click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Surveillance aircraft

A surveillance aircraft is an aircraft used for surveillance. They are operated by military forces and other government agencies in roles such as intelligence gathering, battlefield surveillance, airspace surveillance, observation, border patrol and fishery protection; this article concentrates on aircraft used in those roles, rather than for traffic monitoring, law enforcement and similar activities. Surveillance aircraft carry no armament, or only limited defensive armament, they do not always require high-performance capability or stealth characteristics, may be modified civilian aircraft. Surveillance aircraft have included moored balloons and unmanned aerial vehicles; the terms “surveillance” and “reconnaissance” have sometimes been used interchangeably, but, in the military context, a distinction can be drawn between surveillance, which monitors a changing situation in real time, reconnaissance, which captures a static picture for analysis. Surveillance is sometimes grouped with Intelligence, Target acquisition and Reconnaissance under the title ISTAR.

Observation was the term used for surveillance. In 1794, during the Battle of Fleurus, the French Aerostatic Corps balloon L'Entreprenant remained afloat for nine hours. French officers used the balloon to observe the movements of the Austrian Army, dropping notes to the ground for collection by the French Army, signalled messages using semaphore. One of the first aircraft used for surveillance was the Rumpler Taube during World War I, when aviators like Fred Zinn evolved new methods of reconnaissance and photography; the translucent wings of the plane made it difficult for ground-based observers to detect a Taube at an altitude above 400 m. The French called this plane "the Invisible Aircraft", it is sometimes referred to as the "world's first stealth plane". German Taube aircraft were able to detect the advancing Russian army during the Battle of Tannenberg. During World War II, light aircraft such as the Auster were used as air observation posts. Officers from the British Royal Artillery were trained as pilots to fly AOP aircraft for artillery spotting.

The air observation role was taken over by light observation helicopters, such as the Hughes OH-6 Cayuse, from the mid-1960s. Pre war, the British identified a need for an aircraft that could follow and observe the enemy fleet at a distance. To this end the slow-flying Airspeed Fleet Shadower and General Aircraft Fleet Shadower designs were built and flown in 1940 but they were made obsolete by the introduction of airborne radar. Spy flights were a source of major contention between the US and Soviet Union during most of the 1960s. Maritime patrol aircraft are large, slow machines capable of flying continuously for many hours, with a wide range of sensors; such aircraft include the Hawker-Siddeley Nimrod, the Breguet Atlantique, the Tupolev Tu-95, the Lockheed P-2 Neptune and the Lockheed P-3 Orion/CP-140 Aurora. Predator UAVs have been used by the US for border patrol. Unmanned surveillance aircraft have been "deployed or are under development in many countries, including Israel, the UK, the United States, China, South Africa and Pakistan."

Drones are used in conservation work to complete tasks such as mapping forest cover, tracking wildlife, enforcing environmental laws by catching illegal loggers or poachers. Unmanned surveillance UAVs include both airships—such as Sky Sentinel and HiSentinel 80—and airplanes. Most air forces around the world lack dedicated surveillance planes. Several countries adapt aircraft for electronic intelligence gathering; the Beech RC-12 Super King Air and Boeing RC-135 Rivet Joint are examples of this activity. With smaller equipment, long-range business aircraft can be modified in surveillance aircraft to perform specialized missions cost-effectively, from ground surveillance to maritime patrol: the 99,500 lb, 6,000 nmi Bombardier Global 6000 is the platform for the USAF Northrop Grumman E-11A Battlefield Airborne Communications Node, the radar-carrying ground-surveillance Raytheon Sentinel for the UK Royal Air Force, Saab’s Globaleye AEW&C carrying its Erieye AESA radar as UK's Marshall ADG basis for Elint/Sigint for the United Arab Emirates.

S. Compass Call electronic-attack system to the G550 CAEW-based EC-37B, like the NC-37B range-support aircraft, will modify others for Australia’s AISREW program, Northrop Grumman proposes the G550 for the J-Stars Recap. S. Army. HALE aircraft MikroKopter Reconnaissance aircraft Treaty on Open Skies Micro air vehicle US Centennial of Flight Commission: "Military Use of Balloons During the Napoleonic Era". Retrieved April 1, 2007. Maps of FBI and DHS surveillance flights over the United States in 2015

Incan agriculture

Incan agriculture was the culmination of thousands of years of farming and herding in the high-elevation Andes mountains of South America, the coastal deserts, the rainforests of the Amazon basin. These three radically different environments were all part of the Inca Empire and required different technologies for agriculture. Inca agriculture was characterized by the variety of crops grown, the lack of a market system and money, the unique mechanisms by which the Incas organized their society. Andean civilization was "pristine"—one of five civilizations worldwide which were indigenous and not derivative from other civilizations. Most Andean crops and domestic animals were pristine—not known to other civilizations. Potatoes and quinoa were among the unique crops; the Incan civilization was predominantly agricultural. The Incas had to overcome the adversities of the Andean weather, their adaptation of agricultural technologies, developed by previous cultures allowed the Incas to organize production of a diverse range of crops from the arid coast, the high, cold mountains, the hot, humid jungle regions, which they were able to redistribute to villages that did not have access to the other regions.

These technological achievements in agriculture would not have been possible without the workforce, at the disposal of the Inca emperor, called the Sapa Inca, as well as the road system and extensive storage systems that allowed them to harvest and store food and to distribute it throughout their empire. The heartland of the Inca Empire was in the high plateaus and mountains of the Andes of Peru and Bolivia; this area is above 3,000 metres in elevation and is characterized by low or seasonal precipitation, low temperatures, thin soils. Freezing temperatures may occur in every month of the year at these altitudes. Westward from the Andes is the Pacific Ocean, its coast called the driest desert in the world. Agriculture is only possible with irrigation waters from the many rivers originating in the Andes and crossing the desert to the ocean. Eastward from the Andes are the rugged foothills above the Amazon Basin, an area of abundant rainfall, exuberant vegetation, tropical or sub-tropical temperatures.

In the Inca Empire, society was organized. Land was divided in equal shares for the emperor, the state religion, the farmers themselves. Individual farmers were allocated land by the leader of the ayllu, the kinship group typical of both the Quechua and Aymara speakers of the Andes; the allocations of land to individual farmers depended upon kinship, social status, number of family members. The farmers were expected to produce their own sustenance from the land. Rather than being taxed on their production, farmers were required to work on the lands of the emperor and the state religion for designated periods. On the state lands, the Incas provided the inputs—seeds and tools—to farmers; the farmers contributed their labor. Communities were self-sufficient, growing a variety of crops, pasturing camelids, weaving cloth. Private property existed in the form of royal estates in the Sacred Valley near the Inca capital of Cuzco. Emperors customarily confiscated large quantities of land for their own use and exploitation and the estate was inherited by descendants after the emperor's death.

The famous archaeological site of Machu Picchu was a royal estate. The royal estates made use of local labor, but were staffed by a servant class called yanakunas who were ruled directly by Inca nobles and were outside the ayllu kinship system. In some areas, such as the valley of Cochabamba in Bolivia, state farms were dedicated to the production of maize, the prestige crop of the Incas but one which could not be grown at the higher elevations of the Andes. In the oasis valleys on the desert coast, the population was more specialized, divided into farmers and fishermen with trade relationships between the two. In the Andes, scarcity of flat land, climatic uncertainty were major factors influencing farmers; the Incas, the local leaders of the ayllus, the individual farmers decreased their risk of poor crop years with a variety of measures. The vertical archipelago was a characteristic of Incan agriculture. Different crops could only be grown in the climates associated with certain altitudes and thus the empire diversified its agricultural production by establishing colonies and reciprocity with populations living at different lower, altitudes than the Inca heartland.

Land allocated to local authorities, the ayllus, was not contiguous, but rather scattered at different elevations and climates to produce different products. The exchange of products among the scattered lands was carried out on a reciprocal basis rather than being commercially traded; the Incas placed great emphasis on storing agricultural products, constructing thousands of storage silos in every major center of their empire and along their extensive road system. Hillside placements were used to preserve food in storage by utilizing the natural cool air and wind to ventilate both room and floor areas. Drainage canals and gravel floors in qollqas helped to keep foodstuffs dry. Food could be stored for up to two years in these grainaries before spoiling due to the ventilation and drainage. Dried meat, freeze-dried potatoes and quinoa were among the crops stored in large quantities for the provisioning of the Inca army and officialdom and as a hedge against poor crop years. Careful records were kept of the products and quantities stored on the knotted cords, called quipu

King Mob

King Mob was an English radical group based in London during the late 1960s/early 1970s. It was a cultural mutation of the Situationists and the anarchist group UAW/MF, it sought to emphasise the cultural anarchy and disorder being ignored in Britain, with the ultimate aim of promoting proletarian revolution. It derived its name from Christopher Hibbert's 1958 book on the Gordon Riots of June 1780, in which rioters daubed the slogan "His Majesty King Mob" on the walls of Newgate Prison, after gutting the building. King Mob appreciated pop culture and distributed its ideas through various posters and through its publication King Mob Echo, which provoked reaction by celebrating killers like Jack the Ripper, Mary Bell and John Christie. One flyer in particular celebrated Valerie Solanas' 1968 shooting of Andy Warhol and included a hit-list of Yoko Ono, Mick Jagger, Bob Dylan, Richard Hamilton, Mario Amaya, David Hockney, Mary Quant, Marianne Faithfull and the IT editor Barry Miles; the King Mob group planned a series of audacious actions, including blowing up a waterfall in the Lake District, painting the poet Wordsworth's house with the words "Coleridge Lives", hanging peacocks in Holland Park, London.

However, none of the aforementioned plans were executed. An action, carried out, inspired by the New York-based Black Mask's "mill-in at Macy's", involved King Mob appearing at the Selfridges store in London, with one member, dressed as Father Christmas, attempting to distribute all of the store's toys to children. Police subsequently forced the children to return the toys; this action involved Malcolm McLaren who reputedly applied the group's situationist ideas in the promotion of the Sex Pistols. King Mob was responsible for attacks on art galleries and for organising a battle between local skinheads and greasers in central London. Graffiti attributed to King Mob was observed in many places in the Notting Hill area, including, "I don't believe in nothing - I feel like they ought to burn down the world - just let it burn down baby." The most celebrated graffiti attributed to King Mob was the slogan, painted along a half-mile section of the wall beside the tube commuter route into London between Ladbroke Grove and Westbourne Park tube stations in west London: "Same thing day after day- tube - work - dinner - work - tube - armchair - TV - sleep - tube - work - how much more can you take?

- one in ten go mad, one in five cracks up." "King Mob's Ape Mask" can be seen in the background of the comic book Watchmen, written by Alan Moore. It is in what appears to be a trophy room of the Minutemen, noticeable during the infamous scene where The Comedian tries to rape the original Silk Specter. A protagonist in the comic book series The Invisibles is codenamed "King Mob"; the Invisibles is organized anti-hierarchically, is dedicated to defeating a global conspiracy which deceives and preys upon the world's population. The character "King Mob" describes himself as an anarchist. Graffiti referencing Grant Morrison's King Mob and The Invisibles appears in season 2 episode 7 of Stranger Things. King Mob was the name of a punk band of which writer and Neoist anti-artist Stewart Home was once a member. Anti-art The Angry Brigade "The End of Music", a pamphlet written by David and Stuart Wise in the mid- to late-1970s and published in Glasgow; the text was reprinted by AK Press in the 1990s as part of Stewart Home's book What is Situationism?

A Reader. King Mob. Nosotros, el Partido del Diablo, Spanish compilation of King Mob texts, edited by La Felguera Ediciones in 2007 The Situationist International in Britain: Modernism and the Avant-Gardes

India–Monaco relations

India-Monaco relations refer to bilateral ties between the Republic of India and Principality of Monaco. India is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in France. Monaco is accredited to India from its Department of External Relations in Monte Carlo; the Principality of Monaco and the Republic of India established relations in 21 September 2007 when Monaco opened an embassy in India, although the two nations have had Consular relations since 1954. India has no consular or diplomatic presence in Monaco, instead using its French Embassy to handle affairs. Rainier Imperti became the first ambassador to India in 2007 but was succeeded by Marco Piccinini in 2008; the Ambassador to India is Patrick Medicin. Indian tourists to Monaco combined spent over 14 years in Monaco. Over 33 % of exports to India from Monaco are manufactured goods. Over 40% of imports to Monaco from India are textiles. Monaco Aid Et Presence, a humanitarian charity, has maintained a presence in India since the 1980s and have opened Orphanages in India.

In 2009, Ranjan Mathai visited Monaco to discuss the visit of Albert II to India for the Commonwealth Games and the possibility of signing a TIEA In 2010, India's Minister of Tourism, Selja Kumari, visited Monaco Prince Albert II visited New Delhi for the 2010 Commonwealth Games from 1-6 October In 2012, S. S. Palanimanickam visited Monaco to sign a TIEA

Tudela–Bilbao railway

The Tudela–Bilbao railway is a Spanish railway from Casetas to Bilbao. The citizens of the city of Tudela, Navarre had planned a direct railway to Madrid in 1845, but this was not built. After the Northern Railway planned a railway from Madrid to Bilbao, bypassing Tudela, it was decided to build a railway to Bilbao and outline permission was granted in 1856; the necessary finance was raised and Charles Vignoles appointed Engineer. Work started in 1857 and the line completed in 1863; however the railway struggled to cover costs and declared bankrupt in 1866. The line was damaged during the Carlist War and closed from 1873 and 1875. In 1878 the railway was absorbed by the Compañía del Norte. Beyer Peacock provided forty one 2-4-0 steam locomotives for the railway in 1861 and 1862, followed by eight 4-4-0 tank engines. One of the tank engines is preserved outside Bilbao Abando railway station; the Cercanías Bilbao commuter rail service operates to Orduña from Bilbao-Abando. At Casetas, the line joins the Madrid–Barcelona railway.

The line serves as the only rail link from Bilbao to Madrid and the rest of the Spanish mainline network. Once the Basque Y opens, journey times will decrease significantly

Patrick Allotey

Template:Infobox boxing biography Patrick Allotey was a football defender from Ghana. Born in Accra, Allotey played, he served Excelsior Rotterdam. Though Allotey only played a few matches for Feyenoord, he is part of their history in the 1990s and 2000s as he was one of the main persons in the FIOD-affaire at Feyenoord. In 1998 the Fiscal Intelligence and Investigation Service visited Feyenoord because of suspected fraud. Based on the signings of Aurelio Vidmar, Christian Gyan and Allotey; this became an ongoing scandal in the years to come with chairman Jorien van den Herik as the main suspect. In 2006 both Feyenoord and Van den Herik were cleared of any charges. Allotey died in Accra, Ghana on June 27, 2007, it collapsed while with friends and was taken to hospital. The player was said to be suffering from hypoglycemia, a condition caused by low blood sugar level. For this reason, he had been inactive as far. Feyenoord scouted Allotey at the 1995 FIFA Under-17 World Championships in Ecuador where Ghana became World Champions.

He featured in a team with players like Stephen Appiah and Emanuel Bentil. He was one of the best leftfooted footballers Ghana produced. Although he was a defender, his surging runs on the flanks made him one of the most sought-after players subsequent to the Ecuador 1995 World under-17 championship. Patrick Allotey at National-Football-Teams.com