Phillip Parker King
Admiral Phillip Parker King, FRS, RN was an early explorer of the Australian and Patagonian coasts. King was born on Norfolk Island, to Philip Gidley King and Anna Josepha King née Coombe, named after his father's mentor, Admiral Arthur Phillip, which explains the difference in spelling of his and his father's first names. King was sent to England for education in 1796, he joined the Royal Naval Academy, at Portsmouth, in county Hampshire, England in 1802. King entered the Royal Navy in 1807, where he was commissioned lieutenant in 1814. King was assigned to survey the parts of the Australian coast not examined by Capt. Matthew Flinders, RN, made four voyages between December 1817 and April 1822. Amongst the 19-man crew were John Septimus Roe and the aborigine Bungaree; the first three trips were in the 76 tonne cutter HMS Mermaid, but the vessel was grounded in 1820. The Admiralty instructed King to discover whether there was any river'likely to lead to an interior navigation into this great continent'.
The Colonial Office had given instructions to collect information about topography, timber, minerals and the natives and the prospects of developing trade with them. From February to June 1818, the coast was surveyed as far as Van Diemen Gulf and there were many meetings with Aboriginals and Malay proas. In June the Mermaid visited Timor and returned to Sydney, arriving on 29 July. Next December and January King surveyed the discovered Macquarie Harbour in Van Diemen's Land and sailed in May 1819 for Torres Strait. King took John Oxley as far as the Hastings River, continued on to survey the coast between Cape Wessel and Admiralty Gulf. King returned to Sydney on 12 January 1820. King's fourth voyage was undertaken in the 154 tonne sloop HMS Bathurst; the ship headed north, through Torres Strait and to the north-west coast of the continent, including the Dampier Archipelago. Further survey of the west coast was made after a visit to Mauritius. Valuable contributions had been made to the exploration of Australia.
King had been promoted to commander in July 1821, in April 1823 returned to England. He subsequently commanded the survey vessel HMS Adventure, in company with HMS Beagle, spent five years surveying the complex convoluted coasts around the Strait of Magellan at the southern tip of South America. At the same time, King put together a unique collection of Patagonian objects from local tribes living in Tierra del Fuego, donated to the British Museum in London. In addition to written records, King lent his hand to drawing and watercolour painting for illustrations, some of which were used to illustrate his accounts; the result was presented at a meeting of the Royal Geographical Society in 1831. His eldest son named Philip Gidley King, accompanied his father and continued as a midshipman on HMS Beagle on the continuing survey of Patagonia under Robert FitzRoy, in the company of noted scientist Charles Darwin. King owned a property at Dunheved in the western suburbs of Sydney where he entertained Charles Darwin on Darwin's last night in Sydney in January 1836.
In February 1839, King was appointed to the New South Wales Legislative Council, in April the same year, was appointed resident commissioner of the Australian Agricultural Company, a position he held for ten years. In 1855 King was promoted to Rear admiral on the retired list. King was a Fellow of the Royal Society. King was honoured on the 2-pound postage stamp of Australia in 1963; the Australian native orchid. King Sound in the Kimberley region of Western Australia was named after King who explored the region in 1818. Six species of reptiles are named in his honour: Amphisbaena kingii, Chlamydosaurus kingii, Egernia kingii, Elgaria kingii, Hydrophis kingii, Liolaemus kingii. King, Phillip Parker, Narrative of a Survey of the intertropical and western Coasts of Australia: performed between the years 1818 and 1822, John Murray, retrieved 12 November 2012 Extracts from a letter addressed by Capt. Philip Parker King, R. N. F. R. S. and L. S. to N. A. Vigors, Esq. on the animals of the Straits of Magellan.
Zoological Journal London 3:422-32. 1828. Notes on birds collected by Capt. King in Chile. Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London, 1831: 29–30.1831 King, Phillip Parker, Sailing Directions to the Coasts of Eastern and Western Patagonia, the Straits of Magellan and the Sea-Coast of Tierra del Fuego, London: Hydrographical Office, Admiralty King, P. P. and Broderip, W. J. Description of Cirrhipedia and Mollusca, in a collection formed by the officers of H. M. S. Adventure and Beagle employed between the years 1826 and 1830 in surveying the southern coasts of South America, including the Straits of Magalhaens and the coast of Tierra del Fuego; the Zoological Journal, 5: 332–349.1832 King, P. P. FitzRoy, Robert, ed. Narrative of the surveying voyages of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle between the years 1826 and 1836, describing their examination of the southern shores of South America, the Beagle's circumnavigation of the globe. Proceedings of the first expedition, 1826-30, under the command of Captain P. Parker King, R.
N. F. R. S. I, London: Henry Colburn. King expedition of 1817 European and American voyages of scientific exploration The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea p. 450
History of Canberra
The History of Canberra details the development of the City of Canberra from the time before European settlement to the city's planning by the Chicago architect Walter Burley Griffin in collaboration with Marion Mahony Griffin, its subsequent development to the present day. Before European settlement, the area which became the Australian Capital Territory was inhabited by Indigenous Australians, who spoke a Ngarigo dialect. Historical sources have identified them as different tribes with a range of names. Archaeological evidence of settlement in the region includes inhabited rock shelters, rock paintings and engravings, burial places and quarry sites, stone tools and arrangements; the evidence suggests human habitation in the area for at least 21,000 years. European exploration began in the Canberra area as early as the 1820s. Canberra was "discovered" on 7 December 1820 by Charles Throsby Smith, Joseph Wild and James Vaughan. Overall, four successive expeditions whose routes took in the Canberra area were those of Charles Throsby, Charles Throsby Smith, Major John Ovens and Captain Mark Currie, Allan Cunningham.
All four expeditions explored the course of the Limestone now Molonglo River, now the site of Lake Burley Griffin. Smith and Cunningham penetrated further south, into what is now called the Tuggeranong Valley, it was estimated by Robertson that prior to European settlement starting in 1824, depending on the season there were about 300-400 Aboriginals living in the Molonglo, Canberra, Namadgi region. As the settlers took over land, many Aboriginals migrated to other districts such as Cooma and Tumut; the population was significantly reduced when the death rate increased due to diseases introduced by the Europeans. By the 1880s there were no full-blood people in the district, with only some fifty mixed race people; these people were employed either as domestics on stations. Due to the lack of European women, many white men had relationships with mixed race women so further diluting Aboriginal heritage; the 2013 ACT Government report "Our Kin Our Country" on the connection to the area by present-day ACT Aboriginal inhabitants, concluded: Therefore there appears to be no surviving traditional knowledge of lore, custom, kinship structures, oral history and genealogy associated directly with the ACT which would form the basis of a connection report....
The historical record of Aboriginal culture and populations is scant and contradictory, it was recognised that it would not be possible to prepare a full ‘connection to country’ report linking present-day people through their families and surviving traditional knowledge to the past land holding groups. The Molonglo River was recorded as the "Yeal-am-bid-gie" in 1820 by the explorer Charles Throsby, it was referred to as the Limestone River, the Fish River. The Moolinggolah people of the district around Captains Flat gave the Molonglo its current name. European settlement in the area began in October 1824 when Joshua John Moore, the owner of Horningsea near Liverpool, was given a "ticket of occupation" for 2,000 acres north of the Limestone River covering the area now called Civic extending north to Dickson. A flock of sheep was driven onto the property in December 1824 by the overseer John McLaughlin, he built a slab hut on. This was named Camberry Canberry Cottage. A creek that ran through the middle of the property originating from the side of Mount Ainslie was named Canberry Creek.
On 12 October 1828, a deed for a further 1,000 acres to the west was issued to Moore in consideration of £250. Moore took no interest in running the property; the station continued to be called Canberry/Camberry, from 1824 until 1843 when it was sold to Arthur Jeffreys, who renamed it Acton and built a more substantial homestead called Acton House. In 1825 James Ainslie, a purported Waterloo veteran, herded sheep down to the district for Robert Campbell, he occupied land at the base of Mount Pleasant near the Limestone River, which he called "Pialigo".. A stone cottage was built, Limestone Cottage, expanded to become Duntroon House and the property named Duntroon when the Campbells took up residence and acquired land extending down to Queanbeyan. Ainslie, who remained there till 1835 received a grant of 100 acres for assisting in the capture of two bushrangers Tennant and Dublin Jack. Ainslie returned to Scotland. In 1827 John McPherson was given a ticket of occupation for the land to the west of Canberry extending to include the now named Black Mountain.
He called the station Springbank, with the homestead just to the east of the junction of the Limestone River with Canberry Creek. The first white child born in the area was a daughter, born into the Macpherson family in 1830. In 1831 MacPherson was granted title to the 640-acre property extending to the now named Black Mountain. Other sheep stations were built in turn by further settlers; these properties were owned by absentee landlords, but resident families moved in. For future development, blocks for village settlements were gazetted at Pialigo,Tageranong to the south, Palmerstone to the north, Yarrolumla to the west near the Murrumbidgee River; the local Aboriginals of this time tended to refer to themselves as the Nyamudy people and spoke a dialect of the Ngarigo language, while the settlers called them the Limestone Plains Blacks or Pialigo Mob. The indigenous population of the district declined to less than a hundred by 1840. In stark comparison, by 1851 there were about 2,500 European people living in the area.
Apart from a few employed on stations Aboriginals disappeared by
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
Rottnest Island is an island off the coast of Western Australia, located 18 kilometres west of Fremantle. A sandy, low-lying island formed on a base of aeolianite limestone, Rottnest is an A-class reserve, the highest level of protection afforded to public land. Together with Garden Island, Rottnest Island is a remnant of Pleistocene dune ridges; the island covers 19 square kilometres and is administered by the Rottnest Island Authority under a separate act of parliament. Rottnest is a popular holiday destination, there are daily ferry services to Perth, the state's capital and largest city, it has a permanent population of around 300 people, with around 500000 annual visitors. On 28 April 2017 the government of Western Australia announced that the Department of Parks and Wildlife would merge with the Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority, the Zoological Parks Authority, the Rottnest Island Authority on 1 July 2017 to form the Department of Biodiversity and Attractions. Rottnest is best known for its population of quokkas, a small native marsupial found in few other locations.
The island is home to colonies of Australian sea lions and southern fur seals. A number of native and introduced bird species nest near the shallow salt lakes in the island's interior, Rottnest has been designated an Important Bird Area; the island has three endemic tree species, notably the Rottnest Island pine, was forested before settlement. Along with several other islands, Rottnest was separated from the mainland around 7000 years ago, when sea levels rose. Human artefacts have been found on the island dating back at least 30000 years, the island is called Wadjemup by the Noongar people. Dutch sailors landed there on several occasions during the 17th century, by which time it was uninhabited; the island was named by Willem de Vlamingh in 1696, who called it't Eylandt't Rottenest after the quokka population. Since the establishment of the Swan River Colony by British settlers in 1829, the island has variously hosted a penal colony, military installations, internment camps for enemy aliens.
Many of the island's buildings date from the colonial period made from locally quarried limestone, are now used as accommodation for holidays. Rottnest Island was inhabited by Aboriginal people until rising sea levels separated the island from the mainland of Western Australia about 7000 years ago; the island features in Noongar Aboriginal mythology as Wadjemup, meaning "place across the water where the spirits are". Aboriginal artefacts on the island have been dated from 6500 to more than 30000 years ago. However, recent evidence suggests human occupation before 50000 as early as 70000 BP. There were no people on the island when European exploration began in the 17th century, the Aboriginal people on the mainland did not have boats that could make the crossing, so the island had been uninhabited for several thousand years; the island was observed by various Dutch sailors from 1610, including Frederick de Houtman on or around 28 July 1619. The first Europeans known to land on the island were 13 Dutch sailors including Abraham Leeman van Santwits from the Waeckende Boey who landed near Bathurst Point on 19 March 1658 while their ship was careened nearby.
The ship had sailed from Batavia in search of survivors of the missing Vergulde Draeck, found wrecked 80 km north near present-day Ledge Point. Samuel Volkersenn, the skipper of the Waeckende Boey described the island in his journal: In under 32° S. Lat. There is a large island, at about 3 miles' distance from the mainland of the South-land; this island is dangerous to touch at, owing to the rocky reefs which are level with the water and below the surface along the whole length of the shore. This large island to which we have been unwilling to give a name, leaving this matter to the Honourable Lord Governor-General's pleasure, may be seen at 7 or 8 miles' distance out at sea in fine weather. I surmise that brackish or fresh water might be obtainable there, good firewood, but not without great trouble. In his 1681 chart the English captain John Daniel marked an island as Maiden's Isle referring to Rottnest; the name did not survive, however. The island was given the name't Eylandt't Rottenest by Dutch captain Willem de Vlamingh who spent six days exploring the island from 29 December 1696, mistaking the quokkas for giant rats.
De Vlamingh led a fleet of three ships, De Geelvink, De Nijptang and Weseltje and anchored on the northern side of the island, near The Basin. He described the island as "...a paradise on earth". Other explorers who stopped at the island included members of the French expedition of Nicholas Baudin in the Naturaliste and the Geographe in 1801 and 1803, Phillip Parker King in 1822, Captain James Stirling in 1827. Early visitors reported that much of the island was wooded, not the case today. In 1831, shortly after the establishment of the British Swan River Colony at nearby Fremantle, William Clarke and Robert Thomson received land grants for town lots and pasture land on the island. Thom
The black swan is a large waterbird, a species of swan which breeds in the southeast and southwest regions of Australia. Within Australia they are nomadic, with erratic migration patterns dependent upon climatic conditions. Black swans are large birds with black plumage and red bills, they are monogamous breeders, are unusual in that one-quarter of all pairings are homosexual between males. Both partners share cygnet rearing duties. Black swans were introduced to various countries as an ornamental bird in the 1800s, but have escaped and formed stable populations. A small population of black swans exists on the River Thames at Marlow, on the Brook running through the small town of Dawlish in Devon, near the River Itchen and the River Tees near Stockton on Tees. Described scientifically by English naturalist John Latham in 1790, the black swan was placed into a monotypic genus, Chenopis. Black swans can be found singly, or in loose companies numbering into the hundreds or thousands. Black swans are popular birds in zoological gardens and bird collections, escapees are sometimes seen outside their natural range.
Black swans are black-feathered birds, with white flight feathers. The bill is bright red, with tip. Cobs are larger than pens, with a longer and straighter bill. Cygnets are a greyish-brown with pale-edged feathers. A mature black swan weighs 3.7 -- 9 kilograms. Its wing span is between 2 metres; the neck is curved in an "S" - shape. The black swan utters a musical and far reaching bugle-like sound, called either on the water or in flight, as well as a range of softer crooning notes, it can whistle when disturbed while breeding and nesting. When swimming, black swans hold their necks arched or erect and carry their feathers or wings raised in an aggressive display. In flight, a wedge of black swans will form as a line or a V, with the individual birds flying with undulating long necks, making whistling sounds with their wings and baying, bugling or trumpeting calls; the black swan is unlike any other Australian bird, although in poor light and at long range it may be confused with a magpie goose in flight.
However, the black swan can be distinguished by slower wing beat. One captive population of black swans in Lakeland, Florida has produced a few individuals which are a light mottled grey color instead of black; the black swan is common in the wetlands of southwestern and eastern Australia and adjacent coastal islands. In the south west the range encompasses an area between Cape Leeuwin and Eucla, it is uncommon in northern Australia. The black swan's preferred habitat extends across fresh and salt water lakes and rivers with underwater and emergent vegetation for food and nesting materials. Permanent wetlands are preferred, including ornamental lakes, but black swans can be found in flooded pastures and tidal mudflats, on the open sea near islands or the shore. Black swans were once thought to be sedentary, but the species is now known to be nomadic. There is no set migratory pattern, but rather opportunistic responses to drought. In high rainfall years, emigration occurs from the south west and south east into the interior, with a reverse migration to these heartlands in drier years.
When rain does fall in the arid central regions, black swans will migrate to these areas to nest and raise their young. However, should dry conditions return before the young have been raised, the adult birds will abandon the nests and their eggs or cygnets and return to wetter areas. Black swans, like many other water fowl, lose all their flight feathers at once when they moult after breeding and they are unable to fly for about a month. During this time they will settle on large, open waters for safety; the species has a large range, with figures between one and ten million km2 given as the extent of occurrence. The current global population is estimated to be up to 500,000 individuals. No threat of extinction or significant decline in population has been identified with this numerous and widespread bird. Black swans were first seen by Europeans in 1697, when Willem de Vlamingh's expedition explored the Swan River, Western Australia. Before the arrival of the Māori in New Zealand, a related species of swan known as the New Zealand swan had developed there, but was hunted to extinction.
In 1864, the Australian black swan was introduced to New Zealand as an ornamental waterfowl and populations are now common on larger coastal or inland lakes Rotorua Lakes, Lake Wairarapa, Lake Ellesmere, the Chatham Islands. Black swans have naturally flown to New Zealand, leading scientists to consider them a native rather than exotic species, although the present population appears to be descended from deliberate introductions; the black swan is very popular as an ornamental waterbird in western Europe Britain, escapees are reported. As yet, the population in Britain is not considered to be self-sustaining and so the species is not afforded admission to the official British List, but the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust have recorded a maximum of nine breeding pairs in the UK in 2001, with an estimate of 43 feral birds in 200
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. It is named after the city of Perth, Scotland and is the fourth-most populous city in Australia, with a population of 2.04 million living in Greater Perth. Perth is part of the South West Land Division of Western Australia, with the majority of the metropolitan area located on the Swan Coastal Plain, a narrow strip between the Indian Ocean and the Darling Scarp; the first areas settled were on the Swan River at Guildford, with the city's central business district and port both founded downriver. Perth was founded by Captain James Stirling in 1829 as the administrative centre of the Swan River Colony, it gained city status in 1856 and was promoted to the status of a Lord Mayorality in 1929. The city inherited its name due to the influence of Sir George Murray Member of Parliament for Perthshire and Secretary of State for War and the Colonies; the city's population increased as a result of the Western Australian gold rushes in the late 19th century.
During Australia's involvement in World War II, Fremantle served as a base for submarines operating in the Pacific Theatre, a US Navy Catalina flying boat fleet was based at Matilda Bay. An influx of immigrants after the war, predominantly from Britain, Greece and Yugoslavia, led to rapid population growth; this was followed by a surge in economic activity flowing from several mining booms in the late 20th and early 21st centuries that saw Perth become the regional headquarters for several large mining operations located around the state. As part of Perth's role as the capital of Western Australia, the state's Parliament and Supreme Court are located within the city, as is Government House, the residence of the Governor of Western Australia. Perth came seventh in the Economist Intelligence Unit's August 2016 list of the world's most liveable cities and was classified by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network in 2010 as a Beta world city; the city hosted the 1962 Commonwealth Games.
Perth is divided into 30 local government areas and 250 suburbs, stretching from Two Rocks in the north to Singleton in the south, east inland to The Lakes. Outside of the main CBD, important urban centres within Perth include Joondalup. Most of those were established as separate settlements and retained a distinct identity after being subsumed into the wider metropolitan area. Mandurah, Western Australia's second-largest city, has in recent years formed a conurbation with Perth along the coast, though for most purposes it is still considered a separate city. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Perth area for at least 38,000 years, as evidenced by archaeological remains at Upper Swan; the Noongar people lived as hunter-gatherers. The wetlands on the Swan Coastal Plain were important to them, both spiritually and as a source of food; the Noongar people know the area. Boorloo formed part of the territory of the Mooro, a Noongar clan, which at the time of British settlement had Yellagonga as their leader.
The Mooro was one of several Noongar Indigenous clans based around the Swan River known collectively as the Whadjuk. The Whadjuk themselves were one of a larger group of fourteen tribes that formed the south-west socio-linguistic block known as the Noongar sometimes called the Bibbulmun. On 19 September 2006, the Federal Court of Australia brought down a judgment recognising Noongar native title over the Perth metropolitan area in the case of Bennell v State of Western Australia FCA 1243; the judgment was overturned on appeal. The first documented sighting of the region was made by the Dutch Captain Willem de Vlamingh and his crew on 10 January 1697. Subsequent sightings between this date and 1829 were made by other Europeans, but as in the case of the sighting and observations made by Vlamingh, the area was considered to be inhospitable and unsuitable for the agriculture that would be needed to sustain a settlement. Although the Colony of New South Wales had established a convict-supported settlement at King George's Sound on the south coast of Western Australia in 1826 in response to rumours that the area would be annexed by France, Perth was the first full-scale settlement by Europeans in the western third of the continent.
The British colony would be designated Western Australia in 1832 but was known informally for many years as the Swan River Colony after the area's major watercourse. On 4 June 1829, newly arriving British colonists had their first view of the mainland, Western Australia's founding has since been recognised by a public holiday on the first Monday in June each year. Captain James Stirling, aboard Parmelia, said that Perth was "as beautiful as anything of this kind I had witnessed". On 12 August that year, Helen Dance, wife of the captain of the second ship, cut down a tree to mark the founding of the town, it is clear that Stirling had selected the name Perth for the capital well before the town was proclaimed, as his proclamation of the colony, read in Fremantle on 18 June 1829, ended "given under my hand and Seal at Perth this 18th Day of June 1829. James Stirling Lieutenant Governor"; the only contemporary information on the source of the name comes from Fremantle's diary entry for 12 August, which records that they "named the town Perth according to the wishes of Sir George Murray".
Murray was born in Perth and was in 1829 Secretary of State for the Colonies and Member for Perthshire in the British House of Commons. The town was named after the Scottish Pert
History of Sydney
The History of Sydney begins in prehistoric times with the occupation of the district by Australian Aborigines, whose ancestors came to Sydney in the Upper Paleolithic period. The modern history of the city began with the arrival of a First Fleet of British ships in 1788 and the foundation of a penal colony by Great Britain. From 1788 to 1900 Sydney was the capital of the British colony of New South Wales. An elected city council was established in 1840. In 1900, Sydney became a state capital, when New South Wales voted to join the Australian Federation. Sydney today is a major international capital of culture and finance; the city has played host including the 2000 Summer Olympics. The first people to occupy the area now known as Sydney were Australian Aborigines. Radiocarbon dating suggests that they lived around Sydney for at least 30,000 years. In an archaeological dig in Parramatta, Western Sydney, it was found that the Aboriginals used charcoal, stone tools and possible ancient campfires.
Near Penrith, a far western suburb of Sydney, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Cranebrook Terraces gravel sediments having dates of 45,000 to 50,000 years BP. This would mean. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in the Sydney area from as many as 29 different clans. Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish; the area surrounding Port Jackson was home to several Aboriginal tribes. The "Eora people" are the coastal Aborigines of the Sydney district; the name Eora means "here" or "from this place", was used by Local Aboriginal people to describe to the British where they came from. The Cadigal band are the traditional owners of the Sydney CBD area, their territory south of Port Jackson stretches from South Head to Petersham.
They were first to suffer the effects of dispossession when the British arrived, though the descendants of Eora still have a strong presence in the Sydney area today. Other than the Eora, people of the Dharug and Dharawal language groups occupied the lands in and around Sydney, their occupation pre-dates the arrival of the First Fleet of British by some thousands of years. Examples of Aboriginal stone tools and Aboriginal art can be found throughout New South Wales: within the metropolis of modern Sydney, as in Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park. On 19 April 1770, the crew of HMS Endeavour, under the command of Lieutenant James Cook, were the first known Europeans to sight the east coast of Australia. Ten days they came across an extensive but shallow inlet, upon entering it moored off a low headland fronted by sand dunes; the ship's naturalist, Sir Joseph Banks, was so impressed by the volume of flora and fauna hitherto unknown to European science, that Cook named the inlet Botany Bay, on the Kurnell Peninsula, just near Silver Beach, made contact of a hostile nature with the Gweagal Aborigines, on 29 April.
At first Cook bestowed the name "Sting-Ray Harbour" to the inlet after the many such creatures found there. Cook charted the east coast to its northern extent and, on 22 August, at Possession Island in the Torres Strait, took possession of the coast in the name of King George III of Great Britain. Cook and Banks reported favourably to London on the possibility of establishing a British colony at Botany Bay; the British colony of New South Wales was subsequently established with the arrival of the First Fleet of 11 vessels under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip in January 1788. It consisted including 778 convicts. A few days after arrival at Botany Bay the fleet moved to the more suitable Port Jackson where a settlement was established at Sydney Cove on 26 January 1788; this date became Australia's national day, Australia Day. The colony was formally proclaimed by Governor Phillip on 7 February 1788 at Sydney. Sydney Cove offered a fresh water supply and Port Jackson a safe harbour, which Phillip described as: Phillip named the colony "New Albion", but for some uncertain reason the colony acquired the name "Sydney", after the British Home Secretary, Thomas Townshend, Lord Sydney.
This is because Lord Sydney issued the charter authorising Phillip to establish a colony. Phillip visited the Manly Cove area, between 21 and 23 January 1788 and was so impressed by the confident and manly behaviour of the local Aboriginal people of the Cannalgal and Kayimai clans who waded out to meet his boat in North Harbour, that he gave the cove the name Manly Cove. Governor Phillip was vested with complete authority over the inhabitants of the colony. Enlightened for his age, Phillip's personal intent was to establish harmonious relations with local Aboriginal people and try to reform as well as discipline the convicts of the colony. Phillip and several of his officers—most notably Watkin Tench—left behind journals and accounts of which tell of immense hardships during the first years of settlement. Phillip's officers despaired for the future of Sydney. Early efforts at agriculture were fraught and supplies from overseas were scarce. Between 1788 and 1792 about 3,546 male an