National Trust of Australia
The National Trust of Australia the Australian Council of National Trusts, is the Australian national peak body for community-based, non-government non-profit organisations committed to promoting and conserving Australia's indigenous and historic heritage. Incorporated in 1965, it federates the eight autonomous National Trusts in each Australian state and internal self-governing territory, providing them with a national secretariat and a national and international presence. Collectively, the constituent National Trusts own or manage over 300 heritage places, manage a volunteer workforce of 7,000 while employing about 350 people nationwide. Around 1,000,000 visitors experience the their collections in Australia each year. Modelled on the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty and inspired by local campaigns to conserve native bushland and preserve old buildings, the first Australian National Trusts were formed in New South Wales in 1945, South Australia in 1955 and Victoria in 1956.
The driving force behind the establishment of the National Trust in Australia was Annie Forsyth Wyatt. She lived for much of her life in a cottage in Gordon, New South Wales, still standing, she was living in the Sydney suburb of St Ives. In 1975, the National Trust moved into the former Fort Street High School building on Observatory Hill, after the girls' school moved to Petersham to be reunited with the boys' school, which had moved in 1916; the distinctive building, which retains its appearance from the time of its conversion to a school in 1849, is visible from the approaches to the Sydney Harbour Bridge. The constituent organisations are: List of National Trust properties in Australia List of Australian Living Treasures SAHANZ, the Society of Architectural Historians and New Zealand Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales Clark, Mary Rhyllis. In Trust. Recollections of the Victorian Trust pioneers Cosgrove, Carol. Challenging times: the National Trust of South Australia 1955–2005. Adelaide: National Trust of South Australia.
ISBN 0-909378-60-6 Hill, Robert. "Heritage: Yesterday and Tomorrow": Address to the Natural Trust Conference. Speeches of the Federal Minister for the Environment. Department of the Environment and Heritage. Archived from the original on 2006-09-11. Retrieved 2007-01-30. Wyatt, Ian. Ours in Trust. Covers the founding years of the NSW National Trust
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before British colonisation. The time of arrival of the first Indigenous Australians is a matter of debate among researchers; the earliest conclusively human remains found in Australia are those of Mungo Man LM3 and Mungo Lady, which have been dated to around 50,000 years BP. Recent archaeological evidence from the analysis of charcoal and artefacts revealing human use suggests a date as early as 65,000 BP. Luminescence dating has suggested habitation in Arnhem Land as far back as 60,000 years BP. Genetic research has inferred a date of habitation as early as 80,000 years BP. Other estimates have ranged up to 100,000 years and 125,000 years BP. Although there are a number of commonalities between Indigenous Aboriginal Australians, there is a great diversity among different Indigenous communities and societies in Australia, each with its own mixture of cultures and languages.
In present-day Australia these groups are further divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken. Aboriginal people today speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English; the population of Indigenous Australians at the time of permanent European settlement is contentious and has been estimated at between 318,000 and 1,000,000 with the distribution being similar to that of the current Australian population, the majority living in the south-east, centred along the Murray River. A population collapse principally from disease followed European settlement beginning with a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans. Massacres and war by British settlers contributed to depopulation; the characterisation of this violence as genocide is controversial and disputed. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the official flags of Australia.
The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century to mean, "first or earliest known, indigenous". It comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from origo; the word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789. It soon became employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. While the term Indigenous Australians, has grown since the 1980s to be more inclusive of Torres Strait Islander people, many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples dislike it, feeling that it is too generic and removes their identity. Being more specific, for example naming the language group, is considered best practice and most respectful. Terms that are considered disrespectful include Aborigine and ATSI The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many regional groups that identify under names from local Indigenous languages; these include: Murrawarri people -- see Murawari language. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land.
These larger groups may be further subdivided. It is estimated that before the arrival of British settlers, the population of Indigenous Australians was 318,000–750,000 across the continent; the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, speak a Papuan language. Accordingly, they are not included under the designation "Aboriginal Australians"; this has been another factor in the promotion of the more inclusive term "Indigenous Australians". Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as Torres Strait Islanders. A further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage; the Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879. Many Indigenous organisations incorporate the phrase "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander" to highlight the distinctiveness and importance of Torres Strait Islanders in Australia's Indigenous population.
Eddie Mabo was from "Mer" or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term "black" has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement. While related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal he
Dobroyd Head is a point or headland in the Northern Beaches local government area, in the suburb of Balgowlah Heights, New South Wales, Australia. It is part of the Sydney Harbour National Park, which contains examples of ecosystems at risk such as coastal heath. Tania Park is located to the immediate north-east, contains the 2MWM 90.3 transmitter. There is a lookout sited on the headland named after Arabanoo, the first Aboriginal man to live among European settlers, captured in Manly Cove in 1788. In January 1788 Captain Arthur Phillip noted Aboriginal people living in caves at what is now Wellings Reserve, Balgowlah Heights, there are a number of Aboriginal sites recorded in the area, including a midden at Reef Beach, eroded by a storm in May 1974, when human remains were exposed. What is now Dobroyd Head was named "Dobroyd Point" by Simeon Lord, a landowner in the district in the early 19th century. Dobroyd Castle, its namesake, was the home of his mother, Ann Fielden, prior to her marriage in 1764.
On his death in 1840, he gifted the land to the Crown, with a stipulation that the name must be kept. In 1871, the Secretary for Lands, John Bowie Wilson, set aside the area of 100 hectares comprising the Dobroyd headland as a defence reserve, but excluded all privately-owned lands, such as Reef Beach, Forty Baskets Beach, Grotto Point, Castle Rock and Clontarf. On 14 August 1874, prominent surveyor and hydrographer, Commander John Thomas Ewing Gowlland was drowned in an accident of the headland. In August 1963 the Manly and Pittwater Historical Society unveiled a plaque at Dobroyd Head commemorating him. In 1914, the government steamer, SS Kate, was struck and sunk by the Manly ferry Bellubera off the headland; the Dobroyd Scenic Drive, funded by the council, was opened in 1938 by Manly mayor Percy Nolan. Between 1923 and 1963, various small cabins and shacks were built around Crater Cove on the headland, they were for use as weekenders and retreats and remained occupied until the 1980s. Various subdivisions for the development of Balgowlah Heights occurred throughout the next 80 years until in 1959-1960, when Manly Council learned that land near Cutler Road and Tabalum Road was to be subdivided and objected to any development and sale of land below Cutler Road.
This movement to preserve the lands of Dobroyd Head for public recreation was led by alderman Frank Preacher, on 17 October 1960, Lands Minister Jack Renshaw met representatives of Manly Council on the site. Renshaw approved the removal of these lands from the sale of land and transferred responsibility for its preservation to Manly council. In 1975, responsibilities changed again when the area was proclaimed as part of the Sydney Harbour National Park. A 2015 article in the Manly Daily revealed that Manly Council had voted in June 1997 to erect a plaque to honour Renshaw, alderman Preacher and Manly Council's role in the preservation of the headland, but no action has since been taken to carry it out. Arabanoo lookout at Dobroyd Head - Sydney Harbour National Park
North Head Quarantine Station
The North Head Quarantine Station is an heritage-listed former quarantine station and associated buildings, now a tourist attraction at North Head Scenic Drive, on the north side of Sydney Harbour at North Head, near Manly, in the Northern Beaches Council local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It is known as North Head Quarantine Station & Reserve and Quarantine Station & Reserve; the property is owned by the Office of Environment and Heritage, an agency of the Government of New South Wales. The buildings and site was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999; the entire 277-hectare North Head site, including the Quarantine Station and associated buildings and facilities, was added to the Australian National Heritage List on 12 May 2006, now forms part of the Sydney Harbour National Park. The complex operated as a quarantine station from 14 August 1832 to 29 February 1984; the concept behind its establishment was that, as an island-nation, the Colony of New South Wales, as it was, was susceptible to ship-borne disease.
Those who might have an infectious disease would be kept in quarantine until it was considered safe to release them. The isolation and strategic role of North Head was recognised in 1828 when the first vessel, the Bussorab Merchant, was quarantined at Spring Cove; the importance and future role of North Head was reinforced by Governor Darling's Quarantine Act of 1832, which set aside the whole of North Head for quarantine purposes in response to the 1829–51 cholera pandemic in Europe. The station is now home to a hotel, conference centre, restaurant complex known as Q Station, remains part of the Sydney Harbour National Park. One of the early quarantine officers was a keen naturalist and painter. For many years Percy Nolan, an alderman and mayor of Manly, pushed for the removal of the Quarantine Station from Manly and called for its use as public open space. Over sixty years this far-sighted proposal became a reality. In the 1960s and 70s, the officer in charge of the Quarantine Station, Herb Lavaring BEM, took it upon himself to preserve and compile a museum of artifacts and other items of note and significance to the station's operations, including domestic implements, medical instruments, hand tools for tasks ranging from blacksmithing to building construction.
Lavaring collected these materials over the period 1963–1975 and commenced restoration work on the diverse range of rock carvings and headstones from the major burial grounds. The items collected by Lavaring were preserved, many have since found their way into state and federal collections, including the National Museum in Canberra, where a muzzle-loading rifle and a set of manacles are preserved. One of the most historic features of the quarantine station is the series of engravings along the escarpment adjacent to the jetty; the carvings were executed by people staying at the quarantine station, cover an extensive period that stretched from the early nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. Some show a high degree of skill. More carvings are located at the rock formation known as Old Man's Hat; the Quarantine Station was established to regulate the risk of disease importation through the migration of free and convict Europeans, the arrival of merchant shipping. There was always a close link between the requirement for quarantine and the ebb and flow of sea-borne immigration.
The other major influence was the imperative to limit disruption to the commercially-sensitive shipping industry. As the dominant headland of the harbour, North Head was of importance in navigation from the time of the First Fleet. By 1809 navigational plans were showing an obelisk, located in what was to become the Quarantine Station precinct, presumed to have been used as a channel marker for vessels negotiating the Sow and Pigs Reef. A 10-metre-high obelisk still exists on this site, which may be the original marker, making it one of the oldes European structures on Sydney Harbour. Up until the 1830s, the majority of ships requiring quarantine were convict transports, being under government contract, the somewhat informal proclamation of quarantine by the Governor of the day was easy to enforce. One reason for the introduction of formal statutory regulation for quarantine in NSW in 1832 was the increasing rate of free immigrant vessels entering port. In 1831 thirty four immigrant ships had arrived, this increased to 63 in 1832.
The captains of these free vessels were less ready to comply with such informal and ad hoc processes, thus a legislated requirement for all ships entering port to be screened for disease, quarantined if necessary, was needed. Another problem with the changing nature of the shipping entering Sydney was the increasing time constraints placed on the captains of commercial vessels, necessitating rapid turn-around in port-time wasted in port, in quarantine, was income lost; the convict ships, under government contract, could be isolated for the period of quarantine with little added expense, but free commercial carriers sought demurrage from government for any delays it imposed. In part, the disruption to shipping caused by traditional quarantine practices led to the progressive move away from detention-based quarantine in Britain through the middle years of the 19th century; when the 1832 Quarantine Act was passed in NSW, Viscount Goderich, British Secretary of State for War and Colonies, warned that quarantine was prejudicial to the trade of the kingdom and that the colon
Manly, New South Wales
Manly is a beach-side suburb of northern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is 17 kilometres north-east of the Sydney central business district and is one of the three administrative centres of the local government area of Northern Beaches Council. Manly has a long-standing reputation as a tourist destination, owing to its attractive setting on the Pacific Ocean and easy accessibility by ferry. Manly was named by Captain Arthur Phillip for the indigenous people living there, stating that "their confidence and manly behaviour made me give the name of Manly Cove to this place"; these men were of the Kay-ye-my clan. While scouting for fresh water in the area, Phillip encountered members of the clan, after a misunderstanding he was speared in the shoulder by one of the clan. In Capt. Tench's words, The Aboriginal men were feasting on a whale at Manly Cove and were seen by Captain Nepean, Mr White, Nanbaree & a party of men who had travelled to Manly Cove to walk to Broken Bay.
Bennelong and Colebee spoke to them and Bennelong asked for Governor Phillip. Captain Nepean sent the Boatswain back to Governor Phillip at South Head; the Aboriginal men put them in the boat for Governor Phillip. The military party proceeded on their walk to Broken Bay; when Governor Phillips party arrived to see the Aboriginal men they held friendly conversation with Bennelong and Colebee for over half an hour. An older Aboriginal man appeared with a spear. Captain Tench remarked that he was a stranger and little acquainted with Bennelong and Colebee; the Governor moved towards this man and the man became agitated. Governor Phillip threw down his dirk to appease the man crying out confidently; the spear was thrown and Governor Phillip was hit in the shoulder. All was in confusion, there were calls to bring the muskets and Colebee disappeared and Governor Phillip could not make it to the ship because of the length of spear sticking from his shoulder and dragging on the ground; the muskets were brought to shore but only one would fire.
The spear was broken and all hastened to Port Jackson. Manly had been envisaged as a seaside resort by Henry Gilbert Smith in the 1850s. In 1853 Smith acquired two large parcels of land. John had chartered a paddle steamer to Manly and other vessels visited on an ad hoc "excursion" basis. Smith built a wharf on the harbour-side of Manly, completed in October 1855 and acquired an interest in steamers himself; as part of developing more regular services to Manly to assist his sub-division property sales. By 1873, Smith had sold the lease to the wharf and his share of the steamers to the operators of the ferries and ownership passed to the once famous Port Jackson & Manly Steamship Company, it was the Port Jackson & Manly Steamship Company which coined the expression about Manly being "Seven miles from Sydney and a thousand miles from care" to promote its ferry service. The Port Jackson & Manly Steamship Company played an important part in Manly's development, it built several attractions including the Manly Fun Pier.
In 1972 the company was sold to Brambles Limited and in 1974 to the Government of New South Wales and it is now part of Sydney Ferries. In March 1885, as the New South Wales Contingent was about to depart for the Sudan, a letter was addressed to Premier William Bede Dalley containing a cheque for £25 for the Patriotic Fund'with my best wishes from a little boy at Manly', it was Australia's first overseas military adventure, the "Little Boy from Manly: became a symbol either of patriotism or, among opponents of the adventure, of mindless chauvinism. Due to a cartoon by Livingston Hopkins of The Bulletin. During the 19th and early 20th century Manly was one of Australia's most popular seaside holiday resorts. Manly Beach is said to be the place where the restriction on daylight sea bathing was first challenged in Australia. In October 1902 William Gocher, clad in a neck to knee costume, swam at midday after announcing his intention to do so in the newspaper he had established. After being ignored by authorities and being publicly critical of them, he swam again and was escorted from the water by the police, although no charges were laid.
In November 1903, Manly Council resolved to allow all-day bathing provided a neck to knee swimming costume was worn. During the first official bathing season in 1903, 17 people drowned on Manly Beach. A year a surf club was formed on the beach to safeguard the public. While there is debate about which club is the oldest, Manly Life Saving Club is one of the world's first surf life saving clubs. In 1934, George Robey, a resident and original Anzac founded the'Air Mindedness Development League', renamed the Australian Air League at Manly. There has been a continuously running squadron in Manly since. In 1937 Manly Town Hall was opened. Manly has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 151 Darley Road: St Patrick's Seminary North Head Scenic Drive: North Head Quarantine Station West Esplanade: Manly Cove Pavilion West Esplanade: Manly ferry wharf 34a-36 Whistler Street: Manly Substation Manly is most notable for its beaches which are popular tourist destinations. Manly features a long stretch of sand on the ocean side, that runs from Queenscliff through North Steyne to South Steyne.
This is followed by rock pools and sandy beaches called Fairy Bower and Shelly Beach. There are a number of beaches on the harbour side of the peninsula. Norfolk Island pine trees are symbolic of Manl
Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour, North Harbour and the Lane Cove and Parramatta Rivers, is the ria or natural harbour of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The harbour is an inlet of the Tasman Sea, it is the location of the Sydney Opera Sydney Harbour Bridge. The location of the first European settlement and colony on the Australian mainland, Port Jackson has continued to play a key role in the history and development of Sydney. Many recreational events are based on or around the harbour itself the Sydney New Year's Eve celebrations and the starting point of the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race; the waterways of Port Jackson are managed by the Maritime Services. Sydney Harbour National Park protects a number of islands and foreshore areas, swimming spots, bushwalking tracks and picnic areas; the land around Port Jackson was occupied at the time of the European arrival and colonisation by the Eora clans, including the Gadigal and Wangal. The Gadigal occupied the land stretching along the south side of Port Jackson from what is now South Head, in an arc west to the present Darling Harbour.
The Cammeraygal lived on the northern side of the harbour. The area along the southern banks of the Parramatta River to Rose Hill belonged to the Wangal; the Eora occupied west to Parramatta. The first recorded European discovery of Sydney Harbour was by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook named the inlet after Sir George Jackson, one of the Lord Commissioners of the British Admiralty, Judge Advocate of the Fleet; as the Endeavour sailed past the entrance at Sydney Heads, Cook wrote in his journal "at noon we were...about 2 or 3 miles from the land and abrest of a bay or harbour within there appeared to be a safe anchorage which I called Port Jackson." No-one on the ship recorded seeing any of the Harbour's many islands. This would have been because their line of sight was blocked by the high promontories of South Head and Bradleys Head that shape its dog-leg entrance. However, these islands were known to Captain Arthur Phillip, the First Fleet commander, before he departed England in 1787. Cook had seen the main body of the Harbour in 1770 and, on returning home, he had reported his important discovery to the Admiralty.
An explanation of Cook's discovery was first proposed in the book Lying for the Admiralty. While the Endeavour was anchored in Botany Bay, Cook may have followed one of the ancient Aboriginal tracks that connect Botany Bay to Port Jackson, a distance of some ten kilometres; the Admiralty had ordered Cook to conceal strategically valuable discoveries, so he omitted the main Harbour from his journal and chart. Eighteen years on 21 January 1788, after arriving at Botany Bay, Governor Arthur Phillip took a longboat and two cutters up the coast to sound the entrance and examine Cook's Port Jackson. Phillip first stayed over night at Camp Cove moved down the harbour, landing at Sydney Cove and Manly Cove before returning to Botany Bay on the afternoon of 24 January. Phillip returned to Sydney Cove in HM Armed Tender Supply on 26 January 1788, where he established the first colony in Australia to become the city of Sydney. In his first dispatch from the colony back to England, Governor Phillip noted that:...we had the satisfaction of finding the finest harbour in the world, in which a thousand sail of the line may ride in the most perfect security...
The Great White Fleet, the United States Navy battle fleet, arrived in Port Jackson in August 1908 by order of U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt. From 1938, seaplanes landed in Sydney Harbour on Rose Bay, making this Sydney's first international airport. In 1942, to protect Sydney Harbour from a submarine attack, the Sydney Harbour anti-submarine boom net was constructed, it spanned the harbour from Green Point, Watsons Bay to the battery at Georges Head, on the other side of the harbour. On the night of 31 May 1942, three Japanese midget submarines entered the harbour, one of which became entangled in the western end of the boom net's central section. Unable to free their submarine, the crew detonated charges. A second midget submarine came to grief in the two crew committing suicide; the third submarine fired two torpedoes at USS Chicago before leaving the harbour. In November 2006, this submarine was found off Sydney's Northern Beaches; the anti-submarine boom net was demolished soon after World War II, all that remains are the foundations of the old boom net winch house, which can be viewed on Green Point, Watsons Bay.
Today, the Australian War Memorial has on display a composite of the two midget submarines salvaged from Sydney Harbour. The conning tower of one of the midget submarines is on display at the RAN Heritage Centre, Garden Island, Sydney. Fort Denison is a former penal site and defensive facility occupying a small island located north-east of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Sydney Harbour. There are fortifications at elsewhere, some of which are now heritage listed; the earliest date from the 1830s, were designed to defend Sydney from seaborn attack or convict uprisings. There are four historical fortifications located between Taronga Zoo and Middle Head, they are: the Middle Head Fortifications, the Georges Head Battery, the Lower Georges Heights Commanding Position and a small fort located on Bradleys Head, known as the Bradleys Head Fortification Complex; the forts were built from sandstone quarried on site and consist of various tunnels, underground rooms, open batteries and casemated batteries, shell rooms, gunpowder magazines and trenches.
Geologically, Port Jackson is a drowned river v
Georges Head Battery
The Georges Head Battery called the Georges Head Military Fortifications, is an heritage-listed former military fortification located on the Georges Head on Chowder Bay Road, Georges Heights, in the suburb of Mosman, in the Mosman Council local government area of New South Wales, Australia. The site consists of the original battery and barracks, designed by Colonial Architect James Barnet, located at the end of Suakin Drive, Georges Heights, two batteries located adjacent to the corner of Middle Head Road and Best Avenue, Georges Heights, the Beehive Casemate adjacent to the Armoured Casemate in Chowder Bay Road; the Georges Head Battery is one of three forts in the area that were built for the purpose of defending the outer harbour. The other two forts are located at Bradleys Head, Mosman; the fort became a command post in the 1890s for the coordination of all of Sydney's harbour defences. It was decommissioned in 2002 and part of the land is managed by the Sydney Harbour Federation Trust, with other parts managed by the NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service as part of the Sydney Harbour National Park.
The property is owned by NSW Officer of Environment and Heritage, an agency of the Government of New South Wales. The site was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. Australian Defence activity began in this area of Sydney Harbour as early as 1803 when a gun battery was installed on Georges Head. Built between 1801 and 1803 the so called "Georges Head" battery was hewn by hand out of solid rock using a work gang of 44 convicts on what is now known as Obelisk Point near Middle Head; the Georges Head Battery is in fact 1 km to the south west. This is the oldest remaining colonial fortification in Australia and was built to defend the entrance to Sydney Harbour during the Napoleonic wars; the fort was abandoned a few years after construction. In July 2010 the NSW Governor, Marie Bashir reopened the site and the historic fort was recognised. On 10 March 1801 Governor King informed the Secretary of State for Colonies that a battery was "in forwardness opposite the entrance to the Harbour, which will prevent attack from without".
Despite that confidence, the job took another two years to finish. With only picks, crowbars and sledgehammers, a gun pit was cut out of solid sandstone, leaving a curved parapet 24-metre long on the cliff edge about 15 metres above sea level. There were two embrasures or gun openings, but guns could be fired over the parapet; the guns - four twelve-pounders and two six-pounders - were landed at Obelisk Beach and hauled up through the bush. In the gun pit was built a magazine for powder and shot, with stone walls three feet thick; the "Sydney Gazette" reported on 23 October 1803 that "The new battery is compleated and the artificers and labourers recalled... the battery mounts six guns, two long twelves on the right, two of the same size on the left and two short sixes in the centre. The first of these command the bay inwardly, those on the left command the entrance of the harbour between the heads and those in the centre point across the channel."With the French threat in the east removed with the capture of Mauritius in 1810 the battery was abandoned and never used again for military purposes.
In 1815 Governor Macquarie placed Bungaree in charge. The experiment did not succeed. Following the removal of the British forces from Australia in 1870, construction began in 1871 on the battery at Georges Head and was completed in 1873; the departure of British forces put the onus on colonies like New South Wales and Victoria to assist in, organize its own defences, prior to the Federation of Australia. Georges Head Battery was an outer line harbour defence fortification designed to attack and prevent enemy ships from infiltrating the inner harbour; the fort held a prominent position and was located high above sea level with strategic views to the entrance of Port Jackson. Other batteries were located on Middle Head, South Head, Shark Point and Bradleys Head, but none were used for combative purposes. Georges Head was armed with two 68-pounder guns; the rifled guns were conversions of the long-obsolete 68-pounder smooth bore guns, a common weapon in British colonies. It took three months and 250 soldiers to roll the gun barrels all the way from North Sydney to the batteries.
They came along a rough track which became Military Road. The guns had been positioned so poorly; the guns and soldiers were visible from the harbour. In 1877 large mounds of earth were placed between the pits to make sure the guns could not fire upon each other and to help protect the gun crew from enemy fire; when construction of the fort was complete, there were a total of 41 gun emplacements positioned around the harbour. Defence tactics were planned using telescopes and plotters mounted in the middle of the second gun pit. From the telephone exchange, the Port Jackson District Commandant could communicate with all military installations on the harbour. Telephone cables ran through the tunnels, down the cliff and under the harbour to batteries on the other side. In 1888 Georges Head was chosen as the best place to observe and fire underwater mines, the latest in harbour defences; each underwater mine was attached to an electric cable. From there, miners watched for ships entering the harbour.
The miners' job was to explode the mine closest to an approaching enemy ship. Minefields were laid across the main shipping channels of Port Jackson from 1876 to 1922 and a base w