were documented by the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus: "... the way they dress is astonishing: they wear brightly coloured and embroidered shirts, with trousers called braccae and cloaks fastened at the shoulder with a brooch, heavy in winter, light in summer. These cloaks are striped or checkered in design, with the separate checks close together and in various colours." Tunics were worn in ancient Greece, whence the Roman version was adopted. Greek and Roman tunics were an evolution from the similar chiton and exomis all of which can be considered versions of the garment. In ancient Greece, a person's tunic was decorated at the hem-line to represent the city-state in which he lived. Tunics might be dyed like red, purple, or green; the Roman tunica was adopted by the Roman citizens in the 3rd century BC.
It was worn by citizens and non-citizens alike. The length of the garment, the presence or lack of stripes, as well as their width and ornamentation, would indicate the wearer's status in Roman society. Roman senators, for example, used the Laticlavus, with broad purple stripes, members of the equestrian class wore the Angusticlavia, with narrower stripes. Soldiers and manual workers had tunics to a little above the knee; the tunic or chiton was worn as a gown by both genders among the ancient Romans. The body garment was loose-fitting for males beginning at the neck and ending above the knee. A woman's garment could be either close fitting or loose, beginning at the neck and extending over a skirt or skirts; the various Celtic and Germanic peoples living in the colder Middle and Northern Europe wore long-sleeved tunics from as long back as pictorial evidence goes. Such tunics are found depicted on the various Roman monuments depicting victories over these peoples, show the tunic as a simple pull-over construction reaching to the mid-thighs or to the knees.
Similar tunics were taken up by the Romans, continued to be used into the Byzantine period. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the long sleeved Celto-Germanic tunic continued to be worn; the construction was more elaborate than the earlier Graeco-Roman garment, with a tight-fitting neck with a split down the front for pulling it over the head, gusset under the arms and inserted around the lower half to give a flaring skirt. Being used by both Vikings and Normans, the garment continued as a general male garment into the Middle Ages, still being used in Norway as late as the 17th century; the tunic continued to be the basic garment of the Byzantine Romans of both sexes throughout the medieval period. The upper classes wore other garments atop the basic tunic, such as the dalmatica, a heavier and shorter type of tunic, worn by both sexes, or the scaramangion, a riding-coat of Persian origin. Except for the military or riding-dress and women of higher status wore tunics that came down to the ankles, or nearly so.
Tunics were dyed or richly embroidered, although the plainer ones could be used when layering different types. Beyond the reduced empire, the tunic continued to be worn with varying sleeve and hem lengths throughout Europe during the Middle Ages. Reaching the knees or ankles, it was worn over underclothes consisting of a shirt and drawers, it may be accompanied by hose. Wool and linen were common fabrics used, though the wealthy sometimes wore fancy silk tunics, or a lesser fabric with silk trim. Tunics worn during the Early Middle Ages featured decorative embroidery or tablet-woven braids along the neck and wrists; this was the case, for instance, with tunics worn by both rich and poor Anglo-Saxons before the Norman Conquest. Around 1830, small boys began to be dressed in sashed or belted tunics over trousers, a fashion which replaced the earlier skeleton suit. During the Crimean War in the 1850s, it was realized that the waist length jackets, worn by British soldiers since Napoleonic times were unsuitable for fighting in winter conditions.
A new longer jacket was introduced which reached down to the mid thigh and this was named the'tunic' after the'tunica
The Chronicon Pictum is a medieval illustrated chronicle from the Kingdom of Hungary from the second half of fourteenth century. It represents the international artistic style of the royal courts in the court of Louis I of Hungary, its full name is: Chronicon pictum, Marci de Kalt, Chronica de gestis Hungarorum, Illustrated Chronicle, Mark of Kalt's Chronicle About the Deeds of the Hungarians. The chronicle was written by Márk Kálti shortly after the year 1358, with the last of the illuminations being finished between 1370 and 1373; the chronicle was given by the Hungarian king Louis I to the French king Charles V, when the daughter of Louis, was engaged to Charles's son Louis I, Duke of Orléans. The chronicle was given to Đorđe Branković in 1456, where it was copied, lost spending some time in Turkish possession; the chronicle reappears in the first half of the 17th century in royal archives of Vienna by unknown means, why it is referred as the Vienna Illuminated Chronicle. The manuscript is now kept in the National Széchényi Library in Budapest.
The 147 pictures of the chronicle are great source of information on medieval Hungarian cultural history and court life in the 14th century. Many miniatures seen inside this chronicle are painted with gold; the artistic value of the miniatures are quite high, if we compare similar miniatures from other parts of Western Europe from the same time. The characters are drawn with knowledge of anatomy. All miniatures showing Attila the Hun are disrupted or rubbed out; the miniatures make use of symbolism, i.e. "primus ingressus" is with a camel, while the "secundus ingressus" is with a white horse meaning that entering the Carpathian Basin the first time was not a successful or was a culturally diverted act. The text of Latin is representing a high quality. A digitized version of the Chronicon itself at the Wayback Machine Podhradczky József. Chronicon Budense. Buda. – A more readable Latin text, with notes in Latin Geréb László. Képes Krónika. Magyar Hírlap and Maecenas. ISBN 963 8164 07 7. – Hungarian translation at the Hungarian Electronic Library
A peplos is a body-length garment established as typical attire for women in ancient Greece by 500 BC. It was a long, tubular cloth with the top edge folded down about halfway, so that what was the top of the tube was now draped below the waist, the bottom of the tube was at the ankle; the garment was gathered about the waist and the folded top edge pinned over the shoulders. The folded-down top of the tube provided the appearance of a second piece of clothing; the peplos was draped and open like the Doric chiton. It should not be confused with the Ionic chiton, a piece of fabric folded over and sewn together along the longer side to form a tube; the Classical garment is represented in Greek vase painting from the 5th century BC and in the metopes of temples in Doric order. Spartan women continued to wear the peplos much in history than other Greek cultures, it was shorter and with slits on the side causing other Greeks to call them phainomērídes the "thigh-showers". On the last day of the month Pyanepsion, the priestess of Athena Polias and the Arrephoroi, a group of girls chosen to help in the making of the sacred peplos, set up the loom on which the enormous peplos was to be woven by the Ergastinai, another group of girls chosen to spend about nine months making the sacred peplos.
They had to weave a theme of the Olympian's defeat of the Giants. The peplos of the statue was changed each year during the Plynteria; the peplos played a role in the Athenian festival of the Great Panathenaea. Nine months before the festival, at the arts and crafts festival titled Chalkeia, a special peplos would begin to be woven by young women; this peplos was placed on the statue of Athena during the festival procession. The peplos had myths and stories woven into its material and consisted of purple and saffron yellow cloth; the peplum dress has been revived several times in the modern era due to longstanding admiration for Greek culture. Regency era women wore translucent shift dresses in keeping with the neoclassical architecture and interior design which favoured white marble and pale pastel colors. From the 1950s until the 1970s, classical inspired dresses became part of mainstream British and American fashion due to the emerging popularity of Italian peplum films and package holidays to the Mediterranean.
These were revived again during the 1990s and 2010s due to nostalgia for the disco era and Old Hollywood glamour. Chiton Clothing in ancient Greece Clothing in the ancient world Delphos gown Peplos Greek Dress Peplum dresses
A bodice is an article of clothing for women and girls, covering the body from the neck to the waist. In modern usage it refers to a specific type of upper garment common in Europe during the 16th to the 18th century, or to the upper portion of a modern dress to distinguish it from the skirt and sleeves; the term comes from pair of bodies. In historical usage in Victorian and early 20th century fashion, a bodice indicates the upper part of a dress, constructed in two parts, but of matching or coordinating fabric with the intention of wearing the two parts as a unit. In dressmaking, the term waist was used. During wear, the parts might be connected by eyes; this construction was standard for fashionable garments from the 18th century until the late 19th century, had the advantages of allowing a voluminous skirt to be paired with a close-fitting bodice, of allowing two or more bodices to be worn with the same skirt. One-piece construction became more common after 1900 due to the trend for looser, more simply-constructed clothing with narrower skirts.
In modern usage, bodice refers to an upper garment that has removable sleeves or no sleeves low-cut, worn in Europe from the 16th century to the 18th century, either over a corset or in lieu of one. To achieve a fashionable shape and support the bust, the bodice was stiffened with bents, or whalebone; the bodice was different from the corset of the time because it was intended to be worn over the other garments. In earlier periods and corsets were laced in spiral fashion, with one continuous lace. In periods, both were laced like the modern tennis shoe, with eyelets facing one another; this was more convenient for women. One mid-19th-century style included the Agnes Sorel bodice, named after 15th-century royal mistress Agnes Sorel; this style was a day wear bodice, with a square cut neckline that had a high front and back and bishop sleeves. Bodice continues in use to refer to the upper portion of a one- or two-piece dress; the bodice of a dress was called the corsage in the 19th century. Bodices survive into modern times in the traditional or revived folk dress of many European countries.
They are commonly seen today at Society for Creative Anachronism events or a Renaissance Fair. Arnold, Janet: Patterns of Fashion: the cut and construction of clothes for men and women 1560-1620, Macmillan 1985. Steele, Valerie: "The Corset: A Cultural History" Yale University Press, 2001