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Sustainable development

Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services based upon which the economy and society depend. The desired result is a state of society where living conditions and resources are used to continue to meet human needs without undermining the integrity and stability of the natural system. Sustainable development can be defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. While the modern concept of sustainable development is derived from the 1987 Brundtland Report, it is rooted in earlier ideas about sustainable forest management and twentieth-century environmental concerns; as the concept developed, it has shifted its focus more towards the economic development, social development and environmental protection for future generations. It has been suggested that "the term'sustainability' should be viewed as humanity's target goal of human-ecosystem equilibrium, while'sustainable development' refers to the holistic approach and temporal processes that lead us to the end point of sustainability".

Modern economies are endeavoring to reconcile ambitious economic development and obligations of preserving natural resources and ecosystems, as the two are seen as of conflicting nature. Instead of holding climate change commitments and other sustainability measures as a remedy to economic development and leveraging them into market opportunities will do greater good; the economic development brought by such organized principles and practices in an economy is called Managed Sustainable Development. The concept of sustainable development has been, still is, subject to criticism, including the question of what is to be sustained in sustainable development, it has been argued that there is no such thing as a sustainable use of a non-renewable resource, since any positive rate of exploitation will lead to the exhaustion of earth's finite stock. It has been argued that the meaning of the concept has opportunistically been stretched from'conservation management' to'economic development', that the Brundtland Report promoted nothing but a business as usual strategy for world development, with an ambiguous and insubstantial concept attached as a public relations slogan.

Sustainability can be defined as the practice of maintaining world processes of productivity indefinitely—natural or human-made—by replacing resources used with resources of equal or greater value without degrading or endangering natural biotic systems. Sustainable development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the social and economic challenges faced by humanity. Sustainability Science is the study of the concepts of sustainable development and environmental science. There is an additional focus on the present generations' responsibility to regenerate and improve planetary resources for use by future generations. Sustainable development has its roots in ideas about sustainable forest management which were developed in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries. In response to a growing awareness of the depletion of timber resources in England, John Evelyn argued that "sowing and planting of trees had to be regarded as a national duty of every landowner, in order to stop the destructive over-exploitation of natural resources" in his 1662 essay Sylva.

In 1713 Hans Carl von Carlowitz, a senior mining administrator in the service of Elector Frederick Augustus I of Saxony published Sylvicultura economics, a 400-page work on forestry. Building upon the ideas of Evelyn and French minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert, von Carlowitz developed the concept of managing forests for sustained yield, his work influenced others, including Alexander von Humboldt and Georg Ludwig Hartig leading to the development of a science of forestry. This, in turn, influenced people like Gifford Pinchot, first head of the US Forest Service, whose approach to forest management was driven by the idea of wise use of resources, Aldo Leopold whose land ethic was influential in the development of the environmental movement in the 1960s. Following the publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring in 1962, the developing environmental movement drew attention to the relationship between economic growth and development and environmental degradation. Kenneth E. Boulding in his influential 1966 essay The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth identified the need for the economic system to fit itself to the ecological system with its limited pools of resources.

One of the first uses of the term sustainable in the contemporary sense was by the Club of Rome in 1972 in its classic report on the Limits to Growth, written by a group of scientists led by Dennis and Donella Meadows of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Describing the desirable "state of global equilibrium", the authors wrote: "We are searching for a model output that represents a world system, sustainable without sudden and uncontrolled collapse and capable of satisfying the basic material requirements of all of its people."Following the Club of Rome report, an MIT research group prepared ten days of hearings on "Growth and Its Implication for the Future" for the US Congress, the first hearings held on sustainable development. William Flynn Martin, David Dodson Gray, Elizabeth Gray prepared the hearings under the Chairmanship of Congressman John Dingell. In 1980 the International Union for the Conservation of Nature published a world conservation strategy that included one of the first references to sustainable developmen

Richard Kidder Meade (colonel)

Richard Kidder Meade was an American army officer from Nansemond County, Virginia. He served as an aide-de-camp to General George Washington during the American Revolutionary War, he was a son of David Meade, who married Susannah Everard, a daughter of Sir Richard Everard, 4th Baronet, the last Governor of North Carolina under proprietary rule. His great-great-grandfather was Richard Kidder, a noted theologian, the Bishop of Bath and Wells. Meade and two of his brothers were educated at Harrow, one of the oldest and most respected schools in England. In October 1775, Meade was commissioned captain of the 2nd Virginia Regiment, he led a company at the Battle of Great Bridge near Chesapeake, arguably the first Revolutionary War battle in the state of Virginia. In March 1777, General Washington appointed him one of his aides-de-camps, with the rank of lieutenant colonel. Meade was used to deliver important dispatches and orders. Alexander Hamilton did the "head work" for Washington, he was with Washington during all of the major battles between 1777 and 1780, supervised the execution of Major John Andre.

In November 1780, he left Washington's staff to get married for the second time. While in Virginia he aided General von Steuben in repelling an attack of British forces under Benedict Arnold. Meade's first wife was Elizabeth Randolph, a daughter of Richard Randolph, but none of their children survived her. On December 10, 1780, he married his second wife, Mary Grymes Randolph, the widow of William Randolph of Chatsworth, Virginia, they had 4 daughters and 4 sons, including William Meade, who became the third Episcopal Bishop of Virginia. He bought a large tract of land in White Post, Virginia in the 1780s, expanded an existing log cabin into "Meadea." About 1791, he built the nearby brick house "Lucky Hit." Both are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. He died in 1805 from the effects of gout and years of military life. Richard Kidder Meade, Jr. a U. S. Representative from Virginia, was the son of a cousin of Richard Kidder Meade. Randolph family of Virginia First Families of Virginia

Sobieski (vodka)

Sobieski is a Polish vodka brand. It is owned by Marie Brizard Wine & Spirits. Sobieski named after John III Sobieski, king of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1674 to 1696, his nickname the "Lion of Lechistan." Sobieski's basic vodka is a 100% pure rye vodka. It is distilled in Poland with water only. Sobieski produces four flavoured vodkas made from fruit juice: Raspberry, Lemon and Vanilla. Two vodka-based liqueurs are produced by the label: Strawberry and Caramel; the Sobieski company was founded in 1846 by H. A. Winkelhausen in Koniaków, produced over 60 types of alcohol. Following World War II, the Koniaków distillery was rebuilt and consolidated under the state monopoly on Vodka production. In 2003, Production moved to Starogard Gdański. Official website