Surrey, British Columbia

Surrey is a city in the province of British Columbia, located south of the Fraser River and north of the Canada–United States border. It is a member municipality of metropolitan area. A suburban city, Surrey is the province's second-largest by population after Vancouver and the third-largest by area after Abbotsford and Prince George; the seven neighbourhoods, or town centres, that the City of Surrey comprises are Fleetwood, City Centre, Newton and South Surrey. Surrey was incorporated in 1879, encompasses land occupied by a number of Halqemeylem-speaking aboriginal groups; when Englishman H. J. Brewer looked across the Fraser River from New Westminster and saw a land reminiscent of his native County of Surrey in England, the settlement of Surrey was placed on the map; the area comprised forests of douglas fir, red cedar, blackberry bushes, cranberry bogs. A portion of present-day Whalley was used as a burial ground by the Kwantlen Nation. Settlers arrived first in Cloverdale and parts of South Surrey to farm, harvest oysters, or set up small stores.

Once the Pattullo Bridge was erected in 1937, the way was open for Surrey to expand. In the post-war 1950s, North Surrey's neighbourhoods filled with single family homes and Surrey became a bedroom community, absorbing commuters who worked in Burnaby or Vancouver. In the 1980s and 1990s, Surrey witnessed unprecedented growth, as people from different parts of Canada and the world Asia, began to make the municipality their home. Surrey is projected to surpass the city of Vancouver as the most populous city in BC by 2020 - 2030. Surrey is governed by an eight-member city council; the current mayor of Surrey is Doug McCallum, who took office on November 5, 2018. The last elections were held in October 2018. Current City Councillors are: Doug Elford, Laurie Guerra, Brenda Locke. Jack Singh Hundial, Mandeep Nagra, Steven Pettigrew. In the 2017 provincial election, the BC NDP doubled their held three elected MLAs to six, while the number of MLAs for the BC Liberals dropped from five to three. In 1997, Gurmant Grewal became the first visible minority elected in Surrey.

In 2004, when his wife, Nina was elected to parliament, they became the first married couple to serve Canadian parliament concurrently. Following the 2015 federal election, the Liberal Party of Canada won three of Surrey's four seats in the House of Commons of Canada. Conservative MP Dianne Watts resigned her South Surrey-White Rock seat in 2017 to compete for the leadership of the BC Liberal Party. In the subsequent 2017 by-election, the Liberal candidate Gordie Hogg defeated former Conservative MP and federal cabinet minister Kerry-Lynne Findlay. In 2016 the population was recorded at 517,887, an increase of 10.6% from 2011. This made it the 12th largest city in Canada, while being the fifth largest city in Western Canada. Surrey forms an integral part of Metro Vancouver as it is the second largest city in the region, albeit while serving as the secondary economic core of the metropolitan area; when combined with the City of Vancouver, both cities account for nearly 50% of the region's population.

In recent years, a expanding urban core in Downtown Surrey, located in Whalley has transformed the area into the secondary downtown core in Metro Vancouver. Within the City of Surrey itself feature many neighbourhoods including City Centre, Newton, Fleetwood and South Surrey; each neighbourhood includes ethnically diverse populations. While Europeans and South Asians can be found in large numbers across the city, areas which house a large proportion of the former include South Surrey and Cloverdale, with Newton and Whalley being home to large numbers of the latter. Immigration to Surrey has drastically increased since the 1980s. 52% do not speak English as their first language, while over 30% of the city's inhabitants are of South Asian heritage. Beginning in the 1990s, an influx of South Asians began moving to the city from neighbouring Vancouver due to rising housing costs and increasing rent costs for businesses; the outflow of these residents combined with increased immigration from the Indian Subcontinent therefore established in Surrey one of the largest concentrations of South Asian residents in North America.

The vast majority of South Asians in Surrey are of Punjabi heritage, a region in northern India and Pakistan. Other significant Asian groups which reside in the city include Chinese and Southeast Asian. At only 1.9% of the total population, the Black community of Surrey is small however the city is home to the largest Black population in British Columbia. Similar to most cities across Canada, a large majority of Surrey residents of European heritage can trace their roots to the British Isles; the 2011 National Household Survey states, "71.4% of the population in Surrey reported a religious affiliation, while 28.6% said they had no religious affiliation. For British Columbia as a whole, 55.9% of the population reported a religious affiliation, while 44.1% had no religion. Proportionally, Surrey has more Sikhs than any other Canadian city; the top three most reported religious affiliations in Surrey w

1901 Black Sea earthquake

The 1901 Black Sea earthquake was a 7.2 magnitude earthquake, the most powerful earthquake recorded in the Black Sea. The earthquake epicenter was located in the east of Cape Kaliakra, 30 kilometres off northeast coast of Bulgaria; the mainshock occurred at a depth of 15 km and generated a 4–5-metre high tsunami that devastated the coastal areas of Romania and Bulgaria. In Romania, the earthquake was felt not only throughout Northern Dobruja, but in Oltenia and Muntenia, in southern Moldova; the earthquake was followed by a large number of local replicas and secondary earthquakes, which continued until 1905. After 1905, Pontic seismic activity began to subside, although weak and moderate earthquakes were reported in subsequent years; such events are rare in the Black Sea. In the last 200 years, in the Black Sea region 24 tsunamis occurred, of which two were in the territory of Dobruja; the earliest recorded tsunami in Romania dates from 104, when the city of Callatis, current Mangalia, was badly affected.

The off-shore region of Southern Dobruja the epicentral area located in the south of Mangalia, including the Bulgarian off-shore of the Black Sea, has been emphasized over the years, by earthquakes which in certain cases have been violent, reaching magnitudes of 7–7.5 on Richter scale. These are crustal earthquakes, of low depth, with severe effects on the epicentral area. Sometimes, in case of earthquakes with underwater focus, tsunami waves were generated, like in 1901. Research studies carried out by experts have shown that Pontic earthquakes with destructive behaviour, comparable to that in 1901, repeat at mean periods of 300–500 years. One of the earliest occurred in the 1st century BC at Kavarna. In AD 853, a tsunami at Varna swept 6.5 kilometres inland over flat coastal plain and travelled 30 kilometres up a river. The Black Sea is considered one of the most violent seas due to its seismic activity; the shock was felt throughout Bulgaria, southeast Romania, eastern Serbia and northwest Anatolia, causing great panic in Istanbul and on the Asiatic coast of the Bosphorus and the Marmara.

Long period effects lasting about a minute were reported from the Danube valley, from Szeged in Hungary, from Odessa. The shock was perceptible in Thessaloniki, in Macedonia, in Dorohoi in Romania, throughout the province of Sivas; the earthquake had devastating consequences in the coastal area of southern Mangalia, many villages being ruined. Maximum damage was sustained by a small number of villages situated on the alluvial lowlands along the coast between Balchik, Kavarna and Limanu. Slumping of the coast destroyed many landing-places and coastal settlements including the lighthouse at Kaliakra. Largescale landslides along the coast continued to develop for two weeks after the earthquake, disrupting communications and causing additional damage. In Bucharest, the seismic intensity was V–VI degrees on the Mercalli intensity scale, causing panic among the population and light damage to buildings; the Bulgarian province of Dobrich was severely hit by tsunami. In several localities, including Balchik, homes were rushed by waters.

In the village of Momchil, a large landslide buried people's homes on an area of about 30 hectares. List of earthquakes in 1901 List of earthquakes in Bulgaria List of earthquakes in Romania

Drifter's Escape

"Drifter's Escape" is a song written by Bob Dylan that he recorded for his 1967 album John Wesley Harding. Columbia Records released it as a single in the US and the UK in 1969 as the B-side to "I Threw It All Away"; the song was recorded in four takes on October 17, 1967. CBS Records International issued the song paired with "John Wesley Harding" in some markets. Dylan wrote "Drifter's Escape" on a train in New York while traveling to the first session for the John Wesley Harding album; the lyrics provide a Kafka-esque narrative in which an outsider is oppressed by society, but not defeated. The protagonist is put on trial without knowing; the judge is powerless. The jury finds the protagonist guilty, but he is saved through divine intervention when the courthouse is struck by lightning; the protagonist is able to escape. Dylan leaves the orientation of the deus ex machina ambiguous; the protagonist could be a prophet freed by God. Several commentators have pointed to parallels between the song's story and Dylan's own experiences around the time he wrote the song.

The drifter does not understand the charges against him, just as Dylan did not understand the criticism he received for moving from folk music to rock music. The jury "cried for more", just as Dylan's fans who followed his path to rock music became more oppressive, and the lightning bolt that allows the drifter to escape could be a metaphor for the "motorcycle accident" Dylan suffered in 1966. Another theme that comes through in the song is Dylan's hatred for mob violence. Biographer Clinton Heylin has noted that in writing "Drifter's Escape", Dylan found a new, economical style that allowed him to tell a five-act story in just three verses, he went on to write more songs in a similar manner, which formed the bulk of the John Wesley Harding album. Dylan did not perform "Drifter's Escape" live for 25 years after it was written and released, he first performed it live in Oregon on April 1992, a day after the Rodney King verdict. He sang it again four days in San Francisco, at which point the lines "The trial was bad enough/ But this was ten times worse" had particular resonance with those who considered that verdict unjust.

Since Dylan has performed the song on the Never Ending Tour. In 1992, he used two different live arrangements: one similar to the arrangement on John Wesley Harding and one influenced by Jimi Hendrix's version, he performed it as the show opener in several 1995 concerts. It returned to his live set again in 2001, this time in an energetic performance driven by Dylan's "paranoia-inflected vocals". "Drifter's Escape" has been recorded by several other artists, including Jimi Hendrix. Baez covered the song in 1968 on her album Any Day Now. Hendrix' version was recorded in 1970 and appeared on Loose Ends in 1974, Stone Free in 1981 and South Saturn Delta in 1997. Author David Stubbs noted that Hendrix didn't transform this song the way he did "All Along the Watchtower," but that Hendrix' guitar provides "a chorus of'amens' and'hallelujahs' throughout the song." George Thorogood recorded the song for his 2006 album The Hard Stuff. Patti Smith performed the tune for Chimes of Freedom: The Songs of Bob Dylan Honoring 50 Years of Amnesty.