Sweden national football team
The Sweden national football team represents Sweden in association football and is controlled by the Swedish Football Association, the governing body for football in Sweden. Sweden's home ground is Friends Arena in Stockholm and the team is coached by Janne Andersson. From 1945 to late 1950s, they were considered one of the greatest teams in Europe. Sweden made their first World Cup appearance in 1934. Sweden has made six appearances in the European Championships, they finished second in the 1958 FIFA World Cup, third in both 1950 and 1994. Sweden's accomplishments include a gold medal in the 1948 Summer Olympics, bronze medals in 1924 and 1952, they reached the semi-finals in UEFA Euro 1992. Sweden has traditionally been a strong team in international football, with 11 World Cup appearances and 3 medals in the Olympics; the Swedish team finished second in the 1958 World Cup, when it was the host team, being beaten by Brazil 5–2 in the final. Sweden has finished third twice, in 1950 and 1994. In 1938, they finished fourth.
Sweden played its first international game against Norway on 12 an 11 -- 3 victory. Other matches in 1908 were played against Great Britain, the Netherlands and Belgium. In the same year, Sweden competed in the 1908 Summer Olympics for the first time. Sweden, lost a game in the Olympics against the Great Britain 1–12, the biggest loss in the Swedish national team's history. In 1916, Sweden defeated Denmark for the first time. Sweden played in the 1912 Olympics, the 1920 Olympics, in the 1924 Olympics, where Sweden took the bronze and their first medal ever; the 1938 World Cup was Sweden's second qualification for the World Cup. In the first round, they were scheduled to play against Austria, but after Germany's occupation of Austria, the Austrian team could not continue playing in the tournament. Instead, Sweden went straight to the quarter-finals match against Cuba, they beat Cuba 8 -- 0 with both Harry Gustav Wetterström scoring hat-tricks. In the semi-final match against Hungary, Sweden lost 1–5.
Sweden's next match was the third-place match against Brazil. In that game the Swedes lost 2–4, ended in fourth place for the first and only time in Swedish football history. In the first round, Sweden played against Austria; the Austrian team had qualified without their professional players, a surprise since the Austrian league had many professional players who were allowed to play in the tournament. The match was played at White Hart Lane in London and Sweden won 3–0. In the second game, Sweden played against Korea and won 12–0, one of the two largest margin wins Sweden has had. In the semi-final Sweden met their archrivals from Denmark beating them 4–2; the final was played at legendary Wembley Stadium in London. The attendance was around 40,000 people, high for a football game in those days. Sweden took on Yugoslavia in the final and won 3–1, with goals by Gunnar Gren, Stjepan Bobek and Gunnar Nordahl; this was Sweden's first championship win in any international football tournament. In the 1950 World Cup, the Swedish football association did not allow any professional Swedish football players to take part.
Sweden only fielded amateur players during the tournament. Qualifying for the tournament as one of six European national teams, Sweden played in the same group as Italy and Paraguay. In the first match, Sweden beat Italy 3–2 in São Paulo; the second match was a 2–2 draw against Paraguay. With the most points in the group, Sweden advanced to the next round, their first game in the second stage – a group format – was against the hosts Brazil. It was played at the Maracanã Stadium with a total attendance of more than 138,000, to this day the record attendance for the Swedish national team; the game ended 7–1 to Brazil and it is rumored that everyone in the Brazilian audience waved the Swedes goodbye with their scarfs. The next game was against Uruguay, who Sweden played against for the first time in World Cup history. Played in São Paulo, Uruguay won the game 3 -- 2; the final game for Sweden in the tournament was played against Spain. Sweden won 3 -- 1 with goals by Bror Mellberg and Karl-Erik Palmér.
Sweden took their first World Cup medal. As Sweden was the best placed European team, Sweden was, as the time, regarded "unofficial European champions". At the Summer Olympics in 1952 in Helsinki, Sweden continued to achieve success and won an Olympic bronze; the following year, the Football Association decided not to allow foreign professionals to play in the national team and the team failed to qualify for the World Championships in Switzerland in 1954 when Sweden only came second in their qualifying group behind Belgium. In 1956, the Swedish football federation allowed the professional footballers to play for the national team again, giving Swedish football fans hope for the 1958 FIFA World Cup. Sweden, the host nation, were in the same group as Mexico and Wales; the first game, Sweden vs Mexico, was played at Sweden's national stadium, Råsunda Stadium and was attended by around 32,000 people. Sweden won the game 3–0, taking the lead in Group 3; the next match was against Hungary, who had finished 2nd in the 1954 World Cup in Switzerland and were the 1952 Olympic Champions.
Played at Råsunda, this game ended 2–1 to Sweden, with both goals scored by Kurt Hamrin. In the next match, against Wales, Sweden drew 0–0. Making it through to the quarter-finals, playing at Råsunda for the fourth time in this tournament, Sweden
Göteborgs Atlet- och Idrottssällskap referred to as GAIS or Gais, is a Swedish football club based in Gothenburg. The club is play their home games at Gamla Ullevi. Fans refers to the club as Grönsvart or Makrillarna because of the traditional shirt colours. GAIS is one of the oldest football clubs in Sweden; the club was a founding member of Allsvenskan and the first champions of the league. They have won a total of four national championship titles, five league championship titles and one national cup title. Though GAIS have played 49 seasons in Allsvenskan they only spent six years in the top division during a 30-year period from 1976 to 2005, with another six seasons of that time spent as low as the third division; the club thus gained the reputation of being a yo-yo club going up and down through the league system. After their promotion in 2005 the club played seven straight seasons in Allsvenskan, a feat not achieved since the degradation in 1955. After relegation in 2012 they has remained there since.
GAIS was founded 11 March 1894 at Ehdlunds Café in the Gothenburg city centre. The founders had created the club for "patriotic purposes and to promote all kinds of sports", its main activities were an assortment of strength sports. The football department was formed in 1897 and played their first official game against local rivals Örgryte IS in 1903. GAIS first appearance in the highest league at the time, Svenska Serien, was in 1915/16 where they finished in fourth place. In 1919 the club won its first national championship beating Djurgårdens IF away in the finals; the same procedure would be repeated in 1922, this time against another Stockholm team, Hammarby IF. GAIS won the first season of the new first tier league Allsvenskan in 1924/25, two points ahead of local rivals IFK Göteborg; the feat was to be repeated in this time three points ahead of IFK Göteborg. The league champions was not recognised as national champions until the 1930/31 season. GAIS won this year as well, six points ahead of IFK Göteborg.
During the 1930s GAIS lost the dominance the club had exercised over Allsvenskan since its foundation and in 1938 the club was relegated. Having spent three years in the second division GAIS returned with a vengeance for the 1941–42 Allsvenskan where the club finished in second place. In 1942 they won Svenska Cupen for the first, until today, only time; the club stayed in Allsvenskan throughout the 1940s and the early 1950s. They quite unexpectedly won their fourth national championship one single point ahead of Helsingborgs IF in the season of 1953/54; the clinching game was the last one of the season. The following year unexpectedly, disaster struck when the club finished third last and was relegated. GAIS returned to Allsvenskan the following 1955/56 season but from the mid-50's the club lost its former continuity and never spent more than five years in a row in Allsvenskan until the 2000s; the club was relegated again in 1959 and spent four seasons in the second division only to return to Allsvenskan for one year in 1964.
After that relegation they returned to Allsvenskan in 1966. GAIS remained there during 1966–1975, except for one year in the second division in 1971. In 1975 the club made its first appearance in the UEFA Cup playing Śląsk Wrocław in the first leg. GAIS lost out to the Polish club after losing 2 -- 4 away; the same year GAIS got relegated from Allsvenskan for the sixth time, this time due to scoring two goals less than Halmstads BK. The relegation in 1975 would in retrospect prove to be a turning point for the worse in the history of GAIS. Unable to qualify for Allsvenskan in 1976, furthermore losing the qualifying spot to now arch-rivals IFK Göteborg, they lost the position as Gothenburg's leading team that they had enjoyed throughout the early 1970s; the club consistently failed to qualify for Allsvenskan during the following five years and in 1981 the club got relegated to the Swedish third division due to economical problems and a weak performance by the squad. The future looked bleak after GAIS failed to return to the second division in 1982 but due to a massive performance in the latter part of the 1983 season the club secured the qualifying spot seven points ahead of IK Oddevold and beat Mönsterås GoIF in the promotion playoffs to the second division.
In 1984 GAIS made. Tunisian midfielder Samir Bakaou left his former club Étoile Sportive du Sahel to join the Gothenburg side and proved to be the injection of flair and energy that the club had been needing so badly. With "the Black Pearl" as playmaker and notorious goalscorer GAIS was once again a force to be reckoned with and made it to the promotion playoffs to Allsvenskan in 1985, only to lose out to Djurgårdens IF after a penalty shoot-out in a controversial game. GAIS made it back to Allsvenskan in 1987 ending eleven long years of struggling in the lower divisions. For the second time in club history GAIS made it to the finals of Svenska Cupen as well, but lost out 2–0 to opposing side Kalmar FF. During the late 1980s and early 1990s GAIS fought for its survival in Allsvenskan. With the exception of a third place in 1989 the club had to settle for the lower half of the league table. Relegation followed in the season of 1992 and GAIS yet again had to face a long and tortuous walk through the Swedish second division.
The nadir was reached in 1997 when the club had bee
Division 2 (Swedish football)
Division 2 is the fourth level in the league system of Swedish football and comprises 84 Swedish football teams. Division 2 had status as the official second level from 1928 to 1986, but was replaced by Division 1 in 1987, it had status as the official third level until 2005, but was replaced once again by the recreated Division 1 in 2006. There are 84 clubs in Division 2, divided in six groups of 14 teams each representing a geographical area. During the course of a season each club plays the others twice, once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents, for a total of 26 games. At the end of each season the two lowest placed teams of each group are relegated to Division 3 and the twelve winning teams from the twelve Division 3 leagues are promoted in their place while the third lowest placed teams in the Division 2 leagues plays promotion/relegation play-offs against the twelve second placed teams in Division 3; the top team in each Division 2 group is promoted to Division 1 and the three lowest placed teams from each Division 1 league are relegated in their place.
The Swedish Football Association is responsible for the administration of Division 2. Division 2 is the fourth-highest division in Swedish Football, it comprises six regional leagues which may show some small changes to their titles year on year reflecting the changing geographical distribution of clubs. The six sections for the 2014 season cover Norrland, Norra Svealand, Södra Svealand, Norra Götaland, Västra Götaland and Östra Götaland; the name of Division 2 has been around since 1924/25 season when there were 5 sections titled Uppsvenskan, Mellansvenskan, Östsvenskan, Västsvenskan and Sydsvenskan which were run on an unofficial basis. Division 2 became official in 1928/29 as the second tier of Swedish football with 2 sections being created - Norra and Södra - with a total of 20 teams. In 1932/33 Division 2 was expanded into 4 sections covering Östra, Västra and Södra; this format continued until the end of the 1946/47 season. For the 1947/48 season a 2 section structure was restored comprising the Nordöstra and Sydvästra sections.
In 1953/54 a section representing the northern clubs in Sweden was introduced for the first time known as Norrland. The other two sections were titled Götaland. In 1955/56 it was decided; this provided Division 2 with 4 sections covering Norrland, Svealand, Östra Götaland and Västra Götaland. In 1972 the structure reverted to 3 sections titled Mellersta and Södra; this was short-lived and in 1974 two sections covering Södra were consolidated. This system continued until the end of the 1986 season when the competition became Division 1. From 1987 onwards Division 2 became the third highest league in Swedish football and this continued until 2005; the new division had 4 sections titled Norra, Mellersta, Östra and Västra. In 1993 it was divided into 6 sections titled Norrland, Östra Svealand, Västra Svealand, Östra Götaland, Västra Götaland and Södra Götaland. In 2006 Division 2 became Sweden's fourth highest division with the introduction of Division 1 below the Superettan. 2019 season. Anundsjö IF Friska Viljor FC Gottne IF IFK Luleå IFK Timrå IFK Umeå IFK Östersund Kramfors-Alliansen Piteå IF Sandviks IK Skellefteå FF Strömsbergs IF Umeå FC Akademi Ytterhogdals IK Enköpings SK FC Gute Gamla Upsala SK Hudiksvalls FF IFK Lidingö FK IFK Mora IFK Stocksund Karlbergs BK Kvarnsvedens IK Kungsängens IF Skiljebo SK Sundbybergs IK Täby FK Valbo FF AFK Linköping Arameiska-Syrianska KIF Assyriska FF Assyriska IF Enskede IK FC Stockholm Internazionale Huddinge IF IF Sylvia IFK Aspudden-Tellus IFK Haninge Motala AIF Newroz FC Södertälje FK Tyresö FF Värmbols FC Grebbestads IF IFK Tidaholm IFK Uddevalla IFK Åmål IK Gauthiod Lidköpings FK Nordvärmland FF Sävedalens IF Stenungsunds IF Torslanda IK Vänersborgs IF Vänersborgs FK Vårgårda IK Örebro Syrianska IF Asarums IF Dalstorps IF FK Karlskrona FK Älmeboda/Linneryd Hässleholms IF Husqvarna FF IFK Berga IFK Hässleholm Ifö Bromölla IF Nässjö FF Nosaby IF Räppe GOIF Råslätts SK Österlens FF Assyriska BK BK Olympic Eslövs BK FC Rosengård 1917 Hittarps IK IFK Malmö IS Halmia KSF Prespa Birlik Onsala BK Qviding FIF Stafsinge IF Ullareds IK Vinbergs IF Ängelholms FF Ever since 2003 the online bookmaker Unibet have given out awards at the end of the season to the best players in Division 2.
The recipients are decided by a jury of sportsjournalists and football experts
Allsvenskan is a Swedish professional league for men's association football clubs. It was founded in 1924, is the top flight of the Swedish football league system, operating on a system of promotion and relegation with Superettan. Seasons run from late March or early April to the beginning of November, with the 16 clubs all meeting each other twice, resulting in a 30-match season, for a total of 240 matches league-wide. Allsvenskan is ranked 20th in the UEFA coefficients of leagues based on performances in European competitions over the last five years. Allsvenskan is ranked highest of the leagues in Scandinavia; the current champions are AIK. Including the 2016 season, Allsvenskan has been running for an unbroken streak of 91 seasons. Allsvenskan started in the 1924–25 Allsvenskan season and the first winner was GAIS; the one-league twelve team Allsvenskan replaced the Svenska Serien, consisting of a southern and northern group, held before. In 1931, the league started to decide the Swedish football champions.
In the early years and Gotland teams were not allowed to play on higher levels in the league system, changed to include the Norrland and Gotland teams on higher levels. For the 1959 Allsvenskan, the season start was changed from autumn to spring to be played in one calendar year. In 1973, it was expanded to contain 14 teams. In the 1970s, Malmö FF, under the lead of Spanish Antonio Durán and English Bob Houghton, won five Allsvenskan and managed to proceed to the 1979 European Cup Final, which they lost to Nottingham Forest. From the 1982 season, the league introduced a play-off to determine the Swedish football champions. In the late 1980s, Malmö FF were dominant, winning the league five times in a row, but only two Swedish championships; the 1990 season saw the introduction of three points per win. The play-off season years were followed by two years of continuation league, named Mästerskapsserien; the 1993 season saw a return to the classical format, again with 14 teams. IFK Göteborg won five Allsvenskan league titles in the 1990s.
In the early 2000s, Djurgårdens IF won three titles. In 2004, Örebro SK lost its place in the league due to financial problems, Assyriska FF got their place. Since 2008, the league consists of 16 teams; the champions of the are considered gold medal winners. The runners-up are awarded the Large Silver medal, the third positioned team are awarded the Small Silver medal and the team positioned in fourth place are awarded the Bronze medal. There have been seasons with exceptions when the winners of Allsvenskan wasn't considered Swedish champions as well. Allsvenskan winners between 1924 and 1930 were crowned league champions and awarded gold medals, the title of Swedish champions was awarded to the winner of Svenska Mästerskapet up until 1925 and not at all until 1930; the years 1982 through 1990 are exceptions, the title was instead decided through play-offs during these years. The same was true for the years 1991 and 1992 when the title was decided through a continuation league called Mästerskapsserien.
However, there is a big difference between the Allsvenskan winners before 1931 compared to the period between 1982 and 1992. As winning Allsvenskan in its earlier seasons was the optimal aim for the clubs, while as during the era of play-offs and Mästerskapsserien, the optimal goal wasn't to win Allsvenskan, but the play-offs or Mästerskapsserien. Since 2008 there are 16 clubs in Allsvenskan. During the course of a season each club plays the others twice for a total of 30 games; the two lowest placed teams at the end of the season are relegated to Superettan and the top two teams from Superettan are promoted in their place. The third lowest team in Allsvenskan plays a relegation/promotion play-off against the third placed team in Superettan; the winners of Allsvenskan qualify for the UEFA Champions League, the runner-up together with the third placed team in the table qualify for the UEFA Europa League as well as the team who wins the Svenska Cupen. In case the winner of the Cup has qualified to Champions League or Europa League, the third Europa League spot is given to the team that finishes fourth in Allsvenskan.
The decider at equal amount of points was goal ratio until the 1940–41 season, thereafter goal difference. The current trophy awarded to the Swedish champions is the Lennart Johanssons Pokal. Created in 2001, the trophy is named after Lennart Johansson. A different trophy, named after Clarence von Rosen, the first chairman of the Swedish Football Association, had been used between 1903 and 2000, but was replaced after journalists reported that von Rosen had personal connections to the infamous nazi leader Hermann Göring during the time he lived in Sweden; the former President of the Swedish Football Association, Lars-Åke Lagrell stated that the reason for the change of trophy wasn't a personal attack against Von Rosen but rather that the Football Association didn't want to be linked to nazism and engage in discussions regarding this every time the trophy was awarded. In addition to the winner's trophy and the individual winner's medals awarded to players, Allsvenskan awards the most valuable player, goalkeeper of the year, defender of the year, midfielder of the year, forward of the year, newcomer of the year and manager of year at Allsvenskans stora pris together with C More and Magasinet Offside.
The Allsvenskan top scorer has is awarded. The Swiss corporation Kentaro has owne
Guldbollen, is a Swedish football award given by the Aftonbladet and the Swedish Football Association to the best male Swedish footballer each year. The first award was given in 1946 to Gunnar Gren, was created by Bengt Liljedahl. From 1946-65, the awarded was given out in cooperation with Stockholms-Tidningen. Zlatan Ibrahimović is the only player to win it more than twice. Bo Larsson of Malmö FF was the first player to win the award for a second time, in 1973 after winning it in 1965. Diamantbollen, the female equivalent of the award, was established in 1990. Both awards are given out at the Fotbollsgalan. Source: Media related to Guldbollen at Wikimedia Commons
Diamantbollen, Swedish for The Diamond Ball, an annual award for Sweden's best female football player. The award is given out by the Swedish Football Association and Sydsvenskans newspaper; the award is given in conjunction with the Guldbollen. Diamantbollen was established in 1990 and was given out in cooperations between SvFF and magazine network until 2000. Since 2001, the awards has been given out by Sydsvenskan; the precursor of this award, "Årets fotbollstjej", was given out by the Swedish Football Association and Dagens Nyheter from 1980 to 1989. Since 2002, the recipient of the award has received a blown crystal structure designed by Melainie Rydoff; the award is in the shape of a kernel with smooth concave top. At the top of the award, there is a silver leaf; the logo and player name are made by calligrapher Gun Larson. 1980 - Anna Svenjeby, Kronängs IF 1981 - Pia Sundhage, Jitex BK 1982 - Anette Börjesson, Jitex BK 1983 - Elisabeth Leidinge, Jitex BK 1984 - Lena Videkull, Trollhättans IF 1985 - Eva Andersson, GIF Sundsvall 1986 - Gunilla Axén, Gideonsbergs IF 1987 - Eleonor Hultin, GAIS 1988 - Lena Videkull, Öxabäcks IF 1989 - Eleonor Hultin, Jitex BK 1990 - Eva Zeikfalvy, Malmö FF 1991 - Elisabeth Leidinge, Jitex BK 1992 - Anneli Andelén, Öxabäck/Mark IF 1993 - Lena Videkull, Malmö FF 1994 - Kristin Bengtsson, Hammarby IF 1995 - Malin Andersson, Älvsjö AIK 1996 - Malin Swedberg, Älvsjö AIK 1997 - Ulrika Karlsson, Bälinge IF 1998 - Victoria Svensson, Älvsjö AIK 1999 - Cecilia Sandell, Älvsjö AIK 2000 - Tina Nordlund, Umeå IK 2001 - Malin Moström, Umeå IK 2002 - Hanna Ljungberg, Umeå IK 2003 - Victoria Svensson, Djurgården/Älvsjö 2004 - Kristin Bengtsson, Djurgården/Älvsjö 2005 - Hanna Marklund, Sunnanå SK 2006 - Lotta Schelin, Kopparbergs/Göteborg FC 2007 - Therese Sjögran, LdB FC Malmö 2008 - Frida Östberg, Umeå IK 2009 - Caroline Seger, Linköping FC 2010 - Therese Sjögran, LdB FC Malmö 2011 - Lotta Schelin, Olympique Lyonnais 2012 - Lotta Schelin, Olympique Lyonnais 2013 - Lotta Schelin, Olympique Lyonnais 2014 - Lotta Schelin, Olympique Lyonnais 2015 - Hedvig Lindahl, Chelsea 2016 - Hedvig Lindahl, Chelsea 2017 - Kosovare Asllani, Manchester City and Linköpings FC 2018 - Nilla Fischer, VfL WolfsburgSource
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t