Ambikapur is a city in Surguja district of Chhattisgarh. The district is one of the oldest districts of the Indian state of Chhattisgarh, in east-central India. Ambikapur is the divisional headquarters of Surguja Division which consists of the five districts of Surguja, Balrampur and Jashpur. Ambikapur was the capital of the Princely state of Surguja before Indian Independence; the name of the city is derived from the Hindu goddess Ambika Devi, the central figure of worship in the area. Ambikapur is the 8th largest city in Chhattisgarh. Ambikapur is located at 23°12′N 83°2′E, it has an average elevation of 623 metres. The district is spread over a forest-rich area of 22,237 km². Most of the district's terrain is hilly. Natural resources include forest products and paddy crops. Major tourist attractions include: Mahamaya Mandir Tiger Point Waterfall and a Buddha Temple, Fish point, Chendra waterfall, Ramgarh in Surguja District, Kudargarh in Surajpur District Bhaiyathan in Surajpur District Dipadih, Sitabengara, Tattapani Semarsot Maa Vaneshwari Devi temple, Durga Temple The land is classified into six categories.
About 41.67 % is under agriculture. A further 11.44% of the land could be brought under cultivation by improvements in farming techniques and reclamation of marginal areas. A further 1.27% is barren and uncultivated while 33.09% is forest cover and 6.83% is covered by buildings and other infrastructure. This distribution of cultivated land reflects the patterns and intensity of early agricultural practices and the extent of the population, combined with physical factors. Areas with a high concentration of cultivated land are those with longer histories of settlement and agricultural use. In the Ambikapur block 74.51% of the total geographical area is cultivated. As per the 2011 census, Ambikapur municipal corporation had a population of 114,575 and the urban agglomeration had a population of 143,173; the municipality had a sex ratio of 920 females per 1,000 males and 11.3% of the population was under six years old. Effective literacy was 88.20%. Ambikapur is inhabited by people from across India.
Moderate weather makes it an attractive place for settlement. Unlike the capital, the district population comprises aboriginal populations including the Pandos and Korwas, who still live in rural areas. Ambikapur is home to a large number of Tibetan migrants who took refuge in India after the Chinese annexation of Tibet in 1959. Ambikapur is connected to the Anuppur railway junction, a bordering town in Madhya Pradesh, by a broad gauge railway. Trains reach Ambikapur from Katni, Jabalpur, Durg and the state capital Raipur. More destinations, such as New Delhi, can be reached from Anuppur railway junction. Jabalpur - Ambikapur Express, Ambikapur – Shahdol, Ambikapur – Surajpur – Anuppur – Bilaspur – Raipur – Durg Express and Bhopal – Chirmiri Passenger run from major cities Bhopal, Katni and Jabalpur. Ambikapur is well connected by road to other major cities of Chhattisgarh such as Raipur, Durg, Bhilai and Raigarh. Daily bus services runs for Varanasi, Renukoot in U. P, Raipur and Garhwa in Jharkhand.
Bus services from Anuppur to Ambikapur operate via Surajpur. The bus journeys from Bilaspur and Anuppur take between six hours. Ambikapur Airport is located 12 km from the city, for emergency purposes; the nearest active airport is Swami Vivekananda Airport, located at New Raipur - Atal Nagar the capital of Chhattisgarh state. State-owned All India Radio has a local station in Ambikapur. CARMEL PRIMARY SCHOOL ENG MEDIUM Dashmesh public school DAV MUKHYAMANTRI PUBLIC SCHOOL GOVT MULTI PURPOSE HIGHER SEC SCHOOL HOLY CROSS CONVENT SR SEC SCHOOL Kendriya Vidyalaya Ambikapur MAHARISHI VIDYA MANDIR MONTFORT SCHOOL AMBIKAPUR NEW DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL ORIENTAL PUBLIC SCHOOL SAINT HARKEWAL VIDYAPEETH HIGH SCHOOL SAINIK SCHOOL AMBIKAPUR SHRI SAI BABA SCHOOL Rajiv Gandhi Govt. P. G. College Govt. Rajmohini Devi Girls PG College Govt. Science College Gyankunj Sarguja Mahavidyalaya Holy Cross Women's College KR Technical College Neotech Technical And Management College Sarawati College Shri Sai Baba Aadarsh Mahavidyalaya Vivekanand Institute of Science & Technology Sant Harkewal Shiksha Mahavidyalaya St Xavier's College of Education Sarawati education college Shri Chandra Udasinacharya Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya Sarguja University Ambikapur constituency T. S. Singh Deo
A princely state called native state, feudatory state or Indian state, was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj. Though the history of the princely states of the subcontinent dates from at least the classical period of Indian history, the predominant usage of the term princely state refers to a semi-sovereign principality on the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj, not directly governed by the British, but rather by a local ruler, subject to a form of indirect rule on some matters. In actual fact, the imprecise doctrine of paramountcy allowed the government of British India to interfere in the internal affairs of princely states individually or collectively and issue edicts that applied to all of India when it deemed it necessary. At the time of the British withdrawal, 565 princely states were recognised in the Indian subcontinent, apart from thousands of thakurs, taluqdars and jagirs. In 1947, princely states covered 40% of area of pre-Independent India and constituted 23% of its population.
The most important states had their own British Political Residencies: Hyderabad and Travancore in the South followed by Jammu and Kashmir and Sikkim in the Himalayas, Indore in Central India. The most prominent among those – a quarter of the total – had the status of a salute state, one whose ruler was entitled to a set number of gun salutes on ceremonial occasions; the princely states varied in status and wealth. In 1941, Hyderabad had a population of over 16 million, while Jammu and Kashmir had a population of over 4 million. At the other end of the scale, the non-salute principality of Lawa covered an area of 49 km2, with a population of just below 3,000; some two hundred of the lesser states had an area of less than 25 km2. The era of the princely states ended with Indian independence in 1947. By 1950 all of the principalities had acceded to either India or Pakistan; the accession process was peaceful, except in the cases of Jammu and Kashmir, Junagadh. and Kalat. As per the terms of accession, the erstwhile Indian princes received privy purses, retained their statuses and autonomy in internal matters during a transitional period which lasted until 1956.
During this time, the former princely states were merged into unions, each of, headed by a former ruling prince with the title of Rajpramukh, equivalent to a state governor. In 1956, the position of Rajpramukh was abolished and the federations dissolved, the former principalities becoming part of Indian states; the states which acceded to Pakistan retained their status until the promulgation of a new constitution in 1956, when most became part of the province of West Pakistan. The Indian Government formally derecognised the princely families in 1971, followed by the Government of Pakistan in 1972. Though principalities and chiefdoms existed on the Indian subcontinent from at least the Iron Age, the history of princely states on the Indian subcontinent dates to at least the 5th–6th centuries C. E. during the rise of the middle kingdoms of India following the collapse of the Gupta Empire. Many of the future ruling clan groups – notably the Rajputs – began to emerge during this period; the widespread expansion of Islam during this time brought many principalities into tributary relations with Islamic sultanates, notably with the Mughal Empire.
In the south, the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire remained dominant until the mid-17th century. The Turco-Mongol Mughal Empire brought a majority of the existing Indian kingdoms and principalities under its suzerainty by the 17th century, beginning with its foundation in the early 16th century; the advent of Sikhism resulted in the Jat sikh creation of the Sikh Empire in the north by the early 18th century, by which time the Mughal Empire was in full decline. At the same time, the Marathas carved out their own states to form the Maratha Empire. Through the 18th century, former Mughal governors formed their own independent states. In the north-west, some of those – such as Tonk – allied themselves with various groups, including the Marathas and the Durrani Empire, itself formed in 1747 from a loose agglomeration of tribal chiefdoms that composed former Mughal territories. In the south, the principalities of Hyderabad and Arcot were established by the 1760s, though they nominally remained vassals of the Mughal Emperor.
India under the British Raj consisted of two types of territory: British India and the Native states or Princely states. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any govern
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature and presence of other chemicals of the solution; the extent of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the saturation concentration, where adding more solute does not increase the concentration of the solution and begins to precipitate the excess amount of solute. Insolubility is the inability to dissolve in a liquid or gaseous solvent. Most the solvent is a liquid, which can be a pure substance or a mixture. One may speak of solid solution, but of solution in a gas. Under certain conditions, the equilibrium solubility can be exceeded to give a so-called supersaturated solution, metastable. Metastability of crystals can lead to apparent differences in the amount of a chemical that dissolves depending on its crystalline form or particle size.
A supersaturated solution crystallises when'seed' crystals are introduced and rapid equilibration occurs. Phenylsalicylate is one such simple observable substance when melted and cooled below its fusion point. Solubility is not to be confused with the ability to'dissolve' a substance, because the solution might occur because of a chemical reaction. For example, zinc'dissolves' in hydrochloric acid as a result of a chemical reaction releasing hydrogen gas in a displacement reaction; the zinc ions are soluble in the acid. The solubility of a substance is an different property from the rate of solution, how fast it dissolves; the smaller a particle is, the faster it dissolves although there are many factors to add to this generalization. Crucially solubility applies to all areas of chemistry, inorganic, physical and biochemistry. In all cases it will depend on the physical conditions and the enthalpy and entropy directly relating to the solvents and solutes concerned. By far the most common solvent in chemistry is water, a solvent for most ionic compounds as well as a wide range of organic substances.
This is a crucial factor in much environmental and geochemical work. According to the IUPAC definition, solubility is the analytical composition of a saturated solution expressed as a proportion of a designated solute in a designated solvent. Solubility may be stated in various units of concentration such as molarity, mole fraction, mole ratio, mass per volume and other units; the extent of solubility ranges from infinitely soluble such as ethanol in water, to poorly soluble, such as silver chloride in water. The term insoluble is applied to poorly or poorly soluble compounds. A number of other descriptive terms are used to qualify the extent of solubility for a given application. For example, U. S. Pharmacopoeia gives the following terms: The thresholds to describe something as insoluble, or similar terms, may depend on the application. For example, one source states that substances are described as "insoluble" when their solubility is less than 0.1 g per 100 mL of solvent. Solubility occurs under dynamic equilibrium, which means that solubility results from the simultaneous and opposing processes of dissolution and phase joining.
The solubility equilibrium occurs. The term solubility is used in some fields where the solute is altered by solvolysis. For example, many metals and their oxides are said to be "soluble in hydrochloric acid", although in fact the aqueous acid irreversibly degrades the solid to give soluble products, it is true that most ionic solids are dissolved by polar solvents, but such processes are reversible. In those cases where the solute is not recovered upon evaporation of the solvent, the process is referred to as solvolysis; the thermodynamic concept of solubility does not apply straightforwardly to solvolysis. When a solute dissolves, it may form several species in the solution. For example, an aqueous suspension of ferrous hydroxide, Fe2, will contain the series + as well as other species. Furthermore, the solubility of ferrous hydroxide and the composition of its soluble components depend on pH. In general, solubility in the solvent phase can be given only for a specific solute, thermodynamically stable, the value of the solubility will include all the species in the solution.
Solubility is defined for specific phases. For example, the solubility of aragonite and calcite in water are expected to differ though they are both polymorphs of calcium carbonate and have the same chemical formula; the solubility of one substance in another is determined by the balance of intermolecular forces between the solvent and solute, the entropy change that accompanies the solvation. Factors such as temperature and pressure will alter this balance. Solubility may strongly depend on the presence of other species dissolved in the solvent, for example, complex-forming anions in liquids. Solubility will depend on the excess or deficiency of a common ion in the solution, a phenomenon known as the common-ion effect. To a lesser extent, solubility will depend on the ionic strength of solutions; the last two effects can be quantified using the equation for solubility equilibrium. For a solid that dissolves in a redox reaction, solubility is expe
Iron oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3. It is one of the three main oxides of iron, the other two being iron oxide, rare; as the mineral known as hematite, Fe2O3 is the main source of iron for the steel industry. Fe2O3 is attacked by acids. Iron oxide is called rust, to some extent this label is useful, because rust shares several properties and has a similar composition. To a chemist, rust is considered an ill-defined material, described as hydrated ferric oxide. Fe2O3 can be obtained in various polymorphs. In the main ones, α and γ, iron adopts octahedral coordination geometry; that is, each Fe center is bound to six oxygen ligands. Α-Fe2O3 is the most common form. It occurs as the mineral hematite, mined as the main ore of iron, it is antiferromagnetic below ~260 K, exhibits weak ferromagnetism between 260 K and the Néel temperature, 950 K. It is easy to prepare using both thermal precipitation in the liquid phase, its magnetic properties are dependent on many factors, e.g. pressure, particle size, magnetic field intensity.
Γ-Fe2O3 has a cubic structure. It is metastable and converted from the alpha phase at high temperatures, it occurs as the mineral maghemite. It is ferromagnetic and finds application in recording tapes, although ultrafine particles smaller than 10 nanometers are superparamagnetic, it can be prepared by thermal dehydratation of gamma iron oxide-hydroxide. Another method involves the careful oxidation of iron oxide; the ultrafine particles can be prepared by thermal decomposition of iron oxalate. Several other phases have been claimed; the β-phase is cubic body-centered, at temperatures above 500 °C converts to alpha phase. It can be prepared by reduction of hematite by carbon, pyrolysis of iron chloride solution, or thermal decomposition of iron sulfate; the epsilon phase is rhombic, shows properties intermediate between alpha and gamma, may have useful magnetic properties. Preparation of the pure epsilon phase has proven challenging due to contamination with alpha and gamma phases. Material with a high proportion of epsilon phase can be prepared by thermal transformation of the gamma phase.
This phase is metastable, transforming to the alpha phase at between 500 and 750 °C. Can be prepared by oxidation of iron in an electric arc or by sol-gel precipitation from iron nitrate. Additionally at high pressure an amorphous form is claimed. Recent research has revealed epsilon iron oxide in ancient Chinese Jian ceramic glazes, which may provide insight into ways to produce that form in the lab. Several hydrates of Iron oxide exists; when alkali is added to solutions of soluble Fe salts, a red-brown gelatinous precipitate forms. This is not Fe3, but Fe2O3·H2O. Several forms of the hydrated oxide of Fe exist as well; the red lepidocrocite γ-FeOH, occurs on the outside of rusticles, the orange goethite, which occurs internally in rusticles. When Fe2O3·H2O is heated, it loses its water of hydration. Further heating at 1670 K converts Fe2O3 to black Fe3O4, known as the mineral magnetite. FeOH is soluble in acids, giving 3+. In concentrated aqueous alkali, Fe2O3 gives 3−; the most important reaction is its carbothermal reduction, which gives iron used in steel-making: Fe2O3 + 3 CO → 2 Fe + 3 CO2Another redox reaction is the exothermic thermite reaction with aluminium.
2 Al + Fe2O3 → 2 Fe + Al2O3This process is used to weld thick metals such as rails of train tracks by using a ceramic container to funnel the molten iron in between two sections of rail. Thermite is used in weapons and making small-scale cast-iron sculptures and tools. Partial reduction with hydrogen at about 400 °C produces magnetite, a black magnetic material that contains both Fe and Fe: 3 Fe2O3 + H2 → 2 Fe3O4 + H2OIron oxide is insoluble in water but dissolves in strong acid, e.g. hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. It dissolves well in solutions of chelating agents such as EDTA and oxalic acid. Heating iron oxides with other metal oxides or carbonates yields materials known as ferrates: ZnO + Fe2O3 → Zn2 Iron oxide is a product of the oxidation of iron, it can be prepared in the laboratory by electrolyzing a solution of sodium bicarbonate, an inert electrolyte, with an iron anode: 4 Fe + 3 O2 + 2 H2O → 4 FeOThe resulting hydrated iron oxide, written here as FeOH, dehydrates around 200 °C. 2 FeO → Fe2O3 + H2O The overwhelming application of iron oxide is as the feedstock of the steel and iron industries, e.g. the production of iron and many alloys.
A fine powder of ferric oxide is known as "jeweler's rouge", "red rouge", or rouge. It is used to put the final polish on metallic jewelry and lenses, as a cosmetic. Rouge cuts more than some modern polishes, such as cerium oxide, but is still used in optics fabrication and by jewelers for the superior finish it can produce; when polishing gold, the rouge stains the gold, which contributes to the appearance of the finished piece. Rouge is sold as a powder, laced on polishing cloths, or solid bar. Other polishing compounds are often called "rouge" when they do not contain iron oxide. Jewelers remove the residual rouge on jewelry by use of ultrasonic cleaning. Products sold as "stropping compound" are applied to a leather stro
The Mahābhārata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa. It narrates the struggle between two groups of cousins in the Kurukshetra War and the fates of the Kaurava and the Pāṇḍava princes and their succession. Along with the Rāmāyaṇa, it forms the Hindu Itihasa; the Mahābhārata is an epic legendary narrative of the Kurukṣetra War and the fates of the Kaurava and the Pāṇḍava princes. It contains philosophical and devotional material, such as a discussion of the four "goals of life" or puruṣārtha. Among the principal works and stories in the Mahābhārata are the Bhagavad Gita, the story of Damayanti, an abbreviated version of the Rāmāyaṇa, the story of Ṛṣyasringa considered as works in their own right. Traditionally, the authorship of the Mahābhārata is attributed to Vyāsa. There have been many attempts to unravel compositional layers; the oldest preserved parts of the text are thought to be not much older than around 400 BCE, though the origins of the epic fall between the 8th and 9th centuries BCE.
The text reached its final form by the early Gupta period. According to the Mahābhārata itself, the tale is extended from a shorter version of 24,000 verses called Bhārata; the Mahābhārata is the longest epic poem known and has been described as "the longest poem written". Its longest version consists of over 100,000 śloka or over 200,000 individual verse lines, long prose passages. At about 1.8 million words in total, the Mahābhārata is ten times the length of the Iliad and the Odyssey combined, or about four times the length of the Rāmāyaṇa. W. J. Johnson has compared the importance of the Mahābhārata in the context of world civilization to that of the Bible, the works of William Shakespeare, the works of Homer, Greek drama, or the Quran. Within the Indian tradition it is sometimes called the Fifth Veda; the epic is traditionally ascribed to the sage Vyāsa, a major character in the epic. Vyāsa described it as being itihāsa, he describes the Guru-shishya parampara, which traces all great teachers and their students of the Vedic times.
The first section of the Mahābhārata states that it was Gaṇeśa who wrote down the text to Vyasa's dictation. The epic employs the story within a story structure, otherwise known as frametales, popular in many Indian religious and non-religious works, it is first recited at Takshashila by the sage Vaiśampāyana, a disciple of Vyāsa, to the King Janamejaya, the great-grandson of the Pāṇḍava prince Arjuna. The story is recited again by a professional storyteller named Ugraśrava Sauti, many years to an assemblage of sages performing the 12-year sacrifice for the king Saunaka Kulapati in the Naimiśa Forest; the text was described by some early 20th-century western Indologists as chaotic. Hermann Oldenberg supposed that the original poem must once have carried an immense "tragic force" but dismissed the full text as a "horrible chaos." Moritz Winternitz considered that "only unpoetical theologists and clumsy scribes" could have lumped the parts of disparate origin into an unordered whole. Research on the Mahābhārata has put an enormous effort into recognizing and dating layers within the text.
Some elements of the present Mahābhārata can be traced back to Vedic times. The background to the Mahābhārata suggests the origin of the epic occurs "after the early Vedic period" and before "the first Indian'empire' was to rise in the third century B. C." That this is "a date not too far removed from the 8th or 9th century B. C." is likely. Mahābhārata started as an orally-transmitted tale of the charioteer bards, it is agreed that "Unlike the Vedas, which have to be preserved letter-perfect, the epic was a popular work whose reciters would conform to changes in language and style," so the earliest'surviving' components of this dynamic text are believed to be no older than the earliest'external' references we have to the epic, which may include an allusion in Panini's 4th century BCE grammar Aṣṭādhyāyī 4:2:56. It is estimated that the Sanskrit text reached something of a "final form" by the early Gupta period. Vishnu Sukthankar, editor of the first great critical edition of the Mahābhārata, commented: "It is useless to think of reconstructing a fluid text in a original shape, on the basis of an archetype and a stemma codicum.
What is possible? Our objective can only be to reconstruct the oldest form of the text which it is possible to reach on the basis of the manuscript material available." That manuscript evidence is somewhat late, given its material composition and the climate of India, but it is extensive. The Mahābhārata itself distinguishes a core portion of 24,000 verses: the Bhārata proper, as opposed to additional secondary material, while the Aśvalāyana Gṛhyasūtra makes a similar distinction. At least three redactions of the text are recognized: Jaya with 8,800 verses attributed to Vyāsa, Bhārata with 24,000 verses as recited by Vaiśampāyana, the Mahābhārata as recited by Ugraśrava Sauti with over 100,000 verses. However, some scholars, such as John Brockington, argue that Jaya and Bharata refer to the same text, ascribe the theory of Jaya with 8,800 verses to a misreading of a verse in Ādiparvan; the redaction of this large body of text was carried out after formal principles, emphasizing the numbers 18 and 12.
The addition of the latest parts may be dated by the absence of the Anuśāsana-parva and the Virāta parva from the "Spitzer manuscript". The oldest surviving
Chhattisgarh is one of the 29 states of India, located in the centre-east of the country. It is the tenth-largest state in India, with an area of 135,191 km2. With a 2011 population of 25.5 million, Chhattisgarh is the 16th-most populated state in the country. A resource-rich state, it is a source of electricity and steel for the country, accounting for 15% of the total steel produced. Chhattisgarh is one of the fastest-developing states in India; the state was formed on 1 November 2000 by partitioning 10 Chhattisgarhi and 6 Gondi speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh. The capital city is Raipur. Chhattisgarh borders the states of Madhya Pradesh in the northwest, Uttar Pradesh in the north, Jharkhand in northeast, Maharashtra in the southwest, Telangana in the south, Odisha in the southeast; the state comprises 27 districts. The Gross State Domestic Product of Chhattisgarh is ₹3.63 lakh crore and the per capita GSDP ₹102,762 There are several opinions as to the origin of the name Chhattisgarh, which in ancient times was known as Dakshina Kosala.
"Chhattisgarh" was popularised during the time of the Maratha Empire and was first used in an official document in 1795. It is claimed; the old state had 36 demesnes: Ratanpur, Kharound, Kautgarh, Sondhi, Padarbhatta, Champa, Chhuri, Matin, Pendra, Kurkuti-kandri, Patan, Singarpur, Omera, Saradha, Menhadi, Sirpur, Rajim, Suvarmar and Akaltara. However, experts do not agree with this explanation, as 36 forts cannot be archaeologically identified in this region. Another view, more popular with experts and historians, is that Chhattisgarh is the corrupted form of Chedisgarh meaning Raj or "Empire of the Chedis". In ancient times, Chhattisgarh region had been part of the Chedi dynasty of Kalinga, in modern Odisha. In the medieval period up to 1803, a major portion of present eastern Chhattisgarh was part of the Sambalpur Kingdom of Odisha; the northern and southern parts of the state are hilly. The highest point in the state is the Gaurlata. Deciduous forests of the Eastern Highlands Forests cover 44% of the state.
The state animal is wild Asian buffalo. The state bird is hill myna; the state tree is the Sal found in Bastar division. In the north lies the edge of the great Indo-Gangetic plain; the Rihand River, a tributary of the Ganges, drains this area. The eastern end of the Satpura Range and the western edge of the Chota Nagpur Plateau form an east-west belt of hills that divide the Mahanadi River basin from the Indo-Gangetic plain; the outline of Chhattisgarh is like a sea horse. The central part of the state lies in the fertile upper basin of the Mahanadi river and its tributaries; this area has extensive rice cultivation. The upper Mahanadi basin is separated from the upper Narmada basin to the west by the Maikal Hills and from the plains of Odisha to the east by ranges of hills; the southern part of the state lies on the Deccan plateau, in the watershed of the Godavari River and its tributary, the Indravati River. The Mahanadi is the chief river of the state; the other main rivers are Hasdo, Indravati, Jonk and Shivnath.
It is situated in the east of Madhya Pradesh. The natural environment of Koriya in Chhattisgarh includes forests, mountains and waterfalls. Koriya was a princely state during the British rule in India. Koriya is known for its mineral deposits. Coal is found in this part of the country; the dense forests are rich in wildlife. The Amrit Dhara Waterfall, Koriya's main attraction, is a natural waterfall which originates from the Hasdeo River; the fall is situated seven kilometres from Koriya on the Manendragarh-Baikunthpur road. The Amrit Dhara Waterfall falls from a height of 27 m, it is 3–4.5 m wide. Chirimiri is one of the more popular places, known for its natural environment and climate, in Chhattisgarh; the climate of Chhattisgarh is tropical. It is hot and humid because of its proximity to the Tropic of Cancer and its dependence on the monsoons for rains. Summer temperatures in Chhattisgarh can reach 45 °C; the monsoon season is a welcome respite from the heat. Chhattisgarh receives an average of 1,292 millimetres of rain.
Winter is from November to January and it is a good time to visit Chhattisgarh. Winters are pleasant with less humidity. Chhattisgarh has coverage of two-lane or one-lane roads which provides connectivity to major cities. Eleven national highways passing through the state which are together 3078.40 km in length. However, most national highways are in poor condition and provide only two lanes for slow moving traffic. Many national highways are on paper and not converted into four-lane highway; this includes 130A New, 130B New, 130C New, 130D New, 149B New, 163A New, 343 New, 930New.. Other national highway includes NH 6, NH 16, NH 43, NH 12A, NH 78, NH 111, NH 200, NH 202, NH 216, NH 217, NH 221, NH30NH 930 NEW; the state highways and major district roads constitute another network of 8,031 km. Chhattisgarh has one of the lowest densities of National Highway in Central and South India, similar to the North Eastern state of Assam; the entire railway network spread over the state comes under the geographical jurisdiction of the South East
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle