Swedish royal family
The Swedish royal family since 1818 has consisted of a number of persons in the Swedish Royal House of Bernadotte related to the King of Sweden. Today those who are recognized by the government are entitled to royal titles and style, perform official engagements and ceremonial duties of state; the extended family of the King consists of other close relatives who are not royal and thus do not represent the country officially. A Swedish royal family, as related to a head of state, has been able to be identified as existent from as early as the 10th century A. D. with more precise detail added during the three centuries that followed. An exceptional case is that of Saint Bridget who outside of Sweden became known as the Princess of Nericia, a title which appears to have been a noble, rather than a royal one, since she was not the daughter of a king. Confirmed monarchs are listed by the Swedish Royal Court; until the 1620s Swedish provinces were granted as territorial appanages to royal princes which, as dukes thereof, they governed semi-autonomously.
Beginning during the reign of Gustav III, as codified in § 34 of the 1772 Instrument of Government, provincial dukedoms have existed in the royal family as nominal non-hereditary titles only, without any inherent property ownership or trust attached to them. The son of a Swedish king has held the princely title as a royal dynast, but on a rare occasion as a rank of nobility, or as a courtesy title for an ex-dynast; the Swedish Royal Court lists the following persons as members of the Royal House: King Carl XVI Gustaf Queen Silvia Crown Princess Victoria, Duchess of Västergötland Prince Daniel, Duke of Västergötland Princess Estelle, Duchess of Östergötland Prince Oscar, Duke of Skåne, Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland Princess Sofia, Duchess of Värmland Prince Alexander, Duke of Södermanland Prince Gabriel, Duke of Dalarna Princess Madeleine, Duchess of Hälsingland and Gästrikland,married to Christopher O'Neill Princess Leonore, Duchess of Gotland Prince Nicolas, Duke of Ångermanland Princess Adrienne, Duchess of Blekinge Princess Birgitta, widow of Prince Johann Georg of Hohenzollern The Royal Court lists the following persons additionally as members of the Royal Family: Princess Margaretha, Mrs. Ambler, widow of John Ambler Princess Désirée, Baroness Silfverschiöld, widow of Baron Niclas Silfverschiöld Princess Christina, Mrs. Magnuson, married to Consul General Tord Magnuson Marianne Bernadotte, widow of Sigvard Bernadotte Red-framed persons are deceased.
Notes* Member of the Royal House ** Member of the Royal Family Monarchy of Sweden Dukes of Swedish Provinces Swedish Royal Court Complete list of Sweden's royal family, alphabetically, on Swedish Wikipedia
Elections in Sweden
Elections to determine the makeup of the legislative bodies on the three levels of administrative division in the Kingdom of Sweden are held once every four years. At the highest level, these elections determine the allocation of seats in the Riksdag, the national legislative body of Sweden. Elections to the 20 county councils and 290 municipal assemblies – all using the same electoral system – are held concurrently with the legislative elections on the second Sunday in September. Sweden holds elections to the European Parliament, which unlike Swedish domestic elections are held in June every five years, although they are held on a Sunday and use an identical electoral system; the last Swedish general election was held on 9 September 2018. The last Swedish election to the European Parliament was held on 25 May 2014. Elections to Sweden's county councils occur with the general elections on the second Sunday of September. Elections to the municipal assemblies occur on the second Sunday of September.
Elections to the European Parliament occur every five years in June throughout the entire European Union. To vote in a Swedish general election, one must be:a Swedish citizen, at least 18 years of age on election day, have at some point been a registered resident of Sweden To vote in Swedish local elections, one must: be a registered resident of the county or municipality in question and be at least 18 years of age on election day fall into one of the following groups:Swedish citizens Citizens of Iceland, Norway, or any country in the European Union Citizens of any other country who have permanent residency in Sweden and have lived in Sweden for three consecutive yearsIn order to vote in elections to the European Parliament, one must be 18 years old, fall into one of the following groups: Swedish citizens who are or have been residents of Sweden Citizens of any other country in the European Union who are residents of Sweden. Unlike in many countries where voters chose from a list of candidates or parties, each party in Sweden has separate ballot papers.
The ballot papers must be identical in size and material, have different colors depending on the type of election: yellow for Riksdag elections, blue for county council elections and white for municipal elections and elections to the European Parliament. Sweden uses open lists and utilizes apparentment between lists of the same party and constituency to form a cartel, a group of lists that are allied for purposes of seat allocation. A single preference vote may be indicated as well. Swedish voters can choose between three different types of ballot papers; the party ballot paper has the name of a political party printed on the front and is blank on the back. This ballot is used when a voter wishes to vote for a particular party, but does not wish to give preference to a particular candidate; the name ballot paper has a party name followed by a list of candidates. A voter using this ballot can choose to cast a personal vote by entering a mark next to a particular candidate, in addition to voting for their political party.
Alternatively, a voter can write a party name on it. If a party hasn't registered its candidates with the election authority, it is possible for a voter to manually write the name of an arbitrary candidate. In reality, this option is exclusively available when voting for unestablished parties. However, it has caused individuals to be elected into the city council to represent parties they don't support as a result of a single voter's vote; the municipalities and the national election authority have the responsibility to organise the elections. On the election day, voting takes place in a municipal building such as a school, it is possible to do early voting in a municipal building, available in day time, such as a library. Early voting can be performed anywhere in Sweden, not just in the home municipality. Swedish election policy of always displaying the ballot papers for voters to select in public, making it impossible for many voters to vote secretly, has been criticised as undemocratic. Many use subterfuge and select bunches of additional ballots which they do not intend to use.
For the general elections, the State pays for the printing and distribution of ballot papers for any party which has received at least one percent of the vote nationally in either of the previous two elections. For local elections, any party, represented in the legislative body in question is entitled to free printing of ballot papers. In Riksdag elections, constituencies are coterminous with one of the Swedish counties, though the Counties of Stockholm, Skåne, Västra Götaland are divided into smaller electoral constituencies due to their larger populations; the number of available seats in each constituency is based on its number of voters, parties are apportioned seats in each constituency based on their votes in that constituency. In County Council elections, individual muni
Politics of Sweden
Politics of Sweden takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy. Executive power is exercised by the government, led by the Prime Minister of Sweden. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament, elected within a multi-party system; the Judiciary is independent, employed until retirement. Sweden is a monarchy. Sweden has a typical Western European history of democracy, beginning with the old Viking age Ting electing kings, ending with a regular royal power in the 14th century, that in periods became more or less democratic depending on the general European trends; the current democratic regime is a product of a stable development of successively added democratic institutions introduced during the 19th century up to 1921, when women's suffrage was introduced. The Government of Sweden has adhered to parliamentarism — de jure since 1975, de facto since 1917. Since the Great Depression, Swedish national politics has been dominated by the Social Democratic Workers' Party, which has held a plurality in parliament since 1917.
The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Sweden as "full democracy" in 2016. The Constitution of Sweden consists of four fundamental laws; the most important is the Instrument of Government of 1974 which sets out the basic principles of political life in Sweden, defining rights and freedoms. The Act of Succession is a treaty between the old Riksdag of the Estates and House of Bernadotte regulating their rights to accede to the Swedish throne; the four fundamental laws are: Instrument of Government Act of Succession Freedom of the Press Act Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression King Carl XVI Gustaf of the House of Bernadotte became king in 1973. His authority is formal and representational. Heiress apparent to the throne is Crown Princess Victoria since 1980. Following the general elections held on 26 September 2014, Stefan Löfven of the Swedish Social Democratic Party was elected Prime Minister of Sweden by the new parliament on 2 October. Together with the Green Party, Löfven presides over a minority government.
The Deputy Prime Minister is Isabella Lövin of the Green Party. The highest executive authority of the State is vested in the Government, which consists of a Prime Minister and 22 Ministers who head the ministries; the Ministers are appointed at the sole discretion of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is appointed following a vote in the Riksdag itself; the Monarch plays no part in this process. The only way to get rid of a government is through a motion of no confidence in the Riksdag; this motion must get a majority of the total number of votes in the Riksdag. Another example of the power the legislature has given the Government is the adoption of the budget in the Riksdag; the Government's proposition to budget is adopted, unless a majority of the members of the Riksdag vote against it. This is to make it possible to govern in minority; the unicameral Riksdag has 349 members, popularly elected every 4 years. It is in session from September through mid-June. Legislation may be initiated by members of the Riksdag.
Members are elected on the basis of proportional representation for a four-year term. The Riksdag can alter the Constitution of Sweden, but only with approval by a supermajority and confirmation after the following general elections; the Swedish Social Democratic Party has played a leading political role since 1917, after Reformists confirmed their strength and the revolutionaries left the party. After 1932, the Cabinets have been dominated by the Social Democrats. Only five general elections have given the centre-right bloc enough seats in the Riksdag to form a government; this is considered one reason for the Swedish post-war welfare state, with a government expenditure of more than 50% of the gross domestic product. Swedish law, drawing on Germanic and Anglo-American law, is neither as codified as in France and other countries influenced by the Napoleonic Code, nor as dependent on judicial practice and precedents as in the United States. Courts: Civil and criminal jurisdiction Supreme Court or Högsta domstolen Courts of appeal or Hovrätter District courts or Tingsrätter Administrative Courts: Litigation between the Public and the Government.
The Supreme Administrative Court or Högsta förvaltningsdomstolen Administrative courts of appeal or Kammarrätter Administrative courts or Förvaltningsrätt Ombudsman: The Parliamentary Ombudsman or Justitieombudsmannen The Chancellor of Justice or Justitiekanslern Sweden has a history of strong political involvement by ordinary people through its "popular movements", the most notable being trade unions, the women's movement, the temperance movement, — more — sports movement. Election turnout in Sweden has always been high in international comparisons, although it has declined in recent decades, is around 87%; some Swedish political figures that have become known worldwide include Joe Hill, Carl Skoglund, Raoul Wallenberg, Folke Bernadotte, Dag Hammarskjöld, Olof Palme, Carl Bildt, Hans Blix, Anna Lindh. According to a survey investigation by the sociologist Jenny Hansson, Swedish national parliamentarians have an average work week of 66 hours, including side responsibilities. Hansson's investigation further reports that the average Swedish national parliamentarian sleeps 6.5 hours per night.
Sweden is divided
Deputy Prime Minister of Sweden
The Swedish constitution allows the Prime Minister to appoint one of the Ministers in the cabinet as Deputy Prime Minister, in case the Prime Minister for some reason is prevented from performing his or her duties. If a Deputy Prime Minister has not been appointed, the Minister in the cabinet who has served the longest time takes over as head of government. A Deputy Prime Minister can only serve as Prime Minister in a temporary function, as the resignation of a Prime Minister automatically includes the entire cabinet, the Instrument of Government of Sweden requires the Speaker of the Riksdag to dismiss the cabinet in the case of the death of the Prime Minister. Under the 1809 Instrument of Government the Minister for Foreign Affairs was to function as acting Prime Minister should the Prime Minister not be able not to perform his duties. With the enactment of the 1974 Instrument of Government and the inauguration of Thorbjörn Fälldin's three-party cabinet in 1976, Per Ahlmark was formally sworn in as the first to hold the office of Deputy Prime Minister.
In 1986 Deputy Prime Minister Ingvar Carlsson became acting Prime Minister for the transitional cabinet from March 1 to March 12, upon the assassination of Olof Palme, the only time the death of the Prime Minister has caused the Deputy Prime Minister to temporarily assume the office. Carlsson subsequently received the task of forming a new cabinet from the Speaker of the Riksdag; the cabinet was approved by the Riksdag on March 12, 1986 reappointing most cabinet members in their previous offices. The role and position of a Deputy Prime Minister may vary. In the five last coalition cabinets, Fälldin III, Bildt and Reinfeldt I and II, Löfven, the Deputy Prime Minister was the head of the second-largest coalition partner. In the governments Fälldin I and II, the Deputy Prime Ministership belonged to the Liberal Party despite the fact that it was the smallest of the three members; the reason for this might be ascribed to an unwillingness on behalf of the Centre and Liberals to give this position to the Moderates, due to ideological differences.
In all of these governments, the Deputy Prime Minister had a regular Cabinet portfolio. In July 2015, the office of the Deputy Prime Minister was the subject of some political debate. Following a brief illness of the social democratic Prime Minister, Stefan Löfven, the Prime Minister's office revealed that the Deputy Prime Minister Åsa Romson of the Green Party, although named Vice statsminister when the cabinet took office in October 2014, was in fact not expected to temporarily assume the duties of the Prime Minister as Statsministerns ställföreträdare as stated in the Instrument of Government, instead yielding to the most senior minister of the cabinet; this makes social democratic Foreign Minister Margot Wallström the actual deputy of the Prime Minister, due to seniority rather than appointment. It rendered the title of Vice statsminister an honorary title, for the most senior member of the party functioning as junior partner in the governing coalition, rather than an actual function; the situation is different in the one-party governments that have existed since the position of Deputy Prime Minister was introduced in 1976, namely the Liberal Ullsten government and the Social Democratic governments Palme II, Carlsson I-III and Persson.
While Mona Sahlin might well have been described as something of a "successor-in-waiting", the other Deputy Prime Ministers have tended to be older and experienced politicians who have been in charge of coordinating the work of the Government and may have been in charge of some policy areas of their own which were not substantial enough to warrant a full-time Cabinet position, such as Bo Ringholm, Minister of Sport concurrently with being Deputy Prime Minister. Color key Independent Social Democratic Moderate Centre Left Liberals Christian Democrats Green Sweden Democrats www.sweden.gov.se
Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden
Carl XVI Gustaf is the King of Sweden. He ascended the throne on the death of his grandfather, King Gustaf VI Adolf, on 15 September 1973, he is the youngest child and only son of Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten, Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. His father died on 26 January 1947 in an airplane crash in Denmark when Carl Gustaf was nine months old. Upon his father's death, he became second in line to the throne, after his grandfather, the Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf. Following the death of King Gustaf V in 1950, Gustaf Adolf ascended the throne and thus Carl Gustaf became Sweden's new crown prince and heir apparent to the throne at the age of four. A short while after he became king in 1973, the new 1974 Instrument of Government took effect, formally stripping Carl XVI Gustaf of any role in the legislative process, several other duties accorded to a head of state, such as the formal appointment of the prime minister, signing off legislation, being commander-in-chief of the nation's military.
The new instrument explicitly limits the king to ceremonial functions and, among other things, to be informed of affairs of state. As head of the House of Bernadotte Carl Gustaf has been able to make a number of government-supported decisions about the titles and positions of its members; the king's heir apparent, after passage on 1 January 1980 of a new law establishing absolute primogeniture, is Crown Princess Victoria, the eldest child of the King and his wife, Queen Silvia. Before the passage of that law, Crown Princess Victoria's younger brother, Prince Carl Philip, was the heir apparent, as of his birth in May 1979. Carl XVI Gustaf is the longest-reigning monarch in Swedish history, having surpassed King Magnus IV's reign of 44 years and 222 days on 26 April 2018. Carl Gustaf was born on 30 April 1946 at 10:20 in Haga Palace in Stockholm County, he was the youngest of five children and the only son of Sweden's Prince Gustaf Adolf and Princess Sibylla. He was christened at the Royal Chapel on 7 June 1946 by the Archbishop of Erling Eidem.
He was baptised in Charles XI's baptismal font, which stood on Gustav III's carpet and he lay in Charles XI's cradle with Oscar II's crown beside him. The same christening gown in white linen batiste which the prince carried had been worn by his father in 1906 and would be worn by his three children, his godparents were the Crown Prince and Crown Princess of Denmark, the Crown Prince of Norway, Princess Juliana of the Netherlands, the King of Sweden, the Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the Crown Prince and Crown Princess of Sweden, Count Folke and Countess Maria Bernadotte af Wisborg. Prince Carl Gustaf was given the title of the Duke of Jämtland, his father, Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten was killed in an airplane crash on 26 January 1947, at Copenhagen Airport. His father's death had left the nine-month-old prince second in line for the throne, behind his grandfather Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf; when his paternal great-grandfather Gustaf V died in 1950, the four-year-old prince became the heir apparent of Sweden.
Carl Gustaf was seven years old before he was told about his father's death, he expressed his feelings about growing up without knowing his father in a speech in 2005. His earliest education was received at the Royal Palace; the young prince was sent to Broms school, on to Sigtuna boarding school. After graduating from high school in 1966, Carl Gustaf completed two and a half years of education in the Swedish Army, the Royal Swedish Navy, the Swedish Air Force. During the winter 1966-1967 he took part in a round-the-world voyage with the mine-laying vessel Älvsnabben; the Crown Prince received his commission as an officer in all three services in 1968 rising to the rank of captain and lieutenant, before his ascension to the throne. He completed his academic studies in history, political science, tax law, economics at Uppsala University and Economics at Stockholm University. To prepare for his role as the head of state, Crown Prince Carl Gustaf followed a broad program of studies on the court system, social organisations and institutions, trade unions, employers' associations.
In addition, he studied the affairs of the Riksdag and Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The Crown Prince spent time at the Swedish Mission to the United Nations and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, worked at a bank in London and at the Swedish Embassy in there, at the Swedish Chamber of Commerce in France, at the Alfa Laval Company factory in France. In 1970 he represented the King at the head of the Swedish delegation to the World Exposition in Osaka, Japan. Since his youth the present monarch has been a strong supporter of the Scout Movement in Sweden. On 15 September 1973, Carl Gustaf became King of Sweden upon the death of his grandfather, Gustaf VI Adolf. On September 19, he took the required regal assurance during an extraordinary meeting of the cabinet. Afterwards, he appeared before the parliament, diplomatic corps, etc. in the Hall of State at the Royal Palace where he gave a speech. Both the cabinet meeting and ceremony at the Hall were broadcast live on television.
Following the ceremonies, he appeared on the balcony to acknowledge gathered crowds. At the cabinet meeting, the King declared that his name would be Carl XVI Gustaf and that his title would be King of Sweden, he adopted, "For Sweden – With the times" as h
2014 Swedish general election
General elections were held in Sweden on 14 September 2014 to elect all 349 seats in the Riksdag, alongside elections for the 21 county councils, 290 municipal assemblies. The centre-right Alliance for Sweden coalition sought a third term in government. In contrast to the previous election, the three largest parties on the left ran independent campaigns, as did the far-right Sweden Democrats; the left-wing party, Feminist Initiative, did not secure the 4% threshold. The election result saw the largest three parties on the left outpoll the Alliance for Sweden, with the two blocs winning 159 and 141 seats; the Sweden Democrats won the remaining 49 seats. Fredrik Reinfeldt, the incumbent prime minister, lost his bid for a third term. On 3 October, he was replaced by Stefan Löfven, who formed a minority government consisting of the Social Democrats and Greens; the 2010 general election saw the incumbent Alliance for Sweden coalition returned to power, though it lost its majority in the Riksdag and had to continue as a minority government.
The coalition relied on ad hoc support from the opposition to pass legislation the Green Party. Immigration critics Sweden Democrats entered the Riksdag for the first time in 2010 and was an isolated part of the opposition, in many cases voting with the government when the two blocs were divided; the Alliance got its budget passed on all occasions, but suffered a key loss when the opposition'took out' a passage regarding the increased cutoff for when state income tax should be paid in late 2013. The previous parliament had passed some amendments to the Constitution of Sweden. Election days were moved from the third Sunday of September to the second Sunday of the same month. Another change was that the incumbent Prime Minister of Sweden, should he or she not resign after the election, must be approved by the new Riksdag; the Social Democratic Party was the largest political party in the Swedish Riksdag with 112 of the 349 seats. The Social Democratic Party had led a single-party government from 1994 to 2006, had been the major political power of Sweden for much of the 20th century.
For the 2010 general election the Social Democratic Party collaborated with the Green Party and the Left Party and sought to form a Red-Green coalition government. Similar cooperation did not take place prior to the 2014 election, their current party leader Stefan Löfven has said they could collaborate with the Centre Party and the Liberal People's Party in a future government. By the 2014 general election the Social Democratic Party had been in opposition for eight years, the longest such period in over 100 years; the Moderate Party was the second-largest party in the Riksdag with 107 seats. It was the largest governing party under Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt, its leader. Prior to the 2006 general election the Moderate Party had formed the Alliance for Sweden coalition, together with the Centre Party, the Liberal People's Party and the Christian Democrats. After the 2006 election they were able to form a majority coalition government; the Alliance sought re-election in the 2010 general election, but were reduced to a minority coalition government.
The Green Party was the third-largest party in the Riksdag with 25 seats. They are the only Swedish party to have two spokespersons Gustav Fridolin and Isabella Lövin; the Green Party had participated in the Red-Green coalition prior to the 2010 general election. The coalition, lost that election, although the Green Party itself gained seats; the party has shown interest in participating in a future government, but has not made clear with whom. The Liberal People's Party was the fourth-largest party in the Riksdag with 24 seats; the party had since 2010 been the second-largest governing party under Prime Minister Reinfeldt. Current party leader Jan Björklund was Deputy Prime Minister of Sweden and Sweden's Minister for Education. Prior to the 2006 general election the Liberal People's Party had formed the Alliance for Sweden coalition together with the Moderate Party, the Centre Party and the Christian Democrats, they formed a majority coalition government in 2006 and a minority coalition government in 2010.
The Centre Party was the fifth-largest party in the Riksdag with 23 seats. The party had since 2010 been the third-largest governing party under Prime Minister Reinfeldt, having been the second-largest from 2006 to 2010. Current party leader Annie Lööf was Sweden's Minister for Enterprise. Prior to the 2006 general election the Centre Party had formed the Alliance for Sweden coalition together with the Moderate Party, the Liberal People's Party and the Christian Democrats, they formed a majority coalition government in 2006 and a minority coalition government in 2010. The Sweden Democrats was the sixth-largest party in the Riksdag with 20 seats. In the 2010 general election, the party had for the first time passed the 4% election threshold and entered the Riksdag; the party leader was Jimmie Åkesson. The other Riksdag parties have stated that they will not cooperate with the Sweden Democrats in a future government; the Left Party was the seventh-largest party in the Riksdag with 19 seats. The current party leader was Jonas Sjöstedt.
The Left Party had participated in the Red-Green coalition prior to the 2010 general election which sought confidence to govern Sweden. The party has shown interest in participating in a future government consis
Marshal of the Realm (Sweden)
His Majestys Marshal of the Realm is the highest official in the Royal Court of Sweden. The Marshal of the Realm is appointed by the Monarch and is directly responsible for the organization and affairs of the court, for maintaining liaison arrangements with the Riksdag and the Prime Minister/Government. Press releases and official statements from the Swedish Royal Family to the press and the public are released through the Marshal of the Realm; the office was created in 1607 during the reign of Charles IX, until 1936 during the reign of Gustaf V, with the appointment of Axel Vennersten, it had always been held by a member of the Swedish nobility. The incumbent is in formal writing entitled to the style of Excellency, is today, apart from Swedish ambassadors, the only officeholder to use this style; until the 1970s the Prime Minister and the Minister of Foreign Affairs used this style, but it has since fallen out of use. The Marshals of the Realm were in the past, until the reform of the state orders of chivalry in 1975, appointed as Knights of the Royal Order of the Seraphim, but since Swedish citizens other than members of the Royal House are no longer eligible.
The present officeholder, Fredrik Wersäll, was appointed in 2018. Lesser Officers of the Realm Governor of Stockholm Reichsmarschall Office of the Marshal of the Realm