Bridget of Sweden
Bridget of Sweden. Outside of Sweden, she was known as the Princess of Nericia and was the mother of Catherine of Vadstena, she is one of the six patron saints of Europe, together with Benedict of Nursia, Saints Cyril and Methodius, Catherine of Siena and Edith Stein. The most celebrated saint of Sweden was the daughter of the knight Birger Persson of the family of Finsta and lawspeaker of Uppland, one of the richest landowners of the country, his wife, a member of the so-called Lawspeaker branch of the Folkunga family. Through her mother, Birgitta was related to the Swedish kings of her era, she was born in June 1303. There is no exact recording for which precise date. In 1316, at the age of 14 she married Ulf Gudmarsson of the family of Ulvåsa, Lord of Närke, to whom she bore eight children, four daughters and four sons. Six survived infancy, rare at that time, her eldest daughter was Märta Ulfsdotter. Her second daughter is now honored as St. Catherine of Sweden, her youngest daughter was Cecilia Ulvsdotter.
Bridget became known for her works of charity toward Östergötland's unwed mothers and their children. When she was in her early thirties, she was summoned to be principal lady-in-waiting to the new Queen of Sweden, Blanche of Namur. In 1341 she and her husband went on pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela. In 1344, shortly after their return, Ulf died at the Cistercian Alvastra Abbey in Östergötland. After this loss, Birgitta became a member of the Third Order of St. Francis and devoted herself wholly to a life of prayer and caring for the poor and the sick, it was about this time that she developed the idea of establishing the religious community, to become the Order of the Most Holy Saviour, or the Brigittines, whose principal house at Vadstena was richly endowed by King Magnus IV of Sweden and his queen. One distinctive feature of the pre-Reformation houses of the Order was that they were double monasteries, with both men and women forming a joint community, though with separate cloisters.
They were to give all surplus income to the poor. However, they were allowed to have as many books. In 1350, a Jubilee Year, Bridget braved a plague-stricken Europe to make a pilgrimage to Rome accompanied by her daughter, a small party of priests and disciples; this was done to obtain from the Pope the authorization of the new Order and in pursuance of her self-imposed mission to elevate the moral tone of the age. This was during the period of the Avignon Papacy within the Roman Catholic Church and she had to wait for the return of the papacy to Rome from the French city of Avignon, a move for which she agitated for many years, it was not until 1370 that Pope Urban V, during his brief attempt to re-establish the papacy in Rome, confirmed the Rule of the Order, but meanwhile Birgitta had made herself universally beloved in Rome by her kindness and good works. Save for occasional pilgrimages, including one to Jerusalem in 1373, she remained in Rome until her death on 23 July 1373, urging ecclesiastical reform.
In her pilgrimages to Rome and Bethlehem, she sent "back precise instructions for the construction of the monastery" now known as Blue Church, insisting that an "abbess, signifying the Virgin Mary, should preside over both nuns and monks."Bridget went to confession every day, had a constant smiling face. Although she never returned to Sweden, her years in Rome were far from happy, being hounded by debts and by opposition to her work against Church abuses, she was buried at San Lorenzo in Panisperna before her remains were returned to Sweden. She was canonized in the year 1391 by Pope Boniface IX, confirmed by the Council of Constance in 1415; because of new discussions about her works, the Council of Basel confirmed the orthodoxy of the revelations in 1436. At the age of ten, Bridget had a vision of Jesus hanging upon the cross; when she asked who had treated him like this, he answered: She was so impressed that from that moment the Passion of Christ became the center of her spiritual life. The revelations she had received since childhood now became more frequent, her records of these Revelationes coelestes which were translated into Latin by Matthias, canon of Linköping, by her confessor, Peter Olafsson, prior of Alvastra, obtained a great vogue during the Middle Ages.
These revelations made Bridget something of a celebrity to some and a controversial figure to others. Her visions of the Nativity of Jesus had a great influence on depictions of the Nativity of Jesus in art. Shortly before her death, she described a vision which included the infant Jesus as lying on the ground, emitting light himself, describes the Virgin as blond-haired. Other details seen such as a single candle "attached to the wall," and the presence of God the Father above come from Bridget's vision; the Virgin kneels to pray to her child, to be joined by Saint Joseph, this becomes one of the commonest depictions in the fifteenth century replacing the reclining Virgin in the West. Versions of this depiction occur as early as 1300, well before Bridget's vision, have a Franciscan origin, b
Gullan Marianne Bernadotte, Countess of Wisborg known as Princess Marianne Bernadotte, is a Swedish actress and philanthropist who in 1961 married Sigvard Bernadotte, the second son of King Gustaf VI Adolf. Since the death of Gunnila Bernadotte in 2016, she is the last to survive of the aunts and uncles of King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden and as such is included in the Swedish royal family. Bernadotte has been noted for her work supporting causes such as dyslexia, physical disabilities, children's eye care and as a patron of the arts. Having performed in her teens at a noted open-air theatre in her home town, Bernadotte tried out for and was accepted by The Royal Dramatic Theatre's acting school Dramatens elevskola and did their full drama course 1945-1948. Between semesters she worked as a bus hostess on tours to France. After finishing her education, she was employed as actress Marianne Lindberg at The Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm for eleven years, preferring challenging parts over glamorous ones.
For her first of 25 parts on that stage, selected to act there as their only graduate that year, she played Annie in the Swedish version of Life With Father. Her directors included Olof Molander, Alf Sjöberg, Ingmar Bergman, Mimi Pollak and Göran Gentele, some of the actors in her plays were Jarl Kulle, Inga Tidblad and Mai Zetterling, she was in the motion picture Kulla Gulla in 1956 with Hugo Björne and appeared in two plays on Swedish television in 1957 and 1959. In her 1986 memoir she described her acting experience, writing for example: Along with your director and your fellow actors you find your way through to your part. You build up your own little world, a concentrate, where everyone invests of h-self to hold the pieces together and thus be able to offer the audience something whole; the theatre was closed for renovation in 1956, after leaving there Bernadotte was trained by the NK department store and took over their gift shop. A few years she took courses in Cultural Communication and Art at Stockholm University, became the Swedish representative of Sotheby's and in 1970 studied gourmet cooking at Le Cordon Bleu in Paris.
After her husband's reconciliation with her widowed father-in-law King Gustaf VI Adolf in the 1970s, she and the elderly Swedish king enjoyed cooking together. In 1983 Marianne Bernadotte graduated as Bachelor of Arts in Art history at Stockholm University, her academic papers included work on sculptor Edvin Öhrström. In July 2014 she had good reviews after hosting the popular radio show Sommar on her 90th birthday. With her new husband Sigvard, Bernadotte met Pierre Balmain in Paris in 1962, she became close and lifelong friends with Balmain and with his successor Erik Mortensen, they as well as several other French houses of haute couture for publicity dressed the fitted Bernadotte in their latest work. In 1985 Marianne Bernadotte was named one of the 10 best dressed women in the world, by the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture in Paris alongside Gina Lollobrigida, Princess Ira von Fürstenberg and Gersende d'Orléans. Bernadotte's taste in clothing is still appreciated and hailed by several of Sweden's top designers such as Pär Engsheden and Christer Lindarw.
In 2017 Millesgården in Stockholm had a four-month exhibition called CHANEL BALMAIN DIOR MARIANNE BERNADOTTE - En stilikon with a large number of the most valuable and unique items in Bernadotte's high fashion wardrobe from the 1960s and on, mixed in with the museum's ancient nude and clothed statuary. The exhibition was opened by Bernadotte's grandniece Crown Princess Victoria who twenty years earlier with Bernadotte had opened an exhibition on the late Sigvard Bernadotte's design at the National Museum of Fine Arts. Adhering to the concept of Noblesse oblige, since the 1960s Bernadotte has been involved with concerns in the areas of physical handicaps, health and the arts. One of her first involvements was publicity and funding work for the Swedish Permobil electric wheelchair designed by Per Uddén, who has credited her efforts in making it a field leader and "creating liberty for hundreds of thousands of people with mobility problems all over the world". In the 1980s Bernadotte joined several professors in launching an academy to coordinate international dyslexia research and support young researchers.
As of 2006 she has an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Bologna's Institute of Psychology in recognition of her contributions to dyslexia research. She is Honorary Chairman of The Swedish Dyslexia Foundation and Swedish Dyslexia Association and Honorary President of The International Rodin Remediation Academy. In 1988 Professor Gunnar Lennerstrand wanted to start a Stockholm center for children's eye care. Bernadotte began fundraising efforts, procured valuable artwork from artist friends and was assisted by other prominent members of Stadsbrudskåren for an auction at Bukowskis in 1990 which brought in SEK 1.2 million. Just before that she and Sigvard Bernadotte had founded the Sigvard & Marianne Bernadotte Research Foundation for Children’s Eye Care which gives grants to researchers and has led to documentation and treatment of eye problems in the prematurely born. Since 1992 over 20 million SEK have been awarded by the foundation and a prize in Bernadotte's name has been given for clinical research.
She has founded The International Research Foundation for Children’s Eye Care Inc. and The Marianne Bernadotte Scholarship Fund for Prominent Dyslexia Research and Education, though these and other civic commitments supports public and voluntary service. The over 3
Fürst is a German word for a ruler and is a princely title. Fürsten were, since the Middle Ages, members of the highest nobility who ruled over states of the Holy Roman Empire and its former territories, below the ruling Kaiser or König. A Prince of the Holy Roman Empire was the reigning sovereign ruler of an Imperial State that held imperial immediacy in the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire; the territory ruled is referred to in German as a Fürstentum, the family dynasty referred to as a Fürstenhaus, the descendants of a Fürst are titled and referred to in German as Prinz or Prinzessin. The English language uses the term prince for both concepts. Latin-based languages employ a single term, whereas Dutch as well as the Scandinavian and Slavic languages use separate terms similar to those used in German. Since the Middle Ages, the German designation and title of Fürst refers to: the highest members of the nobility who ruled over the Holy Roman Empire, below the ruling Kaiser or König; the title Fürst is used for the heads of princely houses of German origin.
From the Late Middle Ages, it referred to any vassal of the Holy Roman Emperor ruling over an immediate estate. Unless he holds a higher title, such as grand duke or king, he will be known either by the formula "Fürst von + ", or by the formula "Fürst zu + "; these forms can be combined, as in "...von und zu Liechtenstein". The rank of the title-holder is not determined by the title itself, but by his degree of sovereignty, the rank of his suzerain, or the age of the princely family; the Fürst ranked below the Herzog in the Holy Roman Empire's hierarchy, but princes did not rank below dukes in non-German parts of Europe. The style associated with the title of Fürst in post-medieval Europe, was considered inferior to Hoheit in Germany, though not in France; the present-day rulers of the sovereign principality of Liechtenstein bear the title of Fürst, the title is used in German when referring to the ruling princes of Monaco. The hereditary rulers of the one-time principalities of Bulgaria, Serbia and Albania were all referred to in German as Fürsten before they assumed the title of "king".
Fürst is used more in German to refer to any ruler, such as a king, a reigning duke, or a prince in the broad sense. Before the 12th century, counts were included in this group, in accordance with its usage in the Holy Roman Empire, in some historical or ceremonial contexts, the term Fürst can extend to any lord; the descendants of a Fürst, when that title has not been restricted by patent or custom to male primogeniture, is distinguished in title from the head of the family by use of the prefix Prinz. A nobleman whose family is non-dynastic, i.e. has never reigned or been mediatised, may be made a Fürst by a sovereign, in which case the grantee and his heirs are deemed titular or nominal princes, enjoying only honorary princely title without commensurate rank. In families thus elevated to princely title in or after the 18th century, the cadets hold only the title of Graf, such as in the families of the princes of Bismarck and Hardenberg. However, in a few cases, the title of Fürst was shared by all male-line descendants of the original grantee.
Several titles were derived from the term Fürst: Reichsfürst was a ruling Prince whose territory was part of the Holy Roman Empire. He was entitled to a vote, either individually or as a member of a voting unit, in the Imperial Diet. Reichsfürst was used generically for any ruler who cast his vote in either of the Reichstag's two upper chambers, the Electoral College or the College of Princes: Their specific title might be king, grand duke, margrave, count palatine, Imperial prince or Imperial count. Included in this group were the reichsständisch Personalisten, Imperial princes and counts whose small territories did not meet the Fürstenrat's criteria for voting membership as an Imperial estate, but whose family's right to vote therein was recognised by the Emperor. A Prince of the Church who voted in the Electoral or Princely College, along with a handful of titular princes might be referred to as Reichsfürsten. Kirchenfürst was a hierarch who held an ecclesiastic fief and Imperial princely rank, such as prince-bishops, prince-abbots, or Grand Masters of a Christian military order.
Landesfürst is a princely head of state, i.e. not just a titular prince
Frederick William von Hessenstein
Frederick William, Prince von Hessenstein, was a Swedish soldier and statesman. He was an extramarital son of his mistress Hedvig Taube. King Gustav III treated him with great respect, he was appointed Field Marshal in 1773, Privy Councillor in 1776, Governor-General of Pomerania between 1776 and 1791. Hessenstein was made a count of the Holy Roman Empire on 28 February 1741, created a Swedish count on 29 March of the following year, he was elevated to Prince von Hessenstein in the Empire in November 1772, hereditary Prince von Hessenstein in Sweden on 28 April 1785. In 1773 he was made one of the Lords of the Realm. According to unverified rumors, he might have been the father of an extramarital daughter by Princess Sofia Albertina, Gustav III's sister. Named Sophia, she was born in 1786, a year before the princess was sent to Germany as Abbess of Quedlinburg. Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim Commander of the Royal Order of the Sword Lindquist, Herman Historien om Sverige. Gustavs dagar ISBN 978-91-1-301455-5) Lagerqvist, Lars O. Sveriges regenter - från forntid till nutid ISBN 978-91-0-041538-9
Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland
Prince Carl Philip of Sweden, Duke of Värmland is the only son and the second of three children of King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia. As of 2016, Prince Carl Philip is fourth in the line of succession, after his older sister, Crown Princess Victoria, his niece and goddaughter Princess Estelle, his nephew Prince Oscar, he lives with his wife, Princess Sofia, two sons, Prince Alexander and Prince Gabriel, in Villa Solbacken in central Stockholm. Prince Carl Philip was born on 13 May 1979 at the Stockholm Sweden, he was baptised at the Royal Chapel on 31 August 1979. His mother is of half half Brazilian descent. Carl Philip was heir apparent to the throne of Sweden for seven months, until 1 January 1980 when a law came into effect which made natural birth order the basis for succession to the throne, replacing the principle of agnatic primogeniture, he was thereby deprived of his position as first in line to the throne, bestowed upon his elder sister Victoria, with Carl Philip becoming second in line instead.
During 1984–1986, Prince Carl Philip attended the Västerled parish preschool. In the autumn of 1986, he started school at Smedslättsskolan in Bromma which he attended at junior level. For the intermediate level, he attended Ålstensskolan in Bromma, proceeding from there, in the autumn of 1992, to senior level at Enskilda Gymnasiet in Stockholm. In the autumn of 1994, Carl Philip enrolled at Kent School, he continued his studies in a science programme at Lundsbergs upper secondary school. He graduated in the spring of 1999. In 2007-2008, he studied graphic design at the Rhode Island School of Design for one year. In 2011, Prince Carl Philip finished his studies in Agricultural and Rural Management at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Alnarp. Prince Carl Philip is fond of outdoor life, he is keen on sport and athletics football, swimming and skiing. In 2003, he completed the historic Swedish "Vasaloppet", the longest cross country ski race in the world. Carl Philip enjoys car racing, a passion he inherited from his great-uncle and godfather, Prince Bertil, has a licence to compete.
Prince Carl Philip has taken part in the racing series Porsche Carrera Cup Scandinavia in a Porsche 911 GT3. Since 2013 he has raced in the Scandinavian Touring Car Championship; the prince completed his military service at the Amphibious Battalion at Vaxholm Coastal Artillery Regiment as a combat boat commander in the autumn of 2000. In December 2002, the Prince was promoted to fänrik, in 2004 to the rank of löjtnant in the Swedish Navy. In 2007 and 2008 he went to the Swedish National Defense College; the course was divided in three weeks autumn 2007 and three weeks spring 2008. After that course he was appointed kapten in the Swedish Navy. On 1 October 2014, Prince Carl Philip achieved the rank of major. With a great interest for design and drawing, the prince began studying graphic design in Stockholm in 2003, studies which he continues still. Prince Carl Philip dated Emma Pernald from 1999 to 2009. Pernald worked at a PR firm for several years. However, the prince and Pernald broke off their relationship in March 2009.
She revealed in the Swedish newspaper Expressen that she and the prince mutually decided to go their separate ways. Pernald made no further comment as to the reason for the break-up. In April 2010, Carl Philip was linked in the press with former glamour model Sofia Hellqvist. In August 2010, Royal Court spokesperson Nina Eldh confirmed the relationship between Carl Philip and Hellqvist in a statement released by the palace. On 27 June 2014, it was announced that Carl Hellqvist were engaged, they married on 13 June 2015 in Stockholm's Royal Palace chapel, thousands of people lined the streets for the occasion. In an interview he criticized the press for suggesting that Hellqvist was not welcome in the royal family, he told the press that the opposite was true and that his family accepted her into the family. He compared the "bullying" of her past to that of himself being bullied for having dyslexia. On 15 October 2015 it was announced that the couple is expecting their first child, due in April 2016.
On 19 April 2016, Princess Sofia gave birth to Prince Alexander, Duke of Södermanland. On 23 March 2017 it was announced, their second child, a son, was born on 31 August 2017, titled Prince Gabriel, Duke of Dalarna. 13 May 1979 – 31 December 1979: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Sweden, Duke of Värmland 1 January 1980 – present: His Royal Highness Prince Carl Philip of Sweden, Duke of Värmland Sweden: Knight with Collar of the Royal Order of the Seraphim Sweden: Knight Commander of the Royal Order of the Polar Star Sweden: Knight Grand Officer of the Royal Order of Charles XIII Sweden: Recipient of the Uppland Medal of Merit Sweden: Recipient of the Armed Forces Service Medal Sweden: Recipient of the Defence College Medal, Bronze Sweden: Recipient of the Swedish Military Peace Medal Sweden: Recipient of the 50th Birthday Badge Medal of King Carl XVI Gustaf Sweden: Recipient of the Wedding Medal of Crown Princess Victoria to Daniel Westling Sweden: Recipient of the Ruby Jubilee Medal of King Carl XVI Gustaf Sweden: Recipient of the 70th Birthday Medal of King Carl XVI Gustaf Bulgaria: 1st Class of the Order of Stara Planina Brazil: Grand Cross of the Order of Rio Branco Chile: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit Estonia: Member 1st Class of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana Finland: Grand Cross of the Order of the White Rose Germany: Grand Cross 1st Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Rep
Princess Birgitta of Sweden
Princess Birgitta of Sweden, Princess of Hohenzollern is an elder sister of King Carl XVI Gustaf. Born at Haga Palace in Stockholm, she is the second child of Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten and Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, a granddaughter of King Gustaf VI Adolf, her sisters are Princess Margaretha, Mrs. Ambler, Princess Désirée, Baroness Silfverschiöld, Princess Christina, Mrs. Magnuson, she is a first cousin of Queen Margrethe II of Denmark Among her sisters she alone married a man of princely status, and, in keeping with the tradition that princesses who marry princes retain their royal status, Princess Birgitta retained her Swedish style of Royal Highness, a higher treatment than that of Serene Highness, to which the Princes of Hohenzollern and their wives were entitled. On a visit in 1959 to friends and relatives in Germany, Birgitta met her future husband at a cocktail party. On 15 December 1960, her engagement to Prince Johann Georg of Hohenzollern, was announced.
The civil ceremony took place at the Royal Palace of Stockholm on 25 May 1961, the religious in the Sankt Johann Church at the bridegroom's Family Palace of Sigmaringen on 30 May/ 31 July 1961. The bridesmaids were cousin Princess Benedikte of Denmark. Birgitta applied to convert to Roman Catholicism when she married the Hohenzollern prince, but her application was rejected in wording which questioned her spiritual commitment to the change. Of her marriage, she had three children: Carl, Désirée, Hubertus, she and her children were passed over for succession to the Swedish throne when subsequent female primogeniture was established in Sweden in 1979 and 1980, only included her brother's descendants. Prince Johann Georg and Princess Birgitta separated in 1990, although they remained married, she lives on the island of Majorca in Spain. He died in 2016. In November 1960 Birgitta visited the United States accompanied by her younger sister Princess Désirée on behalf of their grandfather King Gustaf VI Adolf for the 50th anniversary of The American-Scandinavian Foundation.
In their honour a ball was organised for the two princesses at the Renaissance Blackstone Hotel in Chicago by Mayor Richard Daley. Princess Birgitta has been involved with golf and charities outside of Sweden and is an honorary board member of the Royal Swedish Golfing Society, a position she took over when her uncle Prince Bertil died, she has her own golf competition in the Princess Birgitta Trophy, at her home golf course. 19 January 1937 – 25 May 1961: Her Royal Highness Princess Birgitta of Sweden 25 May 1961 – present: Her Royal Highness Princess Birgitta of Sweden and Hohenzollern Sweden: Member of the Royal Order of the Seraphim Germany: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, 1st Class Swedish Royal Family
Prince Daniel, Duke of Västergötland
Prince Daniel of Sweden, Duke of Västergötland, is the husband of Crown Princess Victoria. Prior to his marriage to the heir apparent, Daniel was a personal trainer and gym owner and ran a company called Balance Training with three gyms in central Stockholm. Daniel was born to Olle and Ewa Westling at Örebro Hospital in Örebro, on the day Carl XVI Gustaf ascended the throne, his family lived in Örebro, but moved to Ockelbo. He has Anna Westling Söderström, she has two daughters. He was christened at Almby Church in January 1974, his family has Forest Finnish ancestry and his father is a leader in the Forest Finnish community. After completing his education, he served, as part of national conscription, in the Swedish Army at Hälsinge Regiment in Gävle. In 2001, he met the Crown Princess. On 1 July 2008, he moved into a one-bedroom rental apartment in the Pagebyggnaden building on the grounds of Drottningholm Palace; the move was confirmed by the Royal Court. In November 2009 it was reported that Daniel Westling was to step down as CEO and member of the Board of Directors of the Balance company.
He will still be an equity partner. It was expected that the same procedure would be followed with his involvements in other companies, before he became prince, his business positions: Balance – CEO and member of the Board of Directors. On 24 February 2009, Westling and Crown Princess Victoria received the required consent of King Carl XVI Gustaf and the Government of Sweden for marriage; such permission is necessary according to the terms of the Swedish Act of Succession. Westling suffered from a congenital ailment causing impaired renal function. Three months after his engagement, on 28 May 2009, Westling underwent a kidney transplant at Karolinska University Hospital, his father was the donor. The operation was a success. Victoria could not be present when the operation took place because she was in Greenland at the time; the wedding took place in Stockholm Cathedral on 19 June 2010, the 34th anniversary of her parents' wedding. After the wedding, the Duke and Duchess of Västergötland moved into the Haga Palace.
On 26 September 2010, Daniel went on his first tour with Victoria, visiting France in connection with the Bernadotte anniversary. On 17 August 2011, the Swedish royal court announced that Prince Daniel and Crown Princess Victoria were expecting their first child in March 2012, she gave birth to a girl on 23 Princess Estelle, Duchess of Östergötland. Daniel took his paternity leave and switched parental roles with Victoria when Estelle began preschool, their second child, a boy, was born on 2 March 2016: Prince Oscar, Duke of Skåne. Prince Daniel is a patron in the following organizations: A Swedish Classic, The Healthy Generation Foundation, International Society of Nephrology, More Organ Donation. Prince Daniel is a honorary chairman of the board of the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation and has given his name Prince Daniel's Grant for Promising Young Researchers. Prince Daniel invented Prince Daniel's Race and Sports Day, which are arranged each year to encourage more young people to get exercise and to take an interest in sport.
The game is in association with the Swedish Sports Confederation. Prince Daniel and Crown Princess Victoria established a foundation to mark the occasion of their marriage in 2010; the focus of the foundation is to combat exclusion and promote good health among children and young people in Sweden. The couple took the initiative for Generation PEP, a non-profit organisation that works to raise awareness of and encourage commitment to issues relating to the health of children and young people; each year, Prince Daniel visits the Swedish Young Enterprise Championship. He is a member of Young Enterprise's national board; the Prince Daniel's Fellowship project and its entrepreneurial programme were launched in January 2013. Prince Daniel with business leaders and entrepreneurs visits upper secondary schools and university colleges around Sweden to inspire young people to get involved in entrepreneurship; this project is a long-term partnership between Prince Daniel and the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences.
Sweden has practised absolute primogeniture only since 1980. This means that Victoria is the first female heir apparent, questions arose as to how Daniel Westling would be known after their marriage; when Carl XVI Gustaf married Silvia Sommerlath in 1976, he discontinued the established norm that Swedish princes must marry royalty to be eligible to inherit the throne. But men, royal or not, had only twice before, in the 13th and 17th centuries, obtained new title or rank as the spouse of a Swedish princess, three queens regnant left no clear precedent. Margaret was the widow of Håkon VI of Norway and Christina was unmarried; the most recent Ulrika Eleonora was married during her tenure as queen regnant: her husband, was given the style "Royal Highness" during his tenure as consort, a style granted to him by the estates. Ulrika Eleonora abdicated so her consort Frederick—who was born a prince of Hesse-Kassel—could be king. In Daniel's case, the Swedes were treading on new ground; the Swedish Royal Court announced that Westling would become "Prince Daniel" and "Duke of Västergötland", corresponding in form to the style used by previous Swedish princes, including Victoria's younger brother Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland, i.e. Prince + Given name + Duke of.
As was f