Syenite is a coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock with a general composition similar to that of granite, but deficient in quartz, which, if present at all, occurs in small concentrations. Some syenites contain larger proportions of mafic components and smaller amounts of felsic material than most granites; the volcanic equivalent of syenite is trachyte. The feldspar component of syenite is predominantly alkaline in character. Plagioclase feldspars may be present in small proportions, less than 10%; such feldspars are interleaved as perthitic components of the rock. When ferromagnesian minerals are present in syenite at all, they occur in the form of hornblende and clinopyroxene. Biotite is rare, because in a syenite magma the formation of feldspar consumes nearly all the aluminium, however less Al rich phyllosilicates may be included such as annite. Other common accessory minerals are apatite, titanite and opaques. Most syenites are either peralkaline with high proportions of alkali elements relative to aluminum, or peraluminous with a higher concentration of aluminum relative to alkali and earth-alkali elements.

Syenites are products of alkaline igneous activity formed in thick continental crustal areas, or in Cordilleran subduction zones. To produce a syenite, it is necessary to melt a granitic or igneous protolith to a low degree of partial melting; this is required because potassium is an incompatible element and tends to enter a melt first, whereas higher degrees of partial melting will liberate more calcium and sodium, which produce plagioclase, hence a granite, adamellite or tonalite. At low degrees of partial melting a silica undersaturated melt is produced, forming a nepheline syenite, where orthoclase is replaced by a feldspathoid such as leucite, nepheline or analcime. Conversely in certain conditions, large volumes of anorthite crystals may precipitate from molten magma in a cumulate process as it cools; this leaves a drastically reduced concentration of silica in the remainder of the melt. The segregation of the silica from the melt leaves it in a state. Syenite is not a common rock. Regions where it occurs in significant quantities include the following.

In the Kola Peninsula of Russia two giant nepheline syenite bodies exists making up the Lovozero Massif and the Khibiny Mountains. These syenites are part of the Kola Alkaline Province. In North America syenite occurs in Montana. Regions in New England have sizable amounts, in New York syenite gneisses occur; the "great syenite dyke" extends from Hanging Rock, South Carolina through Taxahaw, South Carolina to the Brewer and Edgeworth mine in Chesterfield, South Carolina. Syenite pebbles, containing fluorescent sodalite, were moved from Canada to Michigan by glaciers. In other parts of the world, these types of rocks are known as sodalite-syenite and occur in Canada, other US states, Greenland and Russia. In Europe syenite may be found in parts of Switzerland, Norway, Portugal, in Plovdiv, Bulgaria and in Ditrău, Romania. In Africa there are syenite formations in Aswan, in Malawi in the Mulanje Mountain Forest Reserve. Syenite rock was used to make the Quay with Sphinxes. In Australia syenite occurs as small intrusive bodies in nearly every state.

In New South Wales, a large syenite intruded during the breakup of Gondwana in the Cretaceous. Instead of the usual rock syenite, some of the more important events in New England, Montana, New York, Germany, Plovdiv, Bulgaria and Romania; the Malvern Hills, on the border between the counties of Herefordshire and Worcestershire United Kingdom are formed of syenite. Paatusoq and Kangerluluk fjords in southeastern Greenland, where a bay within the latter and a headland are named after the rock; the term syenite was applied to hornblende granite like that of Syene in Egypt, from which the name is derived. Episyenite is a term used in petrology to describe the depletion of silicon dioxide in rock rich in silicon dioxide. A process that results in depletion is termed episyenitization; the term refers only to the macroscopic effect of relative depletion in a rock. Many different metamorphic processes can lead to episyenitization. For example: chemical components in a stagnant melt can diffuse under the influence of chemical potential gradients that cause their segregation from low- SiO2 components when the melt begins to solidify a SiO2-undersaturated fluid may dissolve quartz from rock and remove it by advection, thus leaving the parent rock depleted of silica.

A marginally molten rock mass may retain its unmolten silica-rich components, while the molten, silica-depleted fluid cools to form a syenite. on beginning to cool, a molten silica-rich melt might precipitate its silica-containing components, leaving the silica-depleted melt to form a syenite afterwards. List of rock types E. Wm. Heinrich. Microscopic Petrography, McGraw-Hill, 1956

Exchange Alley

Exchange Alley or Change Alley is a narrow alleyway connecting shops and coffeehouses in an old neighbourhood of the City of London. It served as a convenient shortcut from the Royal Exchange on Cornhill to the Post Office on Lombard Street and remains as one of a number of alleys linking the two streets. Shops once located in Exchange Alley included ship chandlers, makers of navigation instruments such as telescopes, goldsmiths from Lombardy in Italy; the coffeehouses of Exchange Alley Jonathan's and Garraway's, became an early venue for the lively trading of shares and commodities. These activities were the progenitor of the modern London Stock Exchange. Lloyd's Coffee House, at No. 16 Lombard Street but on Tower Street, was the forerunner of Lloyd's of London, the Lloyd's Register and Lloyd's List. See English coffeehouses in the 18th centuries for more on their importance; the nearest London Underground station is Bank and the closest mainline railway station is Cannon Street. Lombard Street and Change Alley had been the open-air meeting place of London's mercantile community before Thomas Gresham founded the Royal Exchange in 1565.

In 1698, John Castaing began publishing the prices of stocks and commodities in Jonathan's Coffeehouse, providing the first evidence of systematic exchange of securities in London. Many stock jobbers, expelled from the Royal Exchange for their rude manners migrated to Jonathan's and Garraway's. Change Alley was the site of some noteworthy events in England's financial history, including the South Sea Bubble from 1711 to 1720 and the panic of 1745. "Change Alley in the South Sea Bubble", Edward Matthew Ward's painting now in the Tate Gallery, skewers stock jobbers' opportunism and the foolishness of investors. Contemporary songs and sarcastic decks of cards are described in Charles Mackay's Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds. Although lampooning the collapse of the South Sea Company has been a popular pastime, others have considered that "the basic outlines of the Anglo-American structure of finance were set by 1723 — a complementary set of private commercial and merchant banks all enjoying continuous access to an active, liquid secondary market for financial assets government debt.

The South Sea Bubble proved to be the "big bang" for financial capitalism in England."In 1748, a fire started at a peruke-maker's in Exchange Alley, from ninety to one hundred houses were burnt down in Exchange Alley and Birchin Lane. Many lives were lost and the fire destroyed the London Assurance Office, the "Swan", "Fleece", "Three Tuns" and "George and Vulture" taverns, "Tom's" the "Rainbow" "Garraway's," "Jonathan's" and the "Jerusalem" coffee-houses; the fire destroyed a rare collection of butterflies assembled by the Aurelian Society. In 1761 a club of 150 brokers and jobbers was formed to trade stocks; the club built its own building in Sweeting's Alley in 1773, dubbed the "New Jonathan's" renamed the Stock Exchange. John Biddulph Martin, "The Grasshopper" in Lombard Street, New York, Scribner & Welford. Dianne Dugaw, "High Change in'Change Alley': Popular Ballads and Emergent Capitalism in the Eighteenth Century", Eighteenth-Century Life, Vol. 22, Number 2, pp. 43–58. The Diary of Samuel Pepys, 28 May 1663.

"The English Coffee Houses", Waes Hael Poetry & Tobacco Club. On Line

Newburyport Brewing Company

Newburyport Brewing Company is a brewery in Newburyport, Massachusetts. Newburyport Brewing Company was founded in 2012 by arrived area residents Chris Webb and Bill Fisher along with Brewmaster Mike Robinson; the brewery is housed in an 8,330 square foot facility and are the first brewery in the state to just can and keg their beers. Statewide distribution began in March 2013 by the Massachusetts Beverage Alliance, whose network consists of Atlas Distributing Inc. Burke Distributing, Colonial Wholesale Beverage, Commercial Distributing Company and Merrimack Valley Distributing Company. In March 2014 the brewery was noted as being among the country's fastest growing breweries with over 5000 barrels produced. In May 2014 the brewery invested in new equipment to increase production to 15,000 barrels. Three beer styles in cans are offered: Newburyport Pale Ale, Green Head IPA, Plum Island Belgian White, Melt Away Session IPA, the newest offering, Das Kölsch. Other styles such as Joppa Stout and limited editions such as Yankee Red are available on draught at the brewery's tap room and at bars throughout Massachusetts and New Hampshire.

Newburyport Brewing Company hosts live music on Thursday and Saturday nights in its taproom. The brewery's founders play in a seven-piece funk band in Newburyport named Das Pintos; the brewery has started hosting artist installations for several weeks at a time. Recent exhibitions include Charley Saint Lewis. Brewmaster Mike Robinson's accolades include: 19-time medalist at the Masters Championship of Amateur Brewing | 2009 Sam Adams Longshot winner – chosen over 1,300 entrants | 2008 Sam Adams Longshot finalist | 3-time Sam Adams Patriot finalist | New England Home Brewer of the Year | 2015 United States Beer Tasting Competition Gold medals for Plum Island White and Yankee Red Ale | 2015 Great International Beer & Cider Competition Gold medal for 1635 American Barley Wine. List of microbreweries Official website