Suspiria

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Suspiria
SuspiriaItaly.jpg
Original Italian theatrical release poster
Directed by Dario Argento
Produced by Claudio Argento
Written by
Based on Suspiria de Profundis
by Thomas De Quincey
Starring
Narrated by
  • Dario Argento
  • William Kiehl (English version)
Music by
Cinematography Luciano Tovoli
Edited by Franco Fraticelli
Production
company
Seda Spettacoli
Distributed by Produzioni Atlas Consorziate
Release date
  • 1 February 1977 (1977-02-01)
Running time
98 minutes[1]
Country Italy
Language Italian
Box office 1.43 million (Italy)
$1.8 million (North American rentals)[2]

Suspiria (Latin: [sʊsˈpɪria], lit. "sighs") is a 1977 Italian supernatural horror film directed by Dario Argento, co-written by Argento and Daria Nicolodi, partially based on Thomas De Quincey's 1845 essay Suspiria de Profundis (Sighs from the Depths) and co-produced by Claudio and Salvatore Argento. The film stars Jessica Harper as an American ballet student who transfers to a prestigious dance academy in Germany but realizes, after a series of brutal murders, that the academy is a front for a supernatural conspiracy. It also features Stefania Casini, Flavio Bucci, Miguel Bosé, Alida Valli, Udo Kier and Joan Bennett, in her final film role.

The film is the first of the trilogy Argento refers to as The Three Mothers, which also comprises Inferno (1980) and The Mother of Tears (2007). Suspiria has become one of Argento's most successful feature films, receiving critical acclaim for its visual and stylistic flair, use of vibrant colors and its score by the prog-rock band Goblin.

Suspiria was nominated for two Saturn Awards: Best Supporting Actress for Bennett in 1978, and Best DVD Classic Film Release, in 2002. It has become a cult classic, and is recognised as an influential film in the horror genre. It served as the inspiration for the upcoming film of the same title, directed by Luca Guadagnino and scheduled for release in the United States on 2 November 2018.

Plot[edit]

Suzy Bannion, an American ballet student, arrives in Munich to study at the Tanz Dance Academy in Freiburg. En route to the school, she sees another student, Patricia Hingle, fleeing in terror. The person on the intercom refuses to let Suzy in the school; as she returns to town, Suzy sees a disoriented Patricia running wildly through the woods. Patricia hides at a friend's apartment, where she reveals she has discovered something terrifying hidden within the school. She locks herself in the bathroom, only for an unseen assailant to pull her out on the roof and stab her multiple times, before tying a noose around her neck and throwing her mangled body through the apartment building's stained glass skylight. While attempting to alert other tenants to the murder, Pat's friend is impaled and killed by falling debris.

The next morning, Suzy returns to the school, where she meets an instructor, Miss Tanner, and the headmistress, Madame Blanc. Miss Tanner introduces Suzy to some of the other students, including Olga, her roommate, and Sara. Suzy falls ill during one of her dance classes. Olga kicks Suzy out of her apartment and she is forced to stay at the school. The school's physician, Professor Verdegast, decides that Suzy's hemorrhaging is to be treated with a regular glass of wine. Suzy learns her room is next to Sara's and they become friends.

While the school is preparing to eat dinner one night, larvae begin falling from the ceiling. The students are forced to sleep in one of the dance halls, where Madame Blanc explains that rotten food in the attic is the source of the larvae. As the students fall asleep, a woman enters the dance hall and lies down behind a makeshift curtain, obscuring her identity. From the woman's distinctive labored breathing, Sara is able to identify her as the academy's director, who is supposedly away from the school for the next month. A few days later, the school's blind pianist, Daniel, is fired by Miss Tanner after his seeing-eye dog bites Madame Blanc's nephew, Albert. That night, Daniel is stalked by an unseen force while walking through a plaza; suddenly, his dog attacks and kills him by ripping out his throat.

Suzy remembers that Patricia had uttered the words secret iris as she was fleeing the school. Sara reveals she was the person on the intercom the night Suzy arrived, and that Patricia was acting strangely and had become paranoid. Suzy suddenly falls unconscious, and Sara is forced to flee when an unknown figure enters the room. The person pursues Sara through the school and into the attic, where she locks herself in a storage room. As the pursuer attempts to open the door, Sara escapes through a window into another room, where she becomes entangled in a pit of razor wire. The black-gloved person enters the room and slits her throat with a razor, killing her.

The next day, Suzy assumes that Sara has run away. She seeks help from Sara's close friend, Frank Mandel, a psychiatrist. Mandel reveals that the school was established by a Greek woman named Helena Markos, who locals believed was a witch. Markos perished in a fire that destroyed most of the school. One of Mandel's colleagues, Professor Milius, explains that a coven is unable to survive without its leader—a true witch and the source of its power.

Suzy returns to the school and finds the rest of the students are attending the Bolshoi Ballet. She promptly disposes of her food and wine, which she suspects are drugged. Suzy follows the sound of footsteps to Madame Blanc's office, where she discovers a mural of irises painted on the wall. Turning one of the irises results in a secret door opening to a concealed part of the school. Suzy explores the hidden passage and overhears Madame Blanc and the school staff plotting her demise. Blanc's nephew, Albert, spots Suzy and alerts a servant, Pavlo, to her presence. Suzy finds Sara's disfigured body pinned to a casket, and hides in another room.

Suzy realizes someone else is in the room sleeping; she deduces it is Helena Markos, who has been pretending to be the school's director the whole time. She accidentally awakens Markos, who taunts her invisibly and summons Sara's body to murder her. However, the contours of Markos' body are revealed by flashes of lightning, and Suzy takes the opportunity to stab her through the neck with a glass peacock quill, killing her and banishing Sara's body. The school begins to crumble around Suzy, who watches as Madame Blanc, Miss Tanner, and the rest of Markos' coven perish along with her. She escapes into the rainy night, and leaves smiling as the academy is destroyed in a fire.

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

Argento based Suspiria in part on Thomas De Quincey's essay Suspiria de Profundis (1845).[3][4] Critic Maitland McDonagh notes: "In Argento's reading [of the material], the three mothers generate/inhabit a cinematic world informed by Jungian archetypal imagery, each holding sway over a particular city."[5] Argento said the idea for the film came to him after a trip through several European cities, including Lyon, Prague, and Turin.[6] He became fascinated by the "Magic Triangle," a point where the countries of France, Germany, and Switzerland meet; this is where Rudolf Steiner, a controversial social reformer and occultist, founded an anthroposophic community.[6] Commenting on witchcraft and the occult, Argento stated: "There's very little to joke about. It's something that exists."[6] The title and general concept of "The Three Mothers"—a concept Argento would expand upon in Inferno and Mother of Tearscame from De Quincey's essay, which was an uncredited inspiration for the film.[7] There is a section in the work entitled "Levana and Our Ladies of Sorrow".[8] The piece asserts that just as there are three Fates and three Graces, there are three Sorrows: "Mater Lacrymarum, Our Lady of Tears", "Mater Suspiriorum, Our Lady of Sighs", and "Mater Tenebrarum, Our Lady of Darkness".

Daria Nicolodi helped Argento write the screenplay for the film, which combined the occult themes that interested Argento with fairytales that were inspiring to Nicolodi, such as Bluebeard, Pinocchio, and Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.[6] Nicolodi also partially based her contributions to the screenplay on a personal story her grandmother had told her, in which her grandmother had gone to take a piano lesson at an unnamed academy where she believed she encountered black magic.[6] The encounter terrified her grandmother, prompting her to flee.[6] This story, however, was later said by Argento to have been fabricated.[9] Using Nicolodi's core ideas, Argento helped co-write the screenplay, which he chose to set at a dance academy in Freiburg, Germany.[6] The lead character of Suzy Banyon was based on Snow White.[6] Initially, the characters in the film were very young girls—around eight to ten years old—but this was altered when the film's producers were hesitant to make a film with all young actors.[6] Additionally, the final sequence of the film was based on a dream Nicolodi had while she was staying in Los Angeles.[6]

Casting[edit]

Stefania Casini (left) plays a supporting role as Sara, while Jessica Harper (right) plays the lead character, Suzy Banyon

American actress Jessica Harper was cast in the lead role of American ballet dancer Suzy Banyon,[10] after attending an audition via the William Morris Agency.[6] Argento chose Harper based on her performance in Brian De Palma's Phantom of the Paradise (1974).[6] Upon being cast in the film, Harper watched Argento's Four Flies on Grey Velvet (1971) to better understand the director's style.[6] Harper turned down a role in Woody Allen's Annie Hall (1977) in order to appear in the film.[11]

Argento requested Italian actress Stefania Casini for the supporting role of Sara, a request which she obliged, having been an admirer of his films.[6] Daria Nicolodi had originally planned on playing the role of Sara, but was unable to due to illness, and Casini was brought in at the last minute.[6] German actor Udo Kier was cast in the minor supporting role of Frank Mandel.[6]

Filming[edit]

The façade of The Whale House in Freiburg was replicated for the film.

The majority of Suspiria was shot at De Paoli studios in Rome, where key exterior sets (including the façade of the academy) were constructed.[12] Actress Harper described the film shoot as "very, very focused", as Argento "knew exactly what he was looking for".[6] The façade of the academy was replicated on a soundstage from the real-life Whale House in Freiburg.[6] Additional photography took place in Munich, including Daniel's death scene in the city square, as well as the opening scene of the film, which was shot on location at the Munich Airport.[6] The scene in which Suzy meets with Dr. Mandel was filmed outside the BMW Headquarters building in Munich.[6]

Suspiria is noteworthy for several stylistic flourishes that have become Argento trademarks, particularly the use of set-piece structures that allow the camera to linger on pronounced visual elements.[13] Cinematographer Luciano Tovoli was hired by Argento to shoot the film, based on color film tests he had completed, which Argento felt matched his vision, in part inspired by Snow White (1937).[6] The film was shot using anamorphic lenses. The production design and cinematography emphasize vivid primary colors, particularly red, creating a deliberately unrealistic, nightmarish setting, emphasized by the use of imbibition Technicolor prints. Commenting on the film's lush colors, Argento said:

"We were trying to reproduce the colour of Walt Disney's Snow White; it has been said from the beginning that Technicolor lacked subdued shades, [and] was without nuances—like cut-out cartoons."[14]

The imbibition process, used for The Wizard of Oz (1939) and Gone with the Wind (1939), is much more vivid in its color rendition than emulsion-based release prints, therefore enhancing the nightmarish qualities of the film Argento intended to evoke.[6] It was one of the final feature films to be processed in Technicolor,[15] having been shot on one of the last remaining Technicolor 3-strip cameras in Europe at the time; the rest had been returned to California.[6]

Post-production[edit]

Dubbing[edit]

In the Suspiria: 25th Anniversary documentary, Harper commented on the fact that the actors' dialogue was not properly recorded, but was dubbed through additional dialogue recording—common practice in Italian filmmaking at the time.[6] Part of the reason was, she said, that each actor spoke their native language (for instance, Harper, Valli, and Bennett spoke English; Casini, Bosé, Valli, and Bucci spoke Italian; and several others spoke German), and as each actor generally knew what the other was saying anyway, they each responded with their lines as if they had understood the other. Argento also expressed disappointment over the fact that Harper's voice, which he liked, was not heard in the Italian market because she was dubbed in Italian by another actress. The dubbing was overseen by Ted Rusoff, a prolific voiceover artist based in Rome who supervised English-language dubbing for numerous European genre films including Argento's follow-up to Suspiria, Inferno.

Musical score[edit]

The Italian prog-rock band Goblin composed most of the film's score in collaboration with Argento himself.[6] Goblin had scored Argento's earlier film Deep Red as well as several subsequent films following Suspiria. In the film's opening credits, they are referred to as "The Goblins".[6] Like Ennio Morricone's compositions for Sergio Leone, Goblin's score for Suspiria was created before the film was shot.[6] It has been reused in multiple Hong Kong films, including Yuen Woo-ping's martial arts film Dance of the Drunk Mantis (1979) and Tsui Hark's horror-comedy We're Going to Eat You (1980).

The main title theme was named as one of the best songs released between 1977–79 in the book The Pitchfork 500: Our Guide to the Greatest Songs from Punk to the Present, compiled by influential music website Pitchfork. It has been sampled on the Raekwon and Ghostface Killah song "Legal Coke",[16] from the R. A. G. U. mix tape, by RJD2 for the song "Weather People" by Cage[17] and by Army of the Pharaohs in their song "Swords Drawn".

Release[edit]

Suspiria was released in Italy on 1 February 1977.[18] In May 1977, it was announced in Variety that 20th Century Fox had acquired the American distribution rights to the film.[19] Due to its violent content, Fox was hesitant to release Suspiria but eventually premiered the film in July 1977 through a shell company, International Classics.[11][20][21] The original American prints were cut by a total of eight minutes in order for the film to pass with an R-rating.[11] Despite intital reservations, the film's American release was commercially successful, and proved to be Fox's seventh highest-grossing release of the year in theatrical rentals.[2] Of all of Argento's films, Suspiria was his highest-earning film in the United States.[22]

Critical response[edit]

On the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds a 92% score based on 48 retrospectively-collected reviews, with an average rating of 8.4/10. The website's critical consensus states: "The blood pours freely in Argento's classic Suspiria, a giallo horror as grandiose and glossy as it is gory."[23] Rotten Tomatoes also ranked it number 41 on their 2010 list of the greatest horror films.[24] On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 79 out of 100, based on 10 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[25]

Janet Maslin of The New York Times wrote a mixed review, saying the film had "slender charms, though they will most assuredly be lost on viewers who are squeamish."[26] The Los Angeles Times's Kevin Thomas wrote that the film was "consistently suspenseful and diverting" despite being "marred by stilted, poorly dubbed English dialogue."[27] John Stark of The San Francisco Examiner was critical, writing: "Suspiria is mostly gore, with little plot or intrigue."[28] Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune expressed similar sentiments, criticizing Harper's role to being "reduced to cowering in corners" and "costumed to look much younger than her years"; while praising Argento's "visually stylish" direction, he felt that Suspiria was inferior to his directorial debut The Bird with the Crystal Plumage (1970) and "plays like a weak imitation of The Exorcist (1973)".[21]

Like Siskel, Bruce McCabe of The Boston Globe likened the film to The Exorcist and The Sentinel (1977), ultimately deeming it "a fitful, uneven piece of work too often more uncontrolled than the hysteria it's trying to create."[29] Dave Kehr of the Chicago Reader gave a favorable review, claiming that "Argento works so hard for his effects—throwing around shock cuts, colored lights and peculiar camera angles—that it would be impolite not to be a little frightened".[30] Although J. Hoberman of The Village Voice gave a positive review as well, he calls it "a movie that makes sense only to the eye".[31] Bob Keaton of the Fort Lauderdale News praised the film's "well-crafted plot," likening elements of it to the works of Edgar Allan Poe, adding: "For the seekers of superficially devilish thrills, Suspiria is just the thing."[32] A review in the Colorado Springs Gazette deemed it "a film to experience and for lovers of cinematic suspense...  Suspiria may prove to be the most harrowing shocker ever filmed."[33]

Retrospective assessment[edit]

In the years since its release, Suspiria has been cited by critics as a cult film.[34] In the book European Nightmares: Horror Cinema in Europe Since the 1945 (2012), the film is noted for being an "exemplar of Eurohorror...it is excessive but here the excess seems to entail a more forceful retardation of a narrative drive, to the extent that the narrative periodically ceases to exist."[35] Suspiria has been praised by film historians and critics for its emphasized employment of color and elaborate set-pieces; film scholar John Kenneth Muir notes that "each and every frame of Suspiria is composed with an artistic, remarkable attention to color."[36]

The Village Voice ranked Suspiria #100 on their list of the 100 greatest films made in the 20th century.[37] Adam Smith of Empire magazine awarded the film a perfect score of five out of five.[38] Empire magazine also ranked Suspiria #312 on their list of the 500 greatest films ever[39] as well as number 45 on their list 'The 100 Best Films of World Cinema'.[40] AllMovie called it "one of the most striking assaults on the senses ever to be committed to celluloid [...] this unrelenting tale of the supernatural was—and likely still is—the closest a filmmaker has come to capturing a nightmare on film."[18] Entertainment Weekly ranked Suspiria #18 on their list of the 25 scariest films ever.[41] A poll of critics of Total Film ranked it #3 on their list of the 50 greatest horror films ever.[42] One of the film's sequences was ranked at #24 on Bravo's The 100 Scariest Movie Moments program.[43] IGN ranked it #20 on their list of the 25 best horror films.[44]

Home media[edit]

Suspiria was released on DVD by Anchor Bay Entertainment in a three-disc set[45] on 11 September 2001. This release, which was a limited edition run restricted to 60,000 units, features a THX-certified video master of the film, with a second disc consisting of a 52-minute documentary and other bonus material; the third disc is a CD consisting of the original film score.[45] This release also includes a 28-page booklet and ten lobby card and poster reproductions.[46] Goblin frontman Claudio Simonetti later formed the heavy-metal band Daemonia; the DVD also contains a video of the band playing a reworking of the Suspiria theme. A standard single-disc edition was released by Anchor Bay the following month.[47]

On 19 December 2017, the independent home media distributor Synapse Films released the film for the first time on Blu-ray in the United States in a limited steelbook package.[48] This release also consists of three discs which include a 4K restoration of the feature film, bonus materials, and the original score on a compact disc.[48] A wide-release version not containing the soundtrack CD was released on 13 March 2018.[49]

In Italy, the film received a 4K-remastered Blu-ray release via the Italian distributor Videa in February 2017.[50]

Legacy[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

Three bands—the Norwegian thrash-metal band Susperia; a pioneering mid-1990s UK gothic rock band; and the witch-house project Mater Suspiria Vision—have named themselves after the film. Several albums have also used the title, including an album by gothic metal band Darkwell, an album by Darkwave band Miranda Sex Garden and Suspiria de Profundis by Die Form, which can also be regarded as inspired by Thomas De Quincey's work of the same title.

In the comedy film Juno (2007), Suspiria is considered by the title character to be the goriest film ever made, until she is shown The Wizard of Gore and changes her mind, saying it is actually gorier than Suspiria.

The film's music has been imitated and sampled by various artists, including Ministry in the track "Psalm 69" from their album Psalm 69: The Way to Succeed and the Way to Suck Eggs, Cage Kennylz on "Weather People" and Atmosphere on "Bird Sings Why the Caged I Know".

The Houston, Texas-based Two Star Symphony Orchestra included a track titled "Goblin Attack" on their 2004 CD Danse Macabre: Constant Companion that features a strings rendition of the Suspiria theme; the track's title also appears to be a reference to the band Goblin. The 69 Eyes have a song called "Suspiria Snow White" on their album Back in Blood (2009).

In books by Simon R. Green, mentions are often made of a "Black Forest Dance Academy" in Germany, a place where witches and Satanists gather, a possible reference to Suspiria.

The American death metal band Infester included a sample from the film in their song, "Chamber of Reunion", from their album To the Depths, In Degradation (1994).

A section of the soundtrack cue "Markos" was incorporated into the Australian radiophonic work What's Rangoon to You is Grafton to Me, conceived and written by radio presenter and author Russell Guy, co-narrated by Guy and former ABC-TV newsreader James Dibble, and co-produced by Guy and Graham Wyatt. It was originally broadcast in 1978 on the ABC's "youth" radio station 2JJ aka Double Jay (the Sydney-based AM-band precursor to the current Triple J network).

The film is also mentioned in the episode "The Seminar" of The Office (season 7).

It is mentioned, and featured in Kirby Reed's horror film collection in the horror film Scream 4 (2011).

Was featured in Ryan Murphy's American Horror Story: Hotel (season 5): a character is watching television and the movie is Dario Argento's Suspiria.

Suspiria is featured in the documentary film Terror in the Aisles (1984).

Related works[edit]

Subsequent films[edit]

Suspiria is the first of a trilogy of films by Argento, referred to as "The Three Mothers".[51] The trilogy centers around three witches, or "Mothers of Sorrow" who unleash evil from three locations in the world.[52] In Suspiria, Helena Marcos is Mater Suspiriorum (lit. Latin: "Mother of Sighs") in Freiburg.[53] Argento's 1980 film Inferno focuses on Mater Tenebrarum (lit. Latin: "Mother of Darkness"), in New York City.[14] The final installment in the trilogy, The Mother of Tears (2007), focuses on Mater Lachrymarum (lit. Latin: "Mother of Tears") in Rome.[14]

Film scholar L. Andrew Cooper notes "Aesthetic experience is arguably the ultimate source of 'meaning' in all of Argento's films, but Suspiria and the other films of the Three Mothers trilogy...take their emphasis on aesthetics further by self-consciously connecting their irrational worlds to nineteenth-century romanticism and the aestheticism that grew out of it."[4]

Remakes[edit]

Unfilmed remake[edit]

It was announced through MTV in 2008 that a remake of Suspiria was in production, to be directed by David Gordon Green, who directed films such as Undertow and Pineapple Express.[54] The announcement was met with hostility by some,[55] including Argento himself.[56] The film was to be produced by Italian production company First Sun.[57] In August 2008, it was reported that Natalie Portman and Annette Savitch's Handsome Charlie Films were set to produce the remake, and that Portman would play the lead role.[58] The project was also announced to be produced by Marco Morabito and Luca Guadagnino.[59] After a period of no news in which it was thought that the remake attempt had failed, Green said in August 2011 that he was still trying to remake the film.[55] It was announced on 15 May 2012 that actress Isabelle Fuhrman would be cast as the lead.[60] Later that year, however, the planned remake was put on hold. In January 2013, Green revealed that it might never happen due to legal issues.[61] In April 2014, Green admitted the remake was too expensive to make during the "found-footage boom", and thus the film was ultimately not made.[62]

In April 2015, an English-language television series based on the film—along with a series based on Sergio Corbucci's Django (1966)—was announced as being developed by Atlantique Productions and Cattleya. Both series were set to consist of twelve 50-minute long episodes, with the possibility of multiple seasons.[63][64][65][66][67]

2018 film[edit]

In September 2015, Guadagnino announced at the 72nd Venice Film Festival that he would direct Suspiria, with the intention of using the cast of his film A Bigger Splash (Tilda Swinton, Matthias Schoenaerts, Ralph Fiennes, and Dakota Johnson).[68] Guadagnino's version is set in Berlin circa 1977 (the year in which Argento’s film was released). The film's thematic focus is "the uncompromising force of motherhood."[69][70] Johnson has said that she was undertaking ballet training to prepare for the film.[71] On 23 November 2015, Guadagnino revealed shooting will begin in August 2016.[72][73] In October 2016, it was announced that Chloë Grace Moretz would co-star, alongside Johnson and Swinton.[74] Since the fall of 2016, both Johnson and Swinton are frequently reported by local news in Varese.[75] The film finished shooting on 10 March 2017[76] in Berlin.[77][78] The film was described by Guadagnino as an "homage" to the 1977 film rather than a direct remake.[79]

Awards[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Suspiria (18) (CUT)". British Board of Film Classification. 28 July 1977. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
  2. ^ a b Solomon, Aubrey. Twentieth Century Fox: A Corporate and Financial History (The Scarecrow Filmmakers Series). Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, 1989. ISBN 978-0-8108-4244-1. p233. Please note figures are rentals accruing to distributors and not total gross.
  3. ^ McDonagh 2010, p. 146.
  4. ^ a b Cooper 2012, p. 88.
  5. ^ McDonagh 2010, p. 29.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Hertz, Gary (director) et al. (2001). Suspiria 25th Anniversary. Anchor Bay Entertainment.
  7. ^ McDonagh 2010, p. 130.
  8. ^ De Quincey, Thomas (2001). Eliot, Charles William, ed. Levana and Our Ladies of Sorrow. English essays, from Sir Philip Sidney to Macaulay. The Harvard Classics. XXVII. New York: P.F. Collier & Son (published 1909–14) – via Bartleby.com.
  9. ^ "Dario Argento - Film and Music: Interviews". Bizarre. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
  10. ^ Bosco, Scott Michael (2001). "Jessica Harper Interview". Suspiria (booklet). Anchor Bay Entertainment.
  11. ^ a b c Kalat, David. "Suspiria". Turner Classic Movies. In the Know. Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  12. ^ Curti 2017, p. 133.
  13. ^ Bondanella 2009, p. 323.
  14. ^ a b c McDonagh 2010, p. 138.
  15. ^ jrhodes (2009-05-21). "Dario Argento's Suspiria: A Visual and Aural Masterwork". Indiana Public Media. Retrieved 2017-12-18.
  16. ^ Kay, Tony (10 October 2014). "'Suspiria': A Rookie's Guide to a Horror Classic". CityArts Magazine. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  17. ^ "Symphony Of Fear: Hip Hop's Best Horror Movie Theme Samples". Hip Hop DX. 28 October 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  18. ^ a b Buchanan, Jason. "Suspiria". AllMovie. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
  19. ^ "20th Century-Fox acquired Dario Argento's " Suspiria " for U.S. release". varietyultimate.com: Variety. 11 May 1977. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  20. ^ McDonagh 2010, p. 149.
  21. ^ a b Siskel, Gene (8 August 1977). "Fox covers its prints on its part in 'Suspiria'". Chicago Tribune. p. 7 – via Newspapers.com. open access publication – free to read
  22. ^ Allmer, Huxley & Brick 2012, p. 15.
  23. ^ "Suspiria (1977)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Retrieved 21 August 2018.
  24. ^ "Best Horror Movies 2010". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  25. ^ "Suspiria (1977) Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  26. ^ Maslin, Janet (13 August 1977). "'Suspiria,' a Specialty Movie, Drips With Gore". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  27. ^ Thomas, Kevin (26 August 1977). "'Suspiria': Highly Stylized Horror". Los Angeles Times. p. 23 – via Newspapers.com. open access publication – free to read
  28. ^ Stark, John. "Ballet school ought to be disbarred". The San Francisco Examiner. p. 31 – via Newspapers.com. open access publication – free to read
  29. ^ McCabe, Bruce. "'Suspiria' is fitful". The Boston Globe. p. 29 – via Newspapers.com. open access publication – free to read
  30. ^ Kehr, Dave. "Suspiria". chicagoreader.com. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  31. ^ Hoberma, J. (1 September 2009). "Suspiria Shock: Two Runs in Two Weeks - Page 1 - New York - Village Voice". The Village Voice. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  32. ^ Keaton, Bob (30 November 1977). "Mysterious 'Suspiria' a Horror Fan's Delight". Fort Lauderdale News. Fort Lauderdale, Florida – via Newspapers.com. open access publication – free to read
  33. ^ "'Suspiria' horror sensation". Colorado Springs Gazette. Colorado Springs, Colorado. 27 August 1977. p. 29-D – via Newspapers.com. open access publication – free to read
  34. ^ Weiner, Robert G.; Brottman, Mikita; Cline, John (2010). Cinema Inferno: Celluloid Explosions from the Cultural Margins. Scarecrow Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-810-87656-9.
  35. ^ Allmer, Huxley & Brick 2012, p. 14.
  36. ^ Muir 2007, p. 511.
  37. ^ Dirks, Tim. "100 Best Films of the 20th Century". Filmsite.org. AMC. Archived from the original on 3 December 2017. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  38. ^ Smith, Adam. "Empire's Suspiria Movie Review". empireonline.com. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  39. ^ "Empire's 500 Greatest Movies Of All Time". empireonline.com. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  40. ^ "The 100 Best Films of World Cinema". empireonline.com. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  41. ^ "The 25 scariest movies of all time". ew.com. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  42. ^ Graham, Jamie. "Shock Horror!". totalfilm.com. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  43. ^ "The 100 Scariest Movie Moments: 100 Scariest Moments in Movie History - Official Bravo TV Site". bravotv.com. Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  44. ^ "Top 25 Horror Films of All-Time". IGN. 29 October 2010. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
  45. ^ a b Gonzalez, Ed (8 January 2002). "DVD Review: Suspiria". Slant Magazine. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
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Works cited[edit]

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