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Surgeon General of the United States

The surgeon general of the United States is the operational head of the U. S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps and thus the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the federal government of the United States; the surgeon general's office and staff are known as the Office of the Surgeon General, housed within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health. The U. S. surgeon general is confirmed by the Senate. The surgeon general must be appointed from individuals who are members of the Regular Corps of the U. S. Public Health Service, have specialized training or significant experience in public health programs; the surgeon general serves a four-year term of office and, depending on whether the current assistant secretary for health is a Public Health Service commissioned officer, is either the senior or next most senior uniformed officer of the commissioned corps, holding the rank of a vice admiral. The current surgeon general is Jerome Adams, having taken office on September 5, 2017.

The surgeon general reports to the assistant secretary for health, who may be a four-star admiral in the commissioned corps, who serves as the principal adviser to the secretary of health and human services on public health and scientific issues. The surgeon general is the overall head of the Commissioned Corps, a 6,500-member cadre of uniformed health professionals who are on call 24 hours a day, can be dispatched by the secretary of HHS or the assistant secretary for Health in the event of a public health emergency; the surgeon general is the ultimate award authority for several public health awards and decorations, the highest of which that can be directly awarded is the Surgeon General's Medallion. The surgeon general has many informal duties, such as educating the American public about health issues and advocating healthy lifestyle choices; the office periodically issues health warnings. The best known example of this is the surgeon general's warning label, present on all packages of American tobacco cigarettes since 1966.

A similar health warning has appeared on alcoholic beverages labels since 1988. In 1798, Congress established the Marine Hospital Fund, a network of hospitals that cared for sick and disabled seamen; the Marine Hospital Fund was reorganized along military lines in 1870 and became the Marine Hospital Service—predecessor to today’s United States Public Health Service. The service became a separate bureau of the Treasury Department with its own staff, headquarters in Washington, D. C, the position of supervising surgeon. After 141 years under the Treasury Department, the Service came under the Federal Security Agency in 1939 the Department of Health and Welfare in 1953, the United States Department of Health and Human Services; some surgeons general are notable for being outspoken and/or advocating controversial proposals on how to reform the U. S. health system. The office is not a powerful one, has little direct statutory impact on policy-making, but Surgeons General are vocal advocates of precedent-setting, far-sighted, unconventional, or unpopular health policies.

On January 11, 1964, Rear Admiral Luther Terry, M. D. published a landmark report saying that smoking may be hazardous to health, sparking nationwide anti-smoking efforts. Terry and his committee defined cigarette smoking of nicotine as not an addiction; the committee itself consisted of physicians who themselves smoked. This report went uncorrected for 24 years. In 1986, Vice Admiral Dr. C. Everett Koop's report on AIDS called for some form of AIDS education in the early grades of elementary school, gave full support for using condoms for disease prevention, he resisted pressure from the Reagan administration to report that abortion was psychologically harmful to women, stating he believed it was a moral issue rather than one concerning the public health. In 1994, Vice Admiral Dr. Joycelyn Elders spoke at a United Nations conference on AIDS, she was asked whether it would be appropriate to promote masturbation as a means of preventing young people from engaging in riskier forms of sexual activity.

She replied, "I think that it is part of human sexuality, it should be taught." Elders spoke in favor of studying drug legalization. In a reference to the national abortion issue, she said, "We need to get over this love affair with the fetus and start worrying about children." She was fired by President Bill Clinton in December 1994. The U. S. Army and Air Force have officers overseeing medical matters in their respective services who hold the title Surgeon General; the insignia of the surgeon general, the USPHS, use the caduceus as opposed to the Rod of Asclepius. The surgeon general is a commissioned officer in the U. S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, one of the eight uniformed services of the United States, by law holds the rank of vice admiral. Officers of the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps are classified as non-combatants, but can be subjected to the Uniform Code of Military Justice and the Geneva Conventions when designated by the commander-in-chief as a military force or if they are detailed or assigned to work with the armed forces.

Officer members of these services wear uniforms that are similar to those worn by the United States Navy, except that the commissioning devices and insignia are unique. Officers in the U. S. Public Health Service wear unique devices that are similar to U. S. Navy staff corps officers

Whitney, Nebraska

Whitney is a village in Dawes County, United States. The population was 77 at the 2010 census. Called Dawes City Earth Lodge, it was renamed in honor of Peter Whitney, a railroad official. East of Whitney is the site of Old Fort Useless, never used. Whitney was incorporated as a village in 1888. Whitney is located at 42°47′2″N 103°15′26″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.16 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 77 people, 37 households, 25 families residing in the village; the population density was 481.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 39 housing units at an average density of 243.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 88.3% White, 2.6% African American, 3.9% from other races, 5.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.7% of the population. There were 37 households of which 21.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.8% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 32.4% were non-families.

27.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.08 and the average family size was 2.44. The median age in the village was 49.2 years. 16.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 49.4% male and 50.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 87 people, 34 households, 24 families residing in the village; the population density was 551.2 people per square mile. There were 40 housing units at an average density of 253.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.70 % 2.30 % from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.30% of the population. There were 34 households out of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.9% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.4% were non-families. 17.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 2.92. In the village, the population was spread out with 28.7% under the age of 18, 4.6% from 18 to 24, 24.1% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, 18.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.7 males. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the village was $28,333, the median income for a family was $20,625. Males had a median income of $11,667 versus $10,625 for females; the per capita income for the village was $11,107. There were 22.2% of families and 13.7% of the population living below the poverty line, including 6.7% of under eighteens and none of those over 64. AN/URC-117 Ground Wave Emergency Network

Samuel Foxe

Samuel Foxe, was an English diarist and politician. He was a Member of the Parliament of England for Midhurst in 1589 and for Knaresborough in 1593. Foxe was the eldest son of the martyrologist, he was born at Norwich on 31 December 1560, admitted into Merchant Taylors' School, London, on 20 October 1572. In 1574 he went to Oxford. In 1576 he left for France without knowledge of his father, he was, readmitted to the college, although he is said to have acquired a fondness for dress, which displeased his father. In 1579 he was elected probationer, in 1580 fellow of his college. In 1581 he was expelled on religious grounds, he seems to have quarrelled with some of his colleagues who adopted the extremer forms of puritanism. His father temperately pleaded for his restoration, wrote to a bishop Horn of Winchester, soliciting his help in the matter. Meanwhile, Samuel spent more than three years in foreign travel, visiting the universities of Leipzig and Basle, he returned to England in 1585, was restored to his fellowship.

His father gave him a lease of Shipton, attached to the prebend which the elder Foxe held in Salisbury Cathedral. In 1587 he was admitted into the service of Sir Thomas Heneage of Copt Hall and became custodian of Havering-atte-Bower and clerk of Epping. On 15 April 1589 he married Anne Leveson, suspected daughter of Sir Thomas Leveson and sister to Sir John Leveson, he was chosen burgess for the university of Oxford in 1590. The parliament in which he sat was of brief duration, but it passed—probably with Foxe's aid—a valuable and much needed act directed against abuses in the election to fellowships and similar positions. About 1594 he settled at Warlies, near Waltham Abbey, died there in January 1629–30, he was buried at Waltham Abbey 16 Jan. His will was dated 22 June 1629; the Latin treatise on the Apocalypse, dedicated by him to Archbishop Whitgift, was written by his father. The ‘Life’ of his father, prefixed to the second volume of the ‘Actes and Monuments’ in the edition of 1641, has been ascribed to him.

But internal evidence is much opposed to this theory of authorship. His ‘Diary,’ brief and extending over only a portion of his life, will be found in the appendix to Strype's ‘Annals.’ The original is in ‘MS. Lansd.’ 679. A letter to his brother Simeon is in ‘MS. Harl.’ 416, f. 222, a continuation of his travels in ‘MS. Lansd.’ 679. The latter pieces are printed in W. Winter's ‘Biographical Notes on Foxe the Martyrologist,’ 1876. By his wife Anne, buried by her husband 18 May 1630, Foxe had three sons, Thomas and Robert. Thomas Foxe, M. D. born at Havering Palace 14 February 1591. A. 1611 and M. A. 1614. He was bursar of his college in 1622, junior proctor of the university 1620–1, he afterwards studied medicine, proceeding M. D. at Oxford, was a candidate of the London College of Physicians 25 June 1623. A letter describing Ben Jonson's reception at Oxford, written by Thomas Foxe to his father, is preserved in ‘MS. Harl.’ 416, f. 226, has been printed by Mr. Winters. On 8 May 1634 Earl of Carlisle, applied to him for a loan of 500l.

He seems to have acquired much property, to have been friendly with men eminent in literature and society. He died at Warlies 20 November 1662, was buried in Waltham Abbey 26 November, he married Anne, daughter of Richard Honeywood of Charing and Marleshall, granddaughter of Mrs. Mary Honeywood, the pious friend of his grandfather, the martyrologist. By her he left a daughter Alice, who married Sir Richard Willys, Robert, Samuel's youngest son, was a captain in the navy, died in 1646, he wrote to his elder brother an interesting letter descriptive of the trial of the Earl and Countess of Somerset. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Foxe, Samuel". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900