SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Svalbard

Svalbard is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. Situated north of mainland Europe, it is about midway between the North Pole; the islands of the group range from 74° to 81° north latitude, from 10° to 35° east longitude. The largest island is Spitsbergen, followed by Edgeøya. While part of the Kingdom of Norway since 1925, Svalbard is not part of geographical Norway proper. Since 2002, Svalbard's main settlement, has had an elected local government, somewhat similar to mainland municipalities. Other settlements include the Russian mining community of Barentsburg, the research station of Ny-Ålesund, the mining outpost of Sveagruva. Ny-Ålesund is the northernmost settlement in the world with a permanent civilian population. Other settlements are populated only by rotating groups of researchers; the islands were first used as a whaling base by whalers who sailed far north in pursuit of whales for blubber in the 17th and 18th centuries, after which they were abandoned. Coal mining started at the beginning of the 20th century, several permanent communities were established.

The Svalbard Treaty of 1920 recognizes Norwegian sovereignty, the 1925 Svalbard Act made Svalbard a full part of the Kingdom of Norway. They established Svalbard as a free economic zone and a demilitarized zone; the Norwegian Store Norske and the Russian Arktikugol remain the only mining companies in place. Research and tourism have become important supplementary industries, with the University Centre in Svalbard and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault playing critical roles. No roads connect the settlements. Svalbard Airport, Longyear serves as the main gateway; the archipelago features an Arctic climate, although with higher temperatures than other areas at the same latitude. The flora take advantage of the long period of midnight sun to compensate for the polar night. Svalbard is a breeding ground for many seabirds, features polar bears, the Arctic fox, certain marine mammals. Seven national parks and twenty-three nature reserves cover two-thirds of the archipelago, protecting the untouched, yet fragile, natural environment.

60% of the archipelago is covered with glaciers, the islands feature many mountains and fjords. Svalbard and Jan Mayen are collectively assigned the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code "SJ". Both areas are administered by Norway, though they are separated by a distance of over 950 kilometres and have different administrative structures; the name Svalbard comes from an older native name for the archipelago, Svalbarð, composed of the well-attested Old Norse words svalr and barð. The name Spitsbergen originated with Dutch navigator and explorer Willem Barentsz, who described the "pointed mountains" or, in Dutch, spitse bergen that he saw on the west coast of the main island, Spitsbergen. Barentsz did not recognize that he had discovered an archipelago, the name Spitsbergen long remained in use both for the main island and for the archipelago as a whole; the Svalbard Treaty of 1920 defines Svalbard as all islands and skerries from 74° to 81° north latitude, from 10° to 35° east longitude. The land area is 61,022 km2, dominated by the island of Spitsbergen, which constitutes more than half the archipelago, followed by Nordaustlandet and Edgeøya.

All settlements are located on Spitsbergen, except the meteorological outposts on Bjørnøya and Hopen. The Norwegian state took possession of all unclaimed land, or 95.2% of the archipelago, at the time the Svalbard Treaty entered into force. Since Svalbard is located north of the Arctic Circle, it experiences midnight sun in summer and polar night in winter. At 74° north, the midnight sun lasts 99 days and polar night 84 days, while the respective figures at 81° are 141 and 128 days. In Longyearbyen, midnight sun lasts from 20 April until 23 August, polar night lasts from 26 October to 15 February. In winter, the combination of full moon and reflective snow can give additional light. Due to the Earth's tilt and the high latitude, Svalbard has extensive twilights. Longyearbyen sees the first and last day of polar night having seven and a half hours of twilight, whereas the perpetual light lasts for two weeks longer than the midnight sun. On the summer solstice, the sun bottoms out at 12° sun angle in the middle of the night, being much higher during night than in mainland Norway's polar light areas.

However, the daytime strength of the sun remains as low as 35°. Glacial ice covers 60 % of Svalbard; the largest glacier is Austfonna on Nordaustlandet, followed by Vestfonna. During summer, it is possible to ski from Sørkapp in the south to the north of Spitsbergen, with only a short distance not being covered by snow or glacier. Kvitøya is 99.3% covered by glacier. The landforms of Svalbard were created through repeated ice ages, when glaciers cut the former plateau into fjords and mountains; the tallest

Orleans, Massachusetts

Orleans is a town in Barnstable County, Massachusetts situated along Cape Cod. The population was 5,890 at the 2010 census. For geographic and demographic information on the census-designated place Orleans, please see the article Orleans, Massachusetts. Orleans was first settled in 1693 by Pilgrims from the Plymouth Colony who were dissatisfied with the poor soil and small tracts of land granted to them; the southern parish of neighboring Eastham, Orleans was incorporated in 1797. Orleans was named in honor of Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, in recognition of France's support for the 13 colonies during the American Revolution, because the town did not want an English name, as they had been captured twice by the British during the war. Early history, like much of the Cape, revolved around fishing and agriculture; as the fishing industry grew, salt works sprang up in the town to help preserve the catches. However, the town's growth helped deplete the town of lumber, a situation that did not begin to be remedied until the railroad came and brought lumber from the mainland in the mid-to-late 19th century.

The rail helped bring tourism to the town. In 1898, the French Cable Company built a 3,200-mile-long transatlantic cable to Orleans, which operated from the French Cable Station; the town's historical society is located in the 1834 Universalist Meeting House. In July 1918, Orleans was shelled by a German submarine. S during World War I; the town's tourism industry was helped in 1961 with the creation of the Cape Cod National Seashore by President John F. Kennedy. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 22.7 square miles, of which 14.1 square miles is land and 8.5 square miles, or 37.59%, is water. Orleans is bordered by Eastham to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, Pleasant Bay and the town of Chatham to the south, Harwich to the southwest, Brewster to the west, Cape Cod Bay to the northwest. Orleans is 27 miles south of Provincetown, 22 miles east of Barnstable, 36 miles east of the Sagamore Bridge, 90 miles southeast of Boston. Orleans is located on the inner "elbow" section of Cape Cod.

The town is dotted with bogs and ponds in the western part of town, with many inlets and harbors along the eastern coast of the town, including Town Cove, Nauset Harbor, Pleasant Bay, Little Pleasant Bay. Rock Harbor, bounded by and shared with the town of Eastham, is located in the "crease" of the inner elbow and provides boating access to Cape Cod Bay. Cape Cod National Seashore lies along the coast as well; the town line between Eastham and Orleans is the site of the termini of Massachusetts Routes 6A and 28. The two routes join in the Orleans town center and end at a rotary with Route 6 at the Eastham town line. Massachusetts Route 39, which traces a portion of the Brewster town line, ends in the southern part of Orleans at Route 28. Other than two small non-outleted lanes, only Route 6 and Bridge Road pass northward into Eastham. Orleans has no air service in town; the nearest regional air service can be reached in nearby Chatham, the nearest national and international airport is Logan International Airport in Boston.

The town of Orleans has a mild summer Humid continental climate. The plant hardiness zone is 7a with an average annual extreme minimum air temperature of 4.0 °F. The average seasonal snowfall total is around 30 in; the average snowiest month is February. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,341 people, 3,087 households, 1,771 families residing in the town; the population density was 447.3 people per square mile. There were 5,073 housing units at an average density of 357.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.57% White, 0.58% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.54% Asian, 0.14% from other races, 0.99% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.77% of the population. There were 3,087 households out of which 14.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.4% were married couples living together, 6.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.6% were non-families. 37.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.00 and the average family size was 2.55. In the town, the population was spread out with 13.8% under the age of 18, 3.5% from 18 to 24, 17.3% from 25 to 44, 29.4% from 45 to 64, 36.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 56 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $42,594, the median income for a family was $62,909. Males had a median income of $44,246 versus $30,017 for females; the per capita income for the town was $29,553. About 2.7% of families and 6.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.6% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over. Orleans is represented in the Massachusetts House of Representatives as a part of the Fourth Barnstable district, which includes all the towns east and north of Harwich on the Cape; the town is represented in the Massachusetts Senate as a part of the Cape and Islands District, which includes all of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket except the towns of Bourne, Sandwich and a portion of Barnstable.

The town is patrolled by the Second Barracks of Troop D of the Massachusetts State Police. On the national level, Orleans is a part of Massachusetts's 9th con

Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons

The Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons is a government agency responsible for coordinating efforts to address human trafficking in British Columbia, Canada. The focus of OCTIP's mandate is human rights those of the victims of human trafficking. OCTIP formed in 2007, making British Columbia the first province of Canada to address human trafficking in a formal manner. In 2008, the United States Department of State released a report on human trafficking in Canada, critical of the Government of Canada for failing to address the issue, but the report praised the efforts of the Executive Council of British Columbia citing their creation of OCTIP. In June 2011, OCTIP launched a training program to certify first responders to identify and assist victims of human trafficking in the province; the program cost $106000. The following month, the Executive Council of British Columbia cut the annual budget for OCTIP from $500000 down to $300000, got rid of the executive director position, reduced the number of full-time staff to two.

Robin Pike was the executive director. Her last day of work was July 29. Between 2007 and 2011, OCTIP serviced more than 100 human trafficking victims in British Columbia