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Sword Beach

Sword known as Sword Beach, was the code name given to one of the five main landing areas along the Normandy coast during the initial assault phase, Operation Neptune, of Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of German-occupied France that commenced on 6 June 1944. Stretching 8 kilometres from Ouistreham to Saint-Aubin-sur-Mer, the beach was the easternmost landing site of the invasion. Taking Sword was to be the responsibility of the British Army with sea transport, mine sweeping, a naval bombardment force provided by the British Royal Navy as well as elements from the Polish and other Allied navies. Among the five beaches of the operation, Sword is the nearest to Caen, being located around 15 kilometres from the goal of the 3rd Infantry Division; the initial landings were achieved with low casualties, but the advance from the beach was slowed by traffic congestion and resistance in defended areas behind the beachhead. Further progress towards Caen was halted by the only armoured counter-attack of the day, mounted by the 21st Panzer Division.

Following the Fall of France, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill vowed to return to continental Europe and liberate the Nazi German-occupied nations. The Western Allies agreed to open a Second Front in northern Europe in 1942 to aid the Soviet Union. However, with resources for an invasion lacking, it was postponed but planning was undertaken that in the event of the German position in western Europe becoming critically weakened or the Soviet Union's situation becoming dire, forces could be landed in France. At the same time, planning was underway for a major landing in occupied France during 1943. In August 1942, Canadian and British forces attempted an abortive landing—Operation Jubilee—at the Calais port-town of Dieppe; the attack was poorly ended in disaster. The decision to prosecute the Battle of the Atlantic to its closure, the lack of landing craft, invading Sicily in July 1943, Italy in September following the defeat of Axis forces in North Africa in May 1943 resulted in the postponement of any assault on northern Europe till 1944.

Having succeeded in opening up an offensive front in southern Europe, gaining valuable experience in amphibious assaults and inland fighting, Allied planners returned to the plans to invade Northern France. Now scheduled for 5 June 1944, the beaches of Normandy were selected as landing sites, with a zone of operations extending from the Cotentin Peninsula to Caen. Operation Overlord called for the British Second Army to assault between the River Orne and Port en Bessin, capture the German-occupied city of Caen and form a front line from Caumont-l'Éventé to the south-east of Caen, in order to acquire airfields and protect the left flank of the United States First Army while it captured Cherbourg. Possession of Caen and its surroundings would give Second Army a suitable staging area for a push south to capture the city of Falaise, which could be used as a pivot for an advance on Argentan, the Touques River and towards the Seine River. Overlord would constitute the largest amphibious operation in military history.

After delays, due to both logistical difficulties and poor weather, the D-Day of Overlord was moved to 6 June 1944. Eisenhower and Bernard Montgomery, commander of 21st Army Group, aimed to capture Caen within the first day, liberate Paris within 90 days; the coastline of Normandy was divided into seventeen sectors, with codenames using a spelling alphabet—from Able, west of Omaha, to Roger on the east flank of Sword. Eight further sectors were added when the invasion was extended to include Utah on the Cotentin Peninsula. Sectors were further subdivided into beaches identified by the colours Green and White; the Anglo-Canadian assault landings on D-Day were to be carried out by the British Second Army, under Lieutenant General Miles Dempsey. The Second Army's I Corps, commanded by Lieutenant General John Crocker, was assigned to take Sword. To Major General Tom Rennie's 3rd Infantry Division fell the task of assaulting the beaches and seizing the main British objective on D-Day, the historic Norman city of Caen.

Attached to the 3rd Infantry Division for the assault were the 27th Independent Armoured Brigade, the 1st Special Service Brigade, No. 41 Commando of the 4th Special Service Brigade, Royal Marine armoured support, additional artillery and engineers, elements of the 79th Armoured Division. 6th Beach Group was deployed to assist the troops and landing craft landing on Sword and to develop the beach maintenance area. The 3rd Infantry Division was ordered to advance on Caen, 7.5 miles from Sword, with the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division advancing on its western flank to secure Carpiquet airfield, 11 miles from Juno Beach, on the outskirts of the city. The 3rd Infantry was ordered to relieve the elements of the 6th Airborne Division that had secured the bridges over the River Orne and Caen Canal during Operation Tonga, secure the high ground north of Caen, "if possible Caen itself"; the last point was further reinforced when I Corps' commander, General Crocker, instructed the division, prior to the invasion, that by nightfall the city must be either captured or "effectively masked" with troops based north-west of the city and Bénouville.

Sword stretched about 5 miles from Saint-Aubin-sur-Mer in the west to the mouth of the River Orne in the east. It was further sub-divided into four landing sectors.

Zhang Zhaohuan

Zhang, Zhaohuan was born in Zhenjiang, China, in 1925. He graduated from the Faculty of Medicine, Shanghai Medical College in 1950; because of his outstanding school performance and academic potential, he was offered a lectureship by his alma mater upon graduation—a practice, still in vogue in all universities in China when recruiting exceptional faculty members is difficult. In the eight years that followed, he worked there first as a lecturer and an associate professor and associate director. Zhang was among the few doctors in China; as a new medical graduate, he advocated passionately that disease prevention rather than treatment was more effective. Prevention should be a primary strategy in controlling the spread of infectious diseases and improving the overall health of the general population of China, he devoted his entire career to this conviction through teaching. He was one of the founders of the Department of Health at Shanghai Medical College, he was a revered scholar, a pioneer researcher in health statistics and biostatistics in China, a public health practitioner.

In the height of the so-called "Great Leap Forward" era in 1958, an institutionalized frenzy with an ostensible yet unrealistic aim to overtake Britain in economic output, he was dispatched to the newly established Chongqing Medical School to establish a new academic department, the Department of Preventive Medicine. He has been regarded as the founder since. During his over-20-year tenure as an associate professor and chairman of that department, his accomplishments in teaching and research had been well recognized. From 1979 until his retirement after he returned to Shanghai Medical University, he had been a full professor of medical statistics, vice chairman in the Department of Health Statistics and Social Medicine. At a time when biostatistics received little, if any, attention in the medical field, he was prescient to foresee its important roles in medical research and contended that vigorous research design and statistical analysis were an indispensable part of good medical research.

Despite his lack of formal mathematical and statistical training, he taught himself sophisticated statistical theories and became skillful and creative in applying biostatistics to biomedical problems. He was among the first few investigators who, in working with his students, introduced advanced biostatistical methods from western countries to China. A few examples include: multiple linear regression, logistic regression, Cox regression, proportional hazards models, multi-stage survival model, structural equation modeling, generalized linear model, epidemic model, which are now used by epidemiologists and other medical researchers in China. Considering China's precarious political atmosphere, when the nation was ravaged by incessant political turmoils, these accomplishments were quite a feat. At Shanghai Medical University, he designed and lectured many courses for medical students including "Introduction to Biostatistics" and "Clinical Trials", "Design of Experiments" and "Multivariate Analysis" to graduate students in public health, "Quality Control" to students in health administration.

He was a gifted educator with the ability to tailor esoteric statistical materials according to students' background and needs. He had the charisma to animate his classes. During his near half-century academic career, Professor Zhang received numerous awards and held many positions including director for the Division of Medical Statistics and Social Medicine in the Institute of Preventive Medicine of Shanghai Medical University, panel member for professional evaluation board for Shanghai Medical University, School of Public Health, member of the national education, a board member for reviewing teaching material for School of Public Health. In 1983, he was sent by Ministry of Health to Austria and Sweden as a visiting scholar to further broaden his research and promote international collaborations. Besides his recognized excellence and contributions in biostatistics, his research interests included other broadly defined areas of preventive medicine and public health; the research projects he led, the scientific publications he produced, were in occupational epidemiology and children's health, infectious diseases such as measles and tuberculosis.

He published more than 300 scientific papers and textbooks, many of which were regarded and are still in use in China. Zhang supervised many graduate students at Master or Ph. D level, who now work in universities, government agencies, pharmaceutical companies in the United States, England and China. Zhang’s passion in research and teaching did not end with his retirement in 1991. Instead, he continued supervising graduate students, providing consultation service to various institutions across China, collaborating in a number of research projects, he earned his reputation and respect by his dedication and scholarly distinction. Zhang is survived by his wife and his son in China and a daughter who now lives in the USA. Mathematical epidemic models and their applications in the spread of tuberculosis, 1983 Logistic regression model, 1984 Cox regression model, 1985 Path analysis of nuclear family data, 1988 Proportional hazard model, 1988 Loglinear model, 1989 Multi-state model, 1991 王海云, 张照寰. 5种常用避孕方法的使用效果分析.

《中国妇幼保健》 1996年第06期 李其松, 曹素华, 谢国民, 干玉红, 马鸿建, 陆继珍, 张照寰. Relieving effects of Chinese herbs, ear-acupuncture and epidural morphing on postoperative pain in liver cancer. 《Chinese Medical Journal》 1994年04期 金丕焕, 詹绍康, 张照寰. 《医用统计方法》 上海医科大学出版社,1992 庄莹, 彭文彬, 易企龙, 吴钢

Russia in the Eurovision Song Contest 2017

Russia announced its participation in the Eurovision Song Contest 2017, in Kiev, Ukraine. The Russian broadcaster Channel One Russia organised their entrant internally. Russia was planned to compete in the first half of the second semifinal on 11 May 2017, until the announcement of their withdrawal on 13 April 2017. Prior to the 2017 contest, Russia had participated in the Eurovision Song Contest twenty times since its first entry in 1994. Russia had won the contest on one occasion in 2008 with the song "Believe" performed by Dima Bilan. Russia's least successful result has been 17th place, which they have achieved in the 1995 with the song "Kolybelnaya dlya vulkana" performed by Philipp Kirkorov. Following the introduction of semi-finals for the 2004, Russia has, to this point, managed to qualify to the final on every occasion. In 2015, Russia was the runner-up at the Eurovision Song Contest, placing second with the song "A Million Voices" performed by Polina Gagarina. On 12 March 2017, Channel One announced that they had internally selected Julia Samoylova, with her song "Flame is Burning" to represent them at the Eurovision Song Contest 2017.

She was described as "an independent singer, an enchanting girl and a successful competition participant". On 13 March 2017, it was revealed that Ukrainian officials had begun an investigation into Samoylova, alleging that in 2015, she had illegally traveled directly to Crimea, a region, annexed by Russia in 2014, to give a performance. Ukrainian legislation requires visitors to enter the region through points under the control of the Ukrainian government, or risk being banned from entering Ukraine for several years. In response to these actions, it was speculated that Russia's choice of Samoylova may have been a deliberate political statement, having knowingly picked a singer who had performed in the disputed territory. Russia has denied. On 22 March 2017, the Security Service of Ukraine confirmed that Samoylova had been banned from entering Ukraine for three years for illegally travelling to Crimea; the EBU stated that it was continuing to ensure that all entrants would be able to perform in Kiev, but that "we have to respect the local laws of the host country, however we are disappointed in this decision as we feel it goes against both the spirit of the contest and the notion of inclusivity that lies at the heart of its values."

On 23 March 2017, EBU offered a compromise to Channel One Russia, in which Samoylova would be allowed to perform remotely from a venue of the broadcaster's choice. The Eurovision Song Contest 2017 took place at the International Exhibition Centre in Kiev and consisted of two semi-finals on 9 and 11 May and the final on 13 May 2017. According to Eurovision rules, all nations with the exceptions of the host country and the "Big 5" are required to qualify from one of two semi-finals in order to compete for the final; the European Broadcasting Union split up the competing countries into six different pots based on voting patterns from previous contests, with countries with favourable voting histories put into the same pot. In spite of the provisional ban, Russia were included in the running order, in the third slot, after Austria, before Macedonia. On 13 April 2017 EBU said; the Russian state broadcaster Channel One responded by stating that they will not broadcast the contest. Official Channel One Eurovision site

Ronnie Cruz

Ronnie Valentin Cruz is a former American football fullback. He was signed by the Kansas City Chiefs as an undrafted free agent in 2004, he played college football at Northern State University. Cruz has been a member of the Dallas Cowboys. Ronnie Cruz was named football MVP and student-athlete of the year at Clear Lake High School in Lakeport, California, he ranked second in rushing in the state of California. Ronnie Cruz was once considered a tuba prodigy. Ronnie Cruz began his collegiate career at Mendocino Community College in Ukiah, where he was an all-conference and all-region honoree, he had 152 carries for 10 scores as a freshman in 14 games played. He finished his sophomore season with 264 attempts for 1,779 rushing yards with 14 touchdowns, he played two years at Northern State in South Dakota. As a Junior Cruz led the school with 200 carries for 892 rushing yards and seven touchdowns along with six receptions for 59 yards with one score; as a Senior he played in 11 games, recording 1,476 rushing yards on 240 carries with 18 touchdowns and 33 receptions for 316 yards with one score.

Cruz was named to the first-team All-Region and Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference teams as a senior. He ranked eighth in scoring and 10th in rushing his senior year, his role with the Kansas City Chiefs in 2005 was a backup role at halfback to Priest Holmes and Larry Johnson, backup to fullback Tony Richardson. Prior to the 2006 season, Richardson signed with the Minnesota Vikings, giving the starting fullback role to Cruz. In week six, Cruz suffered a knee injury; the Chiefs released Cruz at the beginning of the 2007 season. On January 18, 2008, Cruz signed with the Dallas Cowboys, he worked his way to second on the depth chart as a fullback, but a shoulder injury in a preseason game ended his season. He was released by the Cowboys with an injury settlement. Cruz was drafted by the Florida Tuskers on the UFL Premiere Season Draft in 2009 and signed with the team on August 17. Cruz is now a bail fugitive recovery agent, he now owns and operates Cruz Out of Jail Bail Bonds with two locations: one office in Sacramento, CA and the other in Lakeport, CA

Bernoulli's inequality

In real analysis, Bernoulli's inequality is an inequality that approximates exponentiations of 1 + x. The inequality states that r ≥ 1 + r x for every integer r ≥ 0 and every real number x ≥ −2. If the exponent r is then the inequality is valid for all real numbers x; the strict version of the inequality reads r > 1 + r x for every integer r ≥ 2 and every real number x ≥ −1 with x ≠ 0. There is a generalized version that says for every real number r ≥ 1 and real number x ≥ -1, r ≥ 1 + r x, while for 0 ≤ r ≤ 1 and real number x ≥ -1, r ≤ 1 + r x. Bernoulli's inequality is used as the crucial step in the proof of other inequalities, it can itself be proved using mathematical induction. Jacob Bernoulli first published the inequality in his treatise “Positiones Arithmeticae de Seriebus Infinitis”, where he used the inequality often. According to Joseph E. Hofmann, Über die Exercitatio Geometrica des M. A. Ricci, p. 177, the inequality is due to Sluse in his Mesolabum, Chapter IV "De maximis & minimis".

We proceed with mathematical induction in the following form: we prove the inequality for r ∈, from validity for some r we deduce validity for r+2. For r = 0, 0 ≥ 1 + 0 x is equivalent to 1 ≥ 1, true as required. For r = 1 we have r = 1 + x ≥ 1 + x = 1 + r x. Now suppose the statement is true for r = k: k ≥ 1 + k x, it follows that k + 2 = k 2 ≥ by hypothesis and 2 ≥ 0 = 1 + 2 x + x 2 + k x + 2 k x 2 + k x 3 = 1 + x + k x 2 + x 2 ≥ 1 + x since x 2 ≥ 0 as well as x + 2 ≥ 0. By the modified induction we conclude the statement is true for every non-negative integer r; the exponent r can be generalized to an arbitrary real number as follows: if x > −1 r ≥ 1 + r x for r ≤ 0 or r ≥ 1, r ≤ 1 + r x for 0 ≤ r ≤ 1. This generalization can be proved by comparing derivatives. Again, the strict versions of these inequalities require x ≠ 0 and r ≠ 0, 1; the following inequality estimates the r-th power of 1 + x from the other side. For any real numbers x, r with r > 0, one has r ≤ e r x, where e = 2.718.... This may

Static line

A static line is a fixed cord attached to a large, stable object. It is used to open parachutes automatically for paratroopers and novice parachutists. A static line is a cord attached at one end to the aircraft and at the other end to the top of the jumper's "D-Bag"; the parachutist's fall from the aircraft causes the static line to become taut, this pulls the D-Bag out of the container on the jumper's back. The static line and D-Bag stay with the aircraft as the jumper leaves, is pulled back into the aircraft by the dispatcher. Now free of its D-Bag, the canopy is allowed to inflate; the jumper drags the parachute behind him, causing the upward-rushing wind to force open and inflate the canopy. The canopy should begin supporting the jumper within 4 seconds. In the unlikely event of a malfunction, students are taught how to cut away the main canopy and deploy the reserve chute; the aim of static line progression is to train students to maintain the correct, stable body position upon exiting the aircraft, to teach how to deploy the canopy via the pilot chute mechanism.

As mentioned above the parachutist must adopt and maintain a stable body position throughout deployment to minimize the chances of a parachute malfunction. This method of parachute deployment is used in several ways: Training student skydivers, e.g. in the Ram Air Progression System BASE jumping Military paratroopers jumping from low altitudes 400 ft Static line jumping carries risk of injury that, according to one study, doubles when performed in combat. For training students in civilian operations, modifications to existing static line equipment may be made to simplify operations. One such modification is to attach the deployment bag to the parachute instead of the static line, which requires some modification to allow the static line to detach a Velcro fastener; this leaves much less material "in the wind" behind the plane. This isn't a problem for larger cargo aircraft used in military jumping, but presents a major issue for smaller aircraft used in civilian operations; this modification results in a somewhat slower opening, which softens the opening shock at the cost of altitude, a minor concern for jumpers exiting at 2,800 ft. Accelerated freefall What is Static Line Training? from Static Line Monthly publication since 1947 for, by and about paratroopers, air assault troopers. Unofficial headquarters of military Paratroopers and present. The European Military Parachuting Association