Greater London is a ceremonial county of England, located within the London region. This region forms the administrative boundaries of London and is organised into 33 local government districts—the 32 London boroughs and the City of London, located within the region but is separate from the county; the Greater London Authority, based in Southwark, is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The City of London Corporation is the principal local authority for the City of London, with a similar role to that of the 32 London borough councils. Administratively, Greater London was first established as a sui generis council area under the Greater London Council between 1963 and 1986; the county of Greater London was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963. The area was re-established as a region in 1994; the Greater London Authority was formed in 2000. The region had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census.
The Greater London Built-up Area is used in some national statistics and is a measure of the continuous urban area and includes areas outside the administrative region. The term Greater London has been and still is used to describe different areas in governance, statistics and common parlance. In terms of ceremonial counties, London is divided into the small City of London and the much wider Greater London; this arrangement has come about because as the area of London grew and absorbed neighbouring settlements, a series of administrative reforms did not amalgamate the City of London with the surrounding metropolitan area, its unique political structure was retained. Outside the limited boundaries of the City, a variety of arrangements has governed the wider area since 1855, culminating in the creation of the Greater London administrative area in 1965; the term Greater London was used well before 1965 to refer to the Metropolitan Police District, the area of the Metropolitan Water Board, the London Passenger Transport Area and the area defined by the Registrar General as the Greater London Conurbation.
The Greater London Arterial Road Programme was devised between 1913 and 1916. One of the larger early forms was the Greater London Planning Region, devised in 1927, which occupied 1,856 square miles and included 9 million people. Although the London County Council was created covering the County of London in 1889, the county did not cover all the built-up area West Ham and East Ham, many of the LCC housing projects, including the vast Becontree Estates, were outside its boundaries; the LCC pressed for an alteration in its boundaries soon after the end of the First World War, noting that within the Metropolitan and City Police Districts there were 122 housing authorities. A Royal Commission on London Government was set up to consider the issue; the LCC proposed a vast new area for Greater London, with a boundary somewhere between the Metropolitan Police District and the home counties. Protests were made at the possibility of including Windsor and Eton in the authority; the Commission made its report in 1923.
Two minority reports favoured change beyond the amalgamation of smaller urban districts, including both smaller borough councils and a central authority for strategic functions. The London Traffic Act 1924 was a result of the Commission. Reform of local government in the County of London and its environs was next considered by the Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London, chaired by Sir Edwin Herbert, which issued the'Herbert Report' after three years of work in 1960; the commission applied three tests to decide if a community should form part of Greater London: how strong is the area as an independent centre in its own right. Greater London was formally created by the London Government Act 1963, which came into force on 1 April 1965, replacing the administrative counties of Middlesex and London, including the City of London, where the London County Council had limited powers, absorbing parts of Essex, Hertfordshire and Surrey. Greater London had a two-tier system of local government, with the Greater London Council sharing power with the City of London Corporation and the 32 London Borough councils.
The GLC was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985. Its functions were devolved to the City Corporation and the London Boroughs, with some functions transferred to central government and joint boards. Greater London formed the London region in 1994; the London referendum, 1998 established a public will to recreate an upper tier of government to cover the region. The Greater London Authority, London Assembly and the directly elected Mayor of London were created in 2000 by the Greater London Authority Act 1999. In 2000, the outer boundary of the Metropolitan Police District was re-aligned to the Greater London boundary; the 2000 and 2004 mayoral elections were won by Ken Livingstone, the final leader of the GLC. The 2008 and 2012 elections were won by Boris Johnson; the 2016 election was won by Sadiq Khan. Greater London includes the most associated parts of the Greater London Urban Area and their historic buffers and includes, in five boroughs, significant parts of the Metropolitan Green Belt which protects designated greenfield land in a similar way to the city's parks.
The closest and furthest boundaries are with Essex to the northeast between Sewardstonebury next to Epping Forest and Chingford and with the Mar
North Yorkshire County Council
North Yorkshire County Council is the county council that governs the non-metropolitan county of North Yorkshire in England. The council was formed in 1972; the council occupies County Hall at Northallerton, the headquarters of both councils since 1906. As a County Council, it is a "top-tier" system that oversees the district councils but has the responsibility for social care and roads; the districts that come under NYCC are.
Hampshire County Council
Hampshire County Council is the county council that governs the majority of the county of Hampshire in England. It provides the upper tier of local government, below which are district councils, town and parish councils; the county council has 78 elected councillors, is based in the county town of Winchester. Hampshire County Council is controlled by the Conservative Party; the council is responsible for public services such as: Highway management Waste disposal Children's services Social care Libraries Discovery Centres Museums Arts provision Country parks Public Health and borough councils that govern within Hampshire include: Basingstoke and Deane Borough Council East Hampshire District Council Eastleigh Borough Council Fareham Borough Council Gosport Borough Council Hart District Council Havant Borough Council New Forest District Council Rushmoor Borough Council Test Valley Borough Council Winchester City Council The most recent Hampshire County Council elections were held on 4 May 2017.
At the 2013 local elections for Hampshire County Council, the Conservative Party had a 37.51% share of the votes, the Liberal Democrats had 21.71%, the UK Independence Party had 24.61% and Labour 10%. As a result, 45 Conservatives, 17 Liberal Democrats, 10 UKIP, four Labour and one Community Campaign councillor sit on the County Council. Henry Paulet, 16th Marquess of Winchester, Chairman 1904–1909 James Harris, 5th Earl of Malmesbury, Chairman 1927–1937 Sir John Crowder, member 1931–1946 Horace King, Baron Maybray-King, member 1946–1965 John Denham, member 1981 to 1989 a member of parliament Mike Hancock, Leader 1989 to 1997 a member of parliament Henry Herbert, 7th Earl of Carnarvon, Chairman Alexander Baring, 6th Baron Ashburton, member Roy Perry, Leader Percivall Pott, elected member, 1949 member of parliament for Devizes in Wiltshire
Liberal Democrats (UK)
The Liberal Democrats are a liberal political party in the United Kingdom. They have 11 Members of Parliament in the House of Commons, 96 members of the House of Lords, one member of the European Parliament, five Members of the Scottish Parliament and one member in the Welsh Assembly and London Assembly. At the height of its influence, the party formed a coalition government with the Conservative Party from 2010 to 2015 with its leader Nick Clegg serving as Deputy Prime Minister, it is led by Sir Vince Cable. In 1981, an electoral alliance was established between the Liberal Party, a group, the direct descendent of the 18th-century Whigs, the Social Democratic Party, a splinter group from the Labour Party. In 1988 this alliance was formalised as the Liberal Democrats. Under the leadership of Paddy Ashdown and Charles Kennedy, the party grew during the 1990s and 2000s, focusing its campaigning on specific seats and becoming the third largest party in the House of Commons. Under its leader Nick Clegg, the Liberal Democrats were junior partners in a coalition government headed by Conservative Prime Minister David Cameron, with Clegg serving as Deputy Prime Minister.
The coalition damaged the Liberal Democrats' electoral prospects: the party was reduced from 57 to 8 seats at the 2015 election. Positioned in the centre ground of British politics, the Liberal Democrats are ideologically liberal. Emphasising stronger protections for civil liberties, the party promotes liberal approaches to issues like LGBT rights, education policy, criminal justice. Different factions take different approaches to economic issues; the party is pro-Europeanist, supporting continued UK membership of the European Union and greater European integration. It calls for electoral reform with a transition from the first-past-the-post voting system to one of proportional representation. Other policies have included further environmental protections and drug liberalisation laws, while it has opposed certain UK military engagements like the Iraq War; the party is a member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe and Liberal International. The Liberal Democrats are strongest in northern Scotland, southwest London, southwest England, mid-Wales.
The Liberal Democrats were formed on 3 March 1988 by a merger between the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party, which had formed a pact nearly seven years earlier as the SDP–Liberal Alliance. The Liberal Party, founded in 1859, were descended from the Whigs and Peelites, while the SDP were a party created in 1981 by former Labour Party members, MPs and cabinet ministers, but gained defections from the Conservative Party. Having declined to third party status after the rise of the Labour Party from 1918 and during the 1920s, the Liberals were challenged for this position in the 1980s when a group of Labour MPs broke away and established the Social Democratic Party; the SDP and the Liberals realised that there was no space for two political parties of the centre and entered into the SDP–Liberal Alliance so that they would not stand against each other in elections. The Alliance was led by Roy Jenkins; the two parties had their own policies and emphases, but produced a joint manifesto for the 1983 and 1987 general elections.
Following disappointing results in the 1987 election, Steel proposed to merge the two parties. Although opposed by Owen, it was supported by a majority of members of both parties, they formally merged in March 1988, with Steel and Robert Maclennan as joint interim leaders; the new party was named Social and Liberal Democrats with the unofficial short form The Democrats being used from September 1988. The name was subsequently changed to Liberal Democrats in October 1989, shortened to Lib Dems; the new party logo, the Bird of Liberty, was adopted in 1989. The minority of the SDP who rejected the merger remained under Owen's leadership in a rump SDP. Michael Meadowcroft joined the Liberal Democrats in 2007 but some of his former followers continue still as the Liberal Party, most notably in a couple of electoral wards of the cities of Liverpool and Peterborough; the then-serving Liberal MP Paddy Ashdown was elected leader in July 1988. At the 1989 European Elections, the party received only 6% of the vote, putting them in fourth place after the Green Party.
They failed to gain a single Member of the European Parliament at this election. Over the next three years, the party recovered under Ashdown's leadership, they performed better at the 1990 local elections and in by-elections—including at Eastbourne in 1990 which saw the first success by a Liberal Democrat standing for parliament. They had further successes in Ribble Valley and Kincardine & Deeside in 1991; the Lib Dems did not reach the share of national votes in the 1990s that the Alliance had achieved in the 1980s. At their first election in 1992, they won 17.8 % of twenty seats. In the 1994 European Elections, the party gained its first two Members of European Parliament. Following the election of Tony Blair as Labour leader in July 1994 after the death of his predecessor John Smith, Ashdown pursued co-operation between the two parties becaus
County Hall, Kingston upon Thames
County Hall is the main government building for Surrey County Council in England. It was opened 13 November 1893, is located in Kingston upon Thames. County Hall is a landmark in Kingston and contains a clock tower entrance, plaques of Surrey MPs and Lord Sheriffs, the council chamber, it is located on Penrhyn Road, named in honour of the first chairman of the county council. Surrey had been administered from Newington since the 1790s, the county council was based in the sessions house there; as Newington was included in the County of London from 1889 it lay outside the area administered by the council, a site for a new county hall within the administrative county was sought. By 1890 six towns were being considered: Epsom, Kingston, Redhill and Wimbledon. A decision to build the new County Hall at Kingston was made in 1891, the building opened in 1893; the county hall in Kingston was designed by Charles Henry Howell, County Surveyor and partner in Howell and Brooks. It was built by Hill, it was built between 1891 and 1893.
It was opened on 13 November 1893, with bands entertaining invited guests. The building was extended in 1930 and again in 1938, the Ashcombe Block, creating a quadrangle behind the entrance; the Ashcombe block was destroyed by a flying bomb in July 1944, rebuilt in 1953. The building was further extended in 1982, completing a second quadrangle. Due to local government reorganisation in 1965, County Hall is now no longer within the administrative county of Surrey, but within the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames in Greater London. In July 2003 it was decided to move county government to a new building in Woking and Kingston University planned to acquire County Hall. However, the project was scrapped in January 2006. Film and television productions that have made use of County Hall for location filming have included: Vera Drake 102 Dalmatians Keeping Mum The Wrong Mans Midsomer Murders Silk Call the Midwife The Bill Ashes to Ashes Jonathan Creek Criminal Justice Top Boy Downton Abbey Silent Witness Saxondale
Lancashire County Council
Lancashire County Council is the upper-tier local authority for the non-metropolitan county of Lancashire, England. It consists of 84 councillors. After the Lancashire County Council election, 2017, the council is under Conservative control, having been under no overall control from 2013-17 and under Conservative control from 2009-13. Prior to the Lancashire County Council election, 2009, the county had been under Labour control since 1985; the Council leader, County Councillor Geoff Driver, chairs a cabinet of eight councillors - the others being A Atkinson, P Buckley, S Charles, G Gooch, M Green, K Iddon and S Turner. The eight cabinet members each have responsibility for particular functions of the council; the Interim Chief Executive and Director of Resources is Angie Ridgwell, appointed in January 2018 The council was established in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888, covering the administrative county. It was reconstituted under the Local Government Act 1972 to cover a different territory.
In the 1990s, Blackburn with Darwen and Blackpool left the area covered by the council. In May 2011 the council's Conservative administration established a partnership with BT Group called One Connect Limited. 40% was owned by the council and 60% by BT. 800 council staff were seconded to it. It was to run various back office functions and it was claimed it would save £400 million over ten years. In 2014 the partnership was dissolved, though some services were still run by BT. A police investigation followed allegations of corrupt practices and fraud. In May 2017 Conservative councillor Geoff Driver, Phil Halsall, the council's former Chief Executive, David McElhinney, former chief executive of One Connect and its sister organisation Liverpool Connect – and Ged Fitzgerald the current Liverpool City Council chief executive and former Lancashire County Council chief executive were arrested “on suspicion of conspiracy to pervert the course of justice and witness intimidation.” Elections are held every four years.
Lancashire adopted the Public Libraries Act, 1919, in 1924. Library services were slow to develop as the average ratable value of the area outside the county boroughs and the other local authorities which had adopted the act was low. In 1938/39 the average expenditure on urban libraries per head was 1s. 9d. But that on county libraries was only 8 1/4d.. Another disadvantage was that government of libraries was by a libraries sub-committee of the education committee of the council; the central administration of the county library is at Preston where there are special services, special collections and staff to maintain a union catalogue. Lancashire County Council
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment