Surrealism in art and literature uses numerous techniques and games to provide inspiration. Many of these are said to free imagination by producing a creative process free of conscious control; the importance of the unconscious as a source of inspiration is central to the nature of surrealism. The Surrealist movement has been a fractious one since its inception; the value and role of the various techniques has been one of many subjects of disagreement. Some Surrealists consider automatism and games to be sources of inspiration only, while others consider them starting points for finished works. Others consider the items created through automatism to be finished works themselves, needing no further refinement. Aerography is a technique. Automatic drawing Automatic painting Automatic writing Automatic poetry is poetry written using the automatic method, it has been the chief surrealist method from the founding of surrealism to the present day. One of the oddest uses of automatic writing by a great writer was that of W. B.
Yeats. His wife, a spiritualist, practised it, Yeats put large chunks of it into his prose work, A Vision and much of his poetry. Yeats, was not a surrealist. Automatic poetry generators exist online, but they do not generate automatic poetry in this sense; the Czech writer Bohumil Hrabal used the method of automatic text in his famous book I Served the King of England. One chapter in the book is written as a single sentence, at the end of the book Hrabal endorses the use of automatic writing. Bulletism is shooting ink at a blank piece of paper; the artist can develop images based on what is seen. A calligramme is a text or poem of a type developed by Guillaume Apollinaire in which the words or letters make up a shape a shape connected to the subject of the text or poem. Collage is the assemblage of different forms creating a new whole. For example, an artistic collage work may include newspaper clippings, bits of colored or hand-made papers, etc. glued to a solid support or canvas. A coulage is a kind of automatic or involuntary sculpture made by pouring a molten material into cold water.
As the material cools it takes on what appears to be a random form, though the physical properties of the materials involved may lead to a conglomeration of discs or spheres. The artist may use a variety of techniques to affect the outcome; this technique is used in the divination process known as ceromancy. Cubomania is a method of making collages in which a picture or image is cut into squares and the squares are reassembled without regard for the image; the technique was first used by the Romanian surrealist Gherasim Luca. Cut-up technique is a literary form or method in which a text is cut up at random and rearranged to create a new text. Decalcomania is a process of spreading thick paint upon a canvas then—while it is still wet—covering it with further material such as paper or aluminium foil; this covering is removed, the resultant paint pattern becomes the basis of the finished painting. The technique was much employed by artists such as Max Ernst; the dream résumé takes the form of an employment résumé but chronicles its subject's achievements, employment, or the like, in dreams, rather than in waking life.
Sometimes dream résumés contain the achievements of both, however. An echo poem is a poem written using a technique invented by Aurélien Dauguet in 1972; the poem is composed by one or more persons. The first "stanza" of the poem is written on the left-hand column of a piece of paper divided into two columns; the "opposite", or'echo', of the first stanza, in whatever sense is appropriate to the poem, is composed in the right-hand column of the page. The writing is done automatically and the "opposite" stanza is composed of a phonetic correspondence to the first stanza. For a longer work, the third stanza can begin in the left-hand column as an "opposite" or a phonetic correspondence to what preceded it in the right-hand column; the fourth stanza might be an "opposite" or sound correspondence to what preceded it in the left-hand column, so forth. When the poem is completed, the echo of the last phrase, line, or sentence serves as the title; this is unrelated to the non-Surrealist echo verse form which appears as a dialogue between the questions of a character and the answers of the nymph Echo.
Éclaboussure is a process in Surrealist painting where oil paints or watercolours are laid down and water or turpentine is splattered soaked up to reveal random splatters or dots where the media was removed. This technique gives the appearance of atmosphere, it was used in paintings by Remedios Varo. Entopic graphomania is a surrealist and automatic method of drawing in which dots are made at the sites of impurities in a blank sheet of paper, lines are made between the dots. Ithell Colquhoun described its results as "the most austere kind of geometric abstraction." It is to be distinguished from "entoptic" methods of drawing or art-making, inspired by entoptic phenomena. The method was invented by Dolfi Trost, who as the subtitle of his 1945 book suggests, included nine examples therein; this method of "indecipherable writing" was an example of "surautomatism", the controversial theory put forward by Trost and Gherashim Luca in which surrealist methods would be practiced that "went beyond" automatism.
In Dialectique de Dialectique they
The premise that there were cougars in Western Australia was believed during the 1970s. There are several theories as to; the most popular theory was that United States servicemen brought four cougar kittens to Western Australia during World War II. Another theory is that cougars escaped from a traveling circus, involved in an accident between Bridgetown and Nannup around 1961; the circus theory has been referenced to support the allegation that cougars were responsible for the deaths of around 2000 sheep in the Duranillin area in the late 1970s. The State Library of Western Australia's catalogue refers to the cougar story as the Cordering cougar, while the oral history record has a summary with the spelling Coedering Cougars; these theories received significant attention in 1979, including numerous media mentions, during a debate on the issue in the parliament. That year, the Agricultural Protection Board of Western Australia declared that a two-year investigation had failed to find any evidence to suggest that cougars had been introduced into south-west Western Australia.
Nonetheless, in 1981 an A$20,000 reward was offered for the capture of a cougar in Western Australia, dead or alive. The reward was never claimed. In 2018 further sightings were reported at Chidlow in the Perth Hills, near Morangup on Toodyay Road. Phantom cat Cats in Australia McGeough, P. "Farmers plan cougar hunt for next sighting". The West Australian. Pash, B. "MPs to debate cat mystery". Sunday Times. Zekulich, M. "A. P. B.: There is no evidence of cougars in W. A.". West Australian. Anonymous. "U. S. soldiers brough cats here — claim". Sunday Independent. O'Reilly, David Savage Shadow: The search for the Australian Cougar Sydney, NSW. Strange Nation Publishing, 2011. ISBN 978-0-646-55313-9 Williams, M and Lang, R "Australian Big Cats: An Unnatural History of Panthers" Sydney, NSW. Strange Nation Publishing, 2010. ISBN 978-0-646-53007-9
Mary M. Reilly FRCP is an Irish neurologist who works at National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, she studies peripheral neuropathy. She is the President of the Association of British Neurologists. Reilly studied medicine at University College Dublin, graduating in 1986, she worked for a few years as a neurologist at St. Vincent's University Hospital, before joining Anita Harding at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery in 1991. Reilly has spoken of how much she admired her supervisor, attributes her clinical interests to Harding. Reilly earned her medical doctorate in 1996, she completed her neurological training at Royal Free Hospital and Guy's Hospital, training with P. K. Thomas and Richard Hughes. At the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery Reilly specialises in inherited neuropathies, she was made consultant neurologist in 1998 and a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in 2002. She began to study neuromuscular disease, in particular Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease.
In 2004, she found that Vitamin C could be used to improve symptoms in mouse models of CMT1A. She established a randomized controlled trial with colleagues in Italy to evaluate the efficacy of Vitamin C on CMT1A; the UK part of the trial consisted of 50 participants, found that whilst Vitamin C is safe, it does not slow the progression of the disease. Although the trial was not a success, it developed new neuropathy outcome measures, her research includes the identification of genes such as methionyl-tRNA synthetase. Reilly works with Muscular Dystrophy UK on muscle-wasting conditions, she has worked on new biomarkers for disease progression. CMT parents suffer from damaged motor nerves, which results in muscles weakening, allows fat to accumulate in muscles. Reilly identified that calf muscle fat friction maps are an outcome measure in patients with CMT1A, with calf muscle fat increased in patients with CMT1A She received a $1,000,000 grant from the Muscular Dystrophy Association to evaluate MRI protocols for monitoring changes in muscles from CMT.
In 2010 Reilly was appointed Professor of Clinical Neurology at University College London. She leads the Division of Clinical Neurology and Medical Research Council Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases. With the MRC Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases and Muscular Dystrophy UK, Reilly runs an annual translational neuromuscular diseases meeting, which includes a patient day to discuss inherited neuropathies. Along with CMT, Reilly has worked on hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies and carpal tunnel syndrome in inherited neuropathies. Reilly contributed to the 2013 Handbook of Clinical Neurology, wrote a chapter for the 2016 Springer Publishing collection Neuromuscular Disease: Case Studies from Queen Square. Reilly has served as President of the British Peripheral Nerve Society and the International Peripheral Nerve Society. In 2015 she was appointed President-elect of the Association of British Neurologists, she became the first woman to take the role in 2017