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Sutton Coldfield

Sutton Coldfield the Royal Town of Sutton Coldfield, is a civil parish and suburban town in Birmingham, England. The town lies about 7 miles northeast of Birmingham City Centre and borders Little Aston, North Warwickshire, Lichfield and South Staffordshire. In Warwickshire, it became part of Birmingham and the West Midlands metropolitan county in 1974. In 2015, the town elected a Parish/Town Council for the first time in its recent history; the etymology of the name Sutton appears to be from "South Town". The name "Sutton Coldfield" appears to come from this time, being the "south town" on the edge of the "col field". "Col" is derived from "charcoal", charcoal burners being active in the area. The earliest known signs of human presence in Sutton Coldfield were discovered in 2002–2003 on the boundaries of the town. Archaeological surveys undertaken in preparation for the construction of the M6 Toll road revealed evidence of Bronze Age burnt mounds near Langley Mill Farm, at Langley Brook. Additionally, evidence for a Bronze Age burial mound was discovered, one of only two in Birmingham with the other being located in Kingstanding.

Excavations uncovered the presence of an Iron Age settlement, dating to around 400 and 100 BC, consisting of circular houses built over at least three phases surrounded by ditches. Closer to Langley Brook, excavations uncovered the remains of a single circular house surrounded by ditches, dating from the same period. Near to Langley Mill Farm is Fox Hollies, where archaeological surveys have uncovered flints dating from the New Stone Age. Amongst the finds in the area were flint cores and a flint scraper, retouched with a knife; the presence of flint cores suggest that the site was used for tool manufacture and that a settlement was nearby. Additionally, a Bronze Age burnt mound was discovered in the area. In his History of Birmingham, published in 1782, William Hutton describes the presence of three mounds adjacent to Chester Road on the extremities of Sutton Coldfield; the site, southwest of Bourne Pool, is called Loaches Banks and was mapped as early as 1752 by Dr. Wilks of Willenhall. Hutton interpreted the earthworks as a Saxon fortification but further archaeological work led Dr. Mike Hodder, now the Planning Archaeologist for Birmingham City Council, to believe that the site was an Iron Age hill-slope enclosure.

Centuries of agriculture on the land has affected the visibility of the features, with the earthworks now only apparent in aerial photography. Further evidence of pre-Roman human habitation are preserved in Sutton Park. A major fire in the park in 1926 revealed six more mounds near Streetly Lane, excavations of which uncovered charred and cracked stones within them and pits below the two largest mounds. Although their date of origin is unknown, claims they were of Bronze Age origin were disproved; the mounds are now covered in rough heathland. The area around Rowton's Well has been the source of many archaeological discoveries such as flint tools, in the 18th century, worked timbers were discovered near the well, suggesting a possible Iron Age timber trackway built across wet land, similar to others discovered elsewhere in the country. A burnt mound was discovered in New Hall Valley; the presence of Romans in the area is most visible in Sutton Park, where a 1.5-mile long preserved section of Icknield Street passes through.

Whilst the road connects Gloucestershire to South Yorkshire, the road was important for connecting Metchley Fort in Edgbaston with Letocetum, now Wall, in Staffordshire. The road is most visible from near to the pedestrian gate on Thornhill Road, where the 8 m wide bank that formed the road surface is most prominent. Excavations at the road have showed that it was made from compacted gravel, never having a paved surface. Along each side are intermittent ditches, marked by Roman engineers, beyond these are hollows where gravel was excavated to make the road surface. At least three Roman coins have been found along the course of Icknield Street through Sutton Park, as well as a Roman pottery kiln elsewhere in the town. Next to the Iron Age property at Langley Brook, the remains of a timber building and field system were discovered. Pottery recovered from this site was dated to the 2nd and 3rd century, indicating the presence of a Roman farmstead. Upon the Roman withdrawal from Britain to protect the Roman Empire on the continent in the 5th century, the area of Sutton Coldfield, still undeveloped, passed into the Anglo Saxon kingdom of Mercia.

It is during this period that it is believed Sutton Coldfield may have originated as a hamlet, as a hunting lodge was built at Maney Hill for the purpose of the Mercian leaders. The outline of the deer park that it served is still visible within Sutton Park, with the ditch and bank boundary forming the western boundary of Holly Hurst crossing Keepers Valley, through the Lower Nuthurst and continuing on south of Blackroot Pool. Due to the marshy ground at Blackroot Valley, a fence was constructed to contain the deer, the ditch and bank boundary commence again on the eastern side, on towards Holly Knoll; this became known as Sutton. Middleton is situated between the two. "Coldfield" denotes an area of land on the side of hill, exposed to the weather. It may denote a place where charcoal burning took place. Sutone, as the manor became known, was held by Edwin, Earl of Mercia, during the reign of Edward the Confessor. Up

Theory of Motivated Information Management

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search Theory of Motivated Information Management or TMIM, is a social-psychological framework that examines the relationship between information management and uncertainty. TMIM has been utilized to describe the management of information regarding challenging, taboo, or sensitive matters. In regards to interpersonal information seeking, there are numerous routes and methods one can choose to take in order to obtain that information. TMIM analyzes whether an individual will engage in information seeking within the first place and assess the role of the information provider; the theory posits that individuals are “motivated to manage their uncertainty levels when they perceive a discrepancy between the level of uncertainty they have about an important issue and the level of uncertainty they want”. "TMIM distinguishes itself from other information-seeking theories in that it does not attribute the motivation of information seeking to a desire for uncertainty reduction.

In other words, someone may be uncertain about an important issue but decides not to engage or seek information because they are comfortable with that state and, desire it. People prefer certainty in some situations and uncertainty in other While still new, TMIM has been incorporated to look at a variety of issues within a variety of contexts; this theory, although dealing with psychological actions, looks at communicative behavior and is applied in communication in the subfields of interpersonal and human communication. Theory of Motivated Information Management TMIM was first proposed in 2004 by Walid Afifi and Judith Weiner through their article, “Toward a Theory of Motivated Information Management”. A revision to the theory was put forth by Walid Afifi and Christopher Morse in 2009. TMIM was developed to account for a person’s ‘active’ information management efforts in interpersonal communication channels; the framework shares close ties to Brashers' uncertainty management theory, Babrow's problematic integration theory, Johnson & Meischkes' comprehensive model of information seeking and Bandura's social cognitive theory.

The revision relies on Lazarus' appraisal theory of emotions. TMIM stemmed out of a desire to bring together ideas and address limitations of existing frameworks on uncertainty. More it emphasizes the role played by efficacy beliefs, explicitly highlights the role played by the information provider in uncertainty management interactions, improves communication research about uncertainty management decisions. Definition TMIM is a description of a three-phase process that individuals go through in deciding whether to seek or avoid information about an issue and a similar two-stage process that information providers go through in deciding what, if any, information to provide. TMIM’s three-phase process consists of the interpretation and decision stages and the two-stage process is broken down by examining the role of the information seeker and information provider. Interpretation Phase The first phase involves an assessment of uncertainty. According to TMIM, individuals experience uncertainty when they feel that they cannot predict what will happen with a particular issue or in a given situation.

The difference between the amount of uncertainty a person has and the amount of uncertainty he or she desires to have about this issue is referred to as uncertainty discrepancy. It serves as the motivation factor for the information seeking process. TMIM proposed that uncertainty discrepancy caused anxiety due to a persons’ need for a balance between their desired and actual states of uncertainty; the revised version, proposes that the discrepancy can create emotions other than anxiety, including shame, guilt or anger, among others. The emotion felt influences, is followed by, an evaluation. Evaluation Phase, it is used to facilitate the effect of the emotion by evaluating the expectations about the outcomes of an information search and the perceived abilities to gain the information sought after. In other words, the individual weighs; this involves two general considerations central to most models of human behavior: Outcome expectancy – individuals assess the pros and cons that come from seeking information about the issue.

Efficacy assessments – individuals decide whether they are able to gather the information needed to manage their uncertainty discrepancy and actually cope with it. These two conditions will determine. According to TMIM, individuals that experience feelings of efficacy are able to engage in the behavior or to accomplish the task at hand. Unlike the broad conceptualizations of efficacy recognized by the comprehensive model of information seeking, the theory argues three specific efficacy perceptions that are uniquely relevant to interpersonal communication episodes: Communication efficacy – An individuals’ perception that they have the communication skills to complete the task at hand. Coping efficacy – An individuals’ belief that they can or cannot cope with what information they might discover from seeking. Target efficacy – consist of two distinct components: target ability and target willingness. Thus, this is based on an individual's perception of the target person’s ability and willingness to provide information that will reduce the uncertainty discrepancy

Mi Chico Latino

"Mi Chico Latino", is a song recorded by English singer Geri Halliwell for her debut solo album Schizophonic. It was written by Halliwell, Andy Watkins and Paul Wilson, whilst produced by the latter two, who are known collectively as Absolute. "Mi Chico Latino" was released as the album's second single on 16 August 1999, by EMI. It is a Latin pop song, centred on a lost love theme; the song was written by Halliwell in order to pay homage to her mother, who has Spanish background, whilst it has a number of Spanish lyrics. "Mi Chico Latino" received mixed reviews from music critics, who noted it was a contribution to the Latin pop phenom at the time, while others criticized Halliwell's Spanish pronunciation. The song was a commercial success in the United Kingdom, debuting at number one on the UK Singles Chart, becoming Halliwell's first number-one solo single in the country; the song attracted some moderate success worldwide. "Mi Chico Latino"'s accompanying music video was directed by Doug Nichol and filmed on the island of Sardinia.

It depicts the singer dancing with semi-nude male dancers on a boat. In order to promote the single, Halliwell performed the song on Top of the Pops and Party in the Park in 1999. "Mi Chico Latino" was written by Halliwell, Andy Watkins and Paul Wilson in the autumn of 1998. The singer wanted to make a song with Spanish influences, in order to pay homage for her Spanish mother. During a day in the studio, they did not have any words, she called her mother for help. Halliwell recalled asking her, "Mum, what do you say to a bloke in Spanish if you fancy him and are being romantic?" Her mother said she did not remember that. So she asked her look at her library of Spanish language romances, she read the titles out to Halliwell, she came out with "¿Dónde está el hombre con fuego en la sangre?", she liked the way it sounded, included the line at the beginning of the song. After "Look at Me" peaked only at number two, her record company wanted her to release "Lift Me Up", while the Absolute team wanted "Bag It Up", but she chose to release "Mi Chico Latino" after receiving good reception from children.

She thought, "First and foremost I thought it was a good record. It was catchy and perfect for the summer. I think my core audience is gay guys. Both of those groups tend to like pure pop music and I think that's what'Chico' was, it was different from the leftfield style of'Look at Me'. The other thing that'Chico' had going for it was that the music was Latin-based, I had written the song back in 1998 but by the time the summer of 1999 came around Latin-influenced music was ruling the charts. Ricky Martin had had a number one and there were others on the way. So it was a strange example of synchronicity that I should be ready to go with a Latin track which I had written a year before". "Mi Chico Latino" is a Latin pop song. At the beginning of the song, Halliwell chants the spoken word line "¿Dónde está el hombre con fuego en la sangre?". The lyrics to the song are centred with castanets in the background. During the song, the singer sings in Italian on its chorus, when everything else is Spanish.

According to biographer David Sinclair in his book Spice Girls Revisited: How The Spice Girls Reinvented Pop, Halliwell continued to explore the Riviera-pop theme of the Spice Girls' song, "Viva Forever", whilst "murmuring sweet nothings in a peculiar brand of estuary Spanish while castanets and timbales clattered alongside a cod-flamenco guitar". In 1999, Israeli singer Alabina said "Mi Chico Latino" was a plagiarism from her song "Alabina", released the year before. A spokesman for Alabina's French record label Atal said that they were "anxiously contacting" Halliwell's record label about the songs' similarities. However, no legal actions were made. "Mi Chico Latino" received mixed reviews from music critics. Jon Perks, whilst reviewing Schizophonic for Sunday Mercury, gave a positive review, stating, "Okay, so it sounds like a hybrid of La Vida Loca and Madonna's La Isla Bonita, but with a swimming-costumed Geri on the cover and a summery tune, it's a winning combination". Chris Charles from BBC News commented that "Mi Chico Latino" could be mistaken with "Spice Up Your Life", Halliwell's previous hit with the Spice Girls.

For Russell Baillie from The New Zealand Herald, Halliwell spends time on the album "flashing her eyelashes at if they're foreign", calling the song "glutinous". According to Rolling Stone, "Mi Chico Latino" was her "impeccably timed contribution to the Latin-pop phenom, complete with awkwardly pronounced Spanglish". Jonathan O'Brien from Hot Press magazine was negative, stating that "Mi Chico Latino" was "a dreadful pastiche of Madonna's'La Isla Bonita'". "Mi Chico Latino" debuted at number one on the UK Singles Chart on 22 August 1999, becoming Halliwell's first number-one solo single in the country. It was the beginning of a sequence of four consecutive Halliwell singles reaching number one in the United Kingdom, it spent fifteen weeks in the charts, went on to sell 383,000 copies in the UK and was certified Silver by the British Phonographic Industry. "Mi Chico Latino" experienced moderate success in other European markets. In Austria, it entered the singles chart at number 34 peaking at number 27 and spending a total of eight weeks on the chart.

In France, the song peaked at number 40. On the Swiss Singles Cha


WXDB-LP was an Americana and Adult Album Alternative music formatted broadcast radio station licensed to Charleston, West Virginia and served Metro Charleston. WXDB-LP was operated by Roots Town Radio, Inc.. The station's short history began on February 18, 2014 when Roots Town Radio, Inc. filed the initial paperwork for a Low-Power FM radio station. The station was part of the Federal Communications Commission "LPFM filing window" in October 2013. On February 21, Roots Town Radio began raising funds to construct the station through crowdfunding website Indiegogo; the company received a $9,000 grant from the Greater Kanawha Valley Foundation. The call sign WXDB-LP was issued for the station on February 25, 2014. WXDB-LP was to begin broadcasting on August 25, but instead launched on September 6, 2014. On October 20, 2014, WXDB-LP fell silent as owner Roots Town Radio, Inc. requested the station's construction permit and call sign be cancelled. A message on the station's website stated the station was "off the air for good" and thanked the public for their support.

Dysfunction within the station's leadership led to the station's demise. Roots Town Radio President Dawn Warner and Vice President/Station Manager Burr Beard wrestled for control of the station in the weeks leading up to the station falling silent. On-Air volunteers called the station a "toxic environment". Former volunteer DJs of WXDB-LP have agreed to join another Low-Power FM station. Query the FCC's FM station database for WXDB Radio-Locator information on WXDB-LP Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WXDB

Midnight (album)

Midnight is a 2003 album by Diane Schuur, of songs written by Barry Manilow. "Meet Me, Midnight" – 2:58 "When October Goes" – 4:49 "Stay Away from Bill" – 3:49 "I'll Be There" – 4:19 "Consider the Point from Both Ends" – 4:12 "What Is Love?" – 3:31 "He Loved Me" – 4:06 "Southwind" – 2:39 "Our Love Will Always Be There" – 3:32 "No Heartache Tonight" – 3:32 "Good-Bye My Love" – 3:58 "Life Is Good" – 4:02 "Anytime" – 3:01All songs written by Barry Manilow, co-writers indicated

Elihu Doty

Elihu Doty was an American missionary to China. He was responsible for the first textbook of Southern Min in English. Along with John Van Nest Talmage he is credited with the invention of Peh-oe-ji, the most common orthography used to write Southern Min, although some doubt remains as to the exact origins of this system. Doty arrived in Batavia in the Dutch East Indies in 1836 and spent his first three years as a missionary there, his next station was Borneo, from 1839 to 1844, at which point he relocated to Amoy in Fujian, China. It was while stationed in Amoy that Doty produced the Anglo Chinese Manual of the Amoy Dialect, "the earliest existing textbook for a Southern Min dialect". Doty, Elihu; some thoughts on the proper term to be employed to translate Elohim and Theos into Chinese. Shanghae: Mission Press. OCLC 31245161. Doty, Elihu. Anglo Chinese Manual of the Amoy Dialect. Guangzhou: Samuel Wells Williams. OCLC 20605114. Complete version of his Anglo-Chinese Manual