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Swiss Armed Forces

The Swiss Armed Forces operates on land and in the air. Under the country's militia system, professional soldiers constitute a small part of the military and the rest are conscripts or volunteers aged 19 to 34; because of Switzerland's long history of neutrality, the Swiss Armed Forces do not take part in conflicts in other countries, but do participate in international peacekeeping missions. Switzerland is part of the NATO Partnership for Peace programme; the regulations of the Swiss militia system stipulate that the soldiers keep their own personal equipment, including all assigned weapons, at home, or in an armory. Compulsory military service applies with women serving voluntarily. Males receive initial orders at the age of 18 for military conscription eligibility screening. About two-thirds of young Swiss men are found suitable for service, while alternative service exists for those found unsuitable. Annually 20,000 persons are trained in basic training for 18 weeks; the reform "Army XXI" replaced the previous model "Army 95" and was adopted by popular vote in 2003, reducing manpower from 400,000 to about 200,000 personnel, with 120,000 receiving periodic military training and 80,000 reservists who have completed their total military training requirements.

A further reform effective in 2018 began the reduction of forces to 100,000 members. The land component of the Swiss Armed Forces originated from the cantonal troops of the Old Swiss Confederacy, called upon in cases of external threats by the Tagsatzung or by the canton in distress. In the federal treaty of 1815, the Tagsatzung prescribed cantonal troops to put a contingent of 2% of the population of each canton at the federation's disposition, amounting to a force of some 33,000 men; the cantonal armies were converted into the federal army with the constitution of 1848. From this time, it was illegal for the individual cantons to declare war or to sign capitulations or peace agreements. Paragraph 13 explicitly prohibited the federation from sustaining a standing army, the cantons were allowed a maximum standing force of 300 each. Paragraph 18 declared the "obligation" of every Swiss citizen to serve in the federal army if conscripted, setting its size at 3% of the population plus a reserve of one and one half that number, amounting to a total force of some 80,000.

The first complete mobilization, under the command of Hans Herzog, was triggered by the Franco-Prussian War in 1871. In 1875, the army was called in to crush a strike of workers at the Gotthard tunnel. Four workers were killed and 13 were wounded. Paragraph 19 of the revised constitution of 1874 extended the definition of the federal army to every able-bodied male citizen, swelling the size of the army from under 150,000 to more than 700,000, with population growth during the 20th century rising further to some 1.5 million, the second largest armed force per capita after the Israel Defense Forces. A major manoeuvre commanded in 1912 by Ulrich Wille, a reputed Germanophile, convinced visiting European heads of state, in particular Kaiser Wilhelm II, of the efficacy and determination of Swiss defences. Wille was subsequently put in command of the second complete mobilization in 1914, Switzerland escaped invasion in the course of World War I. Wille ordered the suppression of the 1918 general strike with military force.

Three workers were killed, a rather larger number of soldiers died of the Spanish flu during mobilization. In 1932, the army was called to suppress an anti-fascist demonstration in Geneva; the troops shot dead 13 demonstrators, wounding another 65. This incident long damaged the army's reputation, leading to persistent calls for its abolition among left-wing politicians. In both the 1918 and the 1932 incidents, the troops deployed were consciously selected from rural regions such as the Berner Oberland, fanning the enmity between the traditionally conservative rural population and the urban working class; the third complete mobilization of the army took place during World War II under the command of Henri Guisan. The Patrouille des Glaciers race, created to test the abilities of soldiers, was created during the war. In the 1960s and 1970s, the armed forces were organised according to the "Armee 61" structure. Horse mounted cavalry were retained for combat roles until 1973, were the last non-ceremonial horse cavalry in Europe, as were bicycle infantry battalions until 2001.

Since 1989, there have been several attempts to curb military activity or abolish the armed forces altogether. A notable referendum on the subject was held on 26 November 1989 and, although defeated, did see a significant percentage of the voters in favour of such an initiative. However, a similar referendum, called for before, but held shortly after the September 11 attacks in 2001 in the US, was defeated by over 77% of voters. In 1989, the status of the army as a national icon was shaken by a popular initiative aiming at its complete dissolution receiving 35.6% support. This triggered a series of reforms and, in 1995, the number of troops was reduced to 400,000. Article 58.1 of the 1999 constitution repeats that the army is "in principle" organized as a militia, implicitly allowing a small number of professional soldiers. A second initiative aimed at the army's dissolution in late 2001 received a mere 21.9% support. The army was shrunk a

Breath (novel)

Breath is the twentieth book and the eighth novel by Australian author Tim Winton. His first novel in seven years, it was published in 2008, in Australia, New Zealand, the UK, the US, the Netherlands and Germany; the novel is set in a small Western Australian logging village named Sawyer, near the fictional coastal town of Angelus, which has featured in several of Winton's works, including Shallows and The Turning. It is narrated by Bruce "Pikelet" Pike, a divorced, middle-aged paramedic and takes the form of a long flashback in which he remembers childhood experiences of friendship with another boy, of surfing under the mentorship an older male surfing champion, of repeated woman-boy statutory rape by the older surfer's wife; the main action of the novel takes place in the 1970s. The narrator, Bruce "Pikelet" Pike recounts his boyhood friendship with Ivan "Loonie" Loon, they first meet when eleven-year-old Pikelet stumbles across Loonie pretending to drown in a river in order to frighten a young family sitting nearby.

The boys bond over their love for dangerous stunts, regardless of being the polar opposites of each other. They form a tight friendship and spend the majority of their time together, despite going to different schools; the two boys witness a group of young men surfing a gigantic wave and are inspired to pick-up surfing as a hobby. They meet a professional surfer named Bill "Sando" Sanderson, who encourages them to pursue this ambition and offers to teach them both how to surf; the trio bond and the boys are over at Sando's house, a treehouse in the middle of the Australian bush, shared by Sando's American wife Eva Sanderson. After teaching them the basics, Sando encourages the two now-teenage boys to attempt dangerous stunts in the ocean, although he's aware of how irresponsible his behavior is and pointedly uses his strong influence over the boys to manipulate them. At first, Pikelet has plenty of fun with the others, though he soon becomes tired of how Sando would put Loonie and himself against each other - and how the older man showed favoritism towards Loonie.

The two boys’ friendship becomes toxic when Loonie breaks a bone and is unable to join the others for another infamous stunt, causing him to become jealous of Pikelet and treat him with increasing hostility. The final straw is when Sando invites Loonie on a trip to Indonesia with him, but purposely excludes Pikelet; this puts a heavy strain on Pikelet and Loonie's broken friendship, ruining it forever. While the others are gone, Pikelet finds comfort in Eva and discovers that she was an elite skier whose career came to an abrupt halt after she crippled one of her legs. Eva is psychologically-tortured by watching her husband continue to do what he loved every day while she is forced to wither away. Eva commits repeated statutory rape on Pikelet, unbeknownst to Pikelet's parents, to Sando and/or to Loonie. Sometime before the other two return from overseas, Pikelet takes it upon himself to surf a wave he had been too afraid to attempt whilst with the others. Once back in Australia, Sando hears of Pikelet's actions from another surfer and congratulates Pikelet.

Loonie finds out too and asks Pikelet begrudgingly if it's true, to which Pikelet confirms that it is. Pikelet realizes that their friendship was over and watches the now sixteen-year-old Loonie walk away without saying goodbye, not knowing that he would never see Loonie again. Sando informs Pikelet that Eva is pregnant and that they are moving back to the United States to raise the baby, the baby is, in fact, Pikelets; the Sandersons leave. Years Pikelet finds out that Eva Sanderson committed suicide shortly after her child was born, that around the same time Loonie was murdered in a bar after a drug deal gone wrong; as Pikelet reflects on his time with the Sandersons and Loonie, he admits that surfing was the only activity he could do without any reason and that the sport was still dear to his heart after all those years. In his 50s, as he reflects on his life after Eva's repeated statutory rapes, he notes that his bond with his mother never recovered, that his marriage broke apart, that he had himself committed, that he considered himself'creepy', that he was celibate, but that he was able to perform quite competently in his role as a paramedic.

Bruce "Pikelet" Pike Ivan "Loonie" Loon Bill "Sando" Sanderson Eva Sanderson Reviewer Cathleen Schine describes Winton as "a writer who values themes, a practitioner of what might be called the school of Macho Romanticism, or better, Heroic Sensitivity". She writes that Winton's characters "tend to flirt with death, long for death, while at the same time bravely suffering physical hardship in order to escape death". In a somewhat similar vein, Aida Edemariam contrasts Winton to Hemingway, writing that in Winton "Land and sea are too implacable for such triumphalism, too capable of the sudden knock-out blow" and she goes on to say that "Winton's books are stalked by the possibility of the fatal undertow, on sea, on land, emotionally, it is a book about risk, about finding a balance between being ordinary. The imagery Winton uses to explore these concepts is that of "breathing and gasping for breath"; the boys' friendship is established through their daring each other to hold their breath under water, but breath appears in other forms in the novel: in Pikelet's father's snoring, in the loss of breath when being knocked over in the surf, in games that toy with asphyxiation, in the resuscitation, crucial to Pike's work as a paramedic.

In Winton's conception, the ordinary act of breathing can take

Captain Disaster

Captain Disaster is Belgian singer-songwriter Ferre Grignard's second solo album. Released in 1968, it was a dramatic departure from the skiffle-based Ring, Ring, I've Got to Sing. All tracks are written by Ferre Grignard except. Ferre Grignard: Vocals Instrumental Group George "Toet" Smits: Guitar, Harmonica Rikki Stein: Production Jean-Claude Petit: Arrangements Bernard Estardy: Sound Engineer Raoul Vandenboom: Front Liner Photo Jules Halfant: Art Direction Jean-Pierre Leloir: Photography entry

2011 CONCACAF Gold Cup Group A

Group A of the 2011 CONCACAF Gold Cup was one of three groups competing of nations at CONCACAF Gold Cup 2011. The group's first round of matches were played on June, with the final round played on June 12. All six group matches were played at venues in the United States, in Dallas, North Carolina and Chicago; the group consisted of five-time Gold Cup champions, Mexico, as well as Costa Rica, El Salvador and Cuba. On the eve of Mexico's second fixture against Cuba, the Mexican Football Federation removed five players from their squad due to substance abuse; these players included starting goalkeeper, Guillermo Ochoa, starting center back Francisco Rodríguez and the following reserves: Sinha, Christian Bermúdez and Édgar Dueñas. The drug they tested positive for was clenbuterol, used in animals to produce lean meat; the supposition for the players being injected with this substance was from eating chicken that had traceable amounts of clenbuterol in it. Reports begin breaking on June 6 and were official on June 9.

The "B" samples of those five involving players have been negative. All Times are U. S. Eastern Daylight Time Official website

Fazlul Karim (academician)

Sardar Fazlul Karim was a scholar, academic and essayist in Bangladesh. Born in a lower-middle-class family of Barisal in 1925, Sardar stood second at IA examination but topped the first class in both his BA Honours and MA examinations in Philosophy from Dhaka University. Involved in progressive politics as a student, he was an "enemy" of the Pakistan government and in four phases spent the full twenty-four years of Pakistani rule in jail. Ayub Khan and Monem Khan ensured that he could never return to his teaching job during the Pakistan period, he participated in the 58-day hunger strike of political prisoners demanding humane treatment. He was elected a member of Constituent Assembly of Pakistan while in prison. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and National Professor Abdur Razzak brought him back to the Dhaka University after the independence of Bangladesh in 1972. Sardar Fazlul Karim has written scholarly books on philosophy, among them being his দর্শনকোষ, he has translated Plato, Aristotle and Engels.

When Sardar was a high school student, Saratchandra Chatterjee's novel Pather Dabi inspired him to dream of a revolution for the first time. Young Mozammel, a political activist and journalist, died in 1965 Cairo plane crash; the book influenced the teenaged Sardar. Years he learnt that the same book had inspired Jyoti Basu to be a revolutionary. Sardar Fazlul Karim was always an obedient child and helped his father in agricultural work. Sardar Fazlul Karim came to Dhaka to study Intermediate in Arts, he got admitted to the Government Intermediate College. Progressive students looked him up. Sardar was more a nationalist than a communist then, he had a good personal library. Friends used to borrow books from him. Pearl Buck's The Good Earth influenced him. Sardar Fazlul Karim became a student of Dhaka University in 1942, he passed his BA Honours in 1945. The 1943's Bengal famine influenced him a lot; the communists were active during the Bengal famine. Sardar left Socrates and Hegel in his room and travelled to remote villages with relief for the hungry!

Bengali Translation: Ahsan, Syed Badrul. "Heroes in Our Times". Star Weekend Magazine. বিপ্লবীদের কথা ডটকমঃ সরদার ফজলুল করিম বিডিনিউজ টুয়েন্টিফোর ডটকমঃ সাক্ষাৎকারে সরদার ফজলুল করিম,বিষয়: অধ্যাপক আবদুর রাজ্জাক

Sex and Lucia

Sex and Lucía is a 2001 Spanish drama film written and directed by Julio Medem, starring Paz Vega and Tristán Ulloa. The film was shot on two separate locations along the Mediterranean coast in France. Lucía, a waitress, is talking on the phone with her depressed writer boyfriend Lorenzo after they had a nasty argument, afterward, she walked out. Since he has been in a ` funk' for a while, she goes home to console him. Finding an empty apartment, Lucía is frantic, she receives a phone call from the police while finding a suicide note, is so afraid of bad news that she hangs up, assuming the worst. They call back, but she ignores the ringing phone, packs a bag, flees. Looking for a new beginning, Lucía travels to the mysterious Balearic Islands that Lorenzo had always talked of, but had been negative about. Six years earlier: Lorenzo is having casual sex in the ocean, on a bright moon-lit night, with a beautiful married woman he just met named Elena, they part ways, expecting to never see each other again.

She discovers she is pregnant with his child, attempts to find him, not knowing much about him, is unable to. As Lorenzo talks with his literary agent at a restaurant, discussing his writer's block, Lucía catches his attention as he gets up from his table to get cigarettes, she asks to speak to him and he joins her. She brazenly tells him that since she read his latest book, she has been following him and has fallen passionately in love with him. A smitten Lorenzo engages the sexy, passionate Lucía and she moves into Lorenzo's apartment; the film interweaves the past and present, both of the characters in the film, of the characters in Lorenzo's novel. Lorenzo stalls for time on his new book with his editor, while his relationship with Lucía deepens. About six years pass. Lorenzo learns he has a daughter as a result of his encounter with Elena and begins to visit the child at her school, meeting her babysitter Belén. Belén tells Lorenzo her mother is a retired porn actress with a new hot boyfriend, seduces Lorenzo with chatter of sexual context and banter about her fantasies.

Lorenzo uses these encounters and his fantasies about Belén and her mother as content for his book, Lucía reads about it, thinking it fiction. Meanwhile, he does not disclose his fatherhood to Lucía or the child, nor attempt to contact Elena. Belén flirts with Lorenzo and invites him over to Elena's house while she babysits his daughter, Luna. Lorenzo tells Luna a bedtime story, after she falls asleep, he and Belén begin to have sex, they are interrupted as Luna knocks at the bedroom door, they watch in horror as the family dog, a large Rotweiler in'protect mode', kills Luna. Belén is stunned. Lorenzo falls into a deep depression. Lorenzo's writing turns dark, towards depraved death, he anonymously contacts Elena, who has moved to the island to find solace and recall better days, provides her a nice story about a beautiful child that loves to swim in the sea, to cheer her spirits. But his now guilt-ridden and uncommunicative relationship with Lucía begins to collapse. Back in the present, Lucía meets a scuba diver on the island and through him, who runs an inn on the island.

Lucía rents a room, the women bond as friends, not knowing their intimate connection. But when Lucía mentions Lorenzo by name, his past visit to the island long ago, Elena deduces the connection. Lucía sees a picture of Luna and she makes the connection too. Lorenzo's editor visits Lorenzo in the hospital, where he was taken after being in an'accident', spending several weeks in recovery; when Lorenzo asks about Lucía, the editor tells Lorenzo. Lorenzo has the editor take him there. After both women discover that Lorenzo isn't dead, the three characters cope with and understand the entanglements of their interwoven relationships. Paz Vega as Lucía Tristán Ulloa as Lorenzo Najwa Nimri as Elena Daniel Freire as Carlos / Antonio Elena Anaya as Belén Silvia Llanos as Luna Sex and Lucía soon became an international success, winning Vega a Goya Award for Best Female Newcomer; the cinematography is by Kiko de la Rica, the score by Alberto Iglesias, who won a Goya Award for his work. Review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes gives the film an approval rating of 71% based on 70 reviews, with a weighted average of 6.5/10.

The site's consensus states: "Beneath the gratuitous nudity lies a complex and visually striking movie." Metacritic, which uses an average of critics' reviews, gives the film a 65/100 rating, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Sex and Lucia on IMDb Sex and Lucia at AllMovie Sex and Lucia at Box Office Mojo Sex and Lucia at Rotten Tomatoes Sex and Lucia at Metacritic Oficial website