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A syncytium or symplasm is a multinucleated cell that can result from multiple cell fusions of uninuclear cells, in contrast to a coenocyte, which can result from multiple nuclear divisions without accompanying cytokinesis. The term may refer to cells interconnected by specialized membrane with gap junctions, as seen in the heart muscle cells and certain smooth muscle cells, which are synchronized electrically in an action potential; the field of embryogenesis uses the word syncytium to refer to the coenocytic blastoderm embryos of invertebrates, such as Drosophila melanogaster. In protists, syncytia can be found in some rhizarians and acellular slime moulds and acrasids; some examples of plant syncytia, which result during plant development, include: Developing endosperm The non-articulated laticifers The plasmodial tapetum, The "nucellar plasmodium" of the family Podostemaceae A syncytium is the normal cell structure for many fungi. Most fungi of Basidiomycota exist as a dikaryon in which thread-like cells of the mycelium are partitioned into segments each containing two differing nuclei, called a heterokaryon.

A classic example of a syncytium is the formation of skeletal muscle. Large skeletal muscle fibers form by the fusion of thousands of individual muscle cells; the multinucleated arrangement is important in pathologic states such as myopathy, where focal necrosis of a portion of a skeletal muscle fiber does not result in necrosis of the adjacent sections of that same skeletal muscle fiber, because those adjacent sections have their own nuclear material. Thus, myopathy is associated with such "segmental necrosis", with some of the surviving segments being functionally cut off from their nerve supply via loss of continuity with the neuromuscular junction; the syncytium of cardiac muscle is important because it allows rapid coordinated contraction of muscles along their entire length. Action potentials propagate along the surface of the muscle fiber from the point of synaptic contact through intercalated discs. Although a syncytium, cardiac muscle differs because the cells are not multinucleated.

Cardiac tissue is therefore described as a functional syncytium, as opposed to the true syncytium of skeletal muscle. Certain animal immune-derived cells may form aggregate cells, such as the osteoclast cells responsible for bone resorption. Another important vertebrate syncytium is in the placenta of placental mammals. Embryo-derived cells that form the interface with the maternal blood stream fuse together to form a multinucleated barrier - the syncytiotrophoblast; this is important to limit the exchange of migratory cells between the developing embryo and the body of the mother, as some blood cells are specialized to be able to insert themselves between adjacent epithelial cells. The syncytial epithelium of the placenta does not provide such an access path from the maternal circulation into the embryo. Much of the body of Hexactinellid sponges is composed of syncitial tissue; this allows them to form their large siliceous spicules inside their cells. The fine structure of tegument is the same in both the cestodes and trematodes.

A typical tegument is 7-16 μm thick, with distinct layers. It is a syncytium consisting of multinucleated tissues with no distinct cell boundaries; the outer zone of the syncytium, called the "distal cytoplasm," is lined with a plasma membrane. This plasma membrane is in turn associated with a layer of carbohydrate-containing macromolecules known as the glycocalyx, that varies in thickness from one species to another; the distal cytoplasm is connected to the inner layer called the "proximal cytoplasm", the "cellular region or cyton or perikarya" through cytoplasmic tubes that are composed of microtubules. The proximal cytoplasm contains nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, ribosomes, glycogen deposits, numerous vesicles; the internal most layer is bounded by a layer of connective tissue known as the "basal lamina". The basal lamina is followed by a thick layer of muscle. Syncytia can form when cells are infected with certain types of viruses, notably HSV-1, HIV, MeV, pneumoviruses, e.g. respiratory syncytial virus.

These syncytial formations create distinctive cytopathic effects. Because many cells fuse together, syncytium are known as multinucleated giant cells, or polykaryocytes. During infection, viral fusion proteins used by the virus to enter the cell are transported to the cell surface, where they can cause the host cell membrane to fuse with neighboring cells; the viral families that can cause syncytia are enveloped because viral envelope proteins on the surface of the host cell are needed to fuse with other cells. Certain members of the Reoviridae family are notable exceptions due to a unique set of proteins known as fusion-associated small transmembrane proteins. Reovirus induced syncytium formation is not found in humans, but is found in a number of other species and is caused by fusogenic orthoreoviruses; these fusogenic orthoreoviruses include reptilian orthoreovirus, avian orthoreovirus, Nelson Bay orthoreovirus, baboon orthoreovirus. HIV makes them produce viral proteins, including fusion proteins.

The cells begin to display surface HIV glycoproteins, which are antigenic. A cytotoxic T cell will come to "inject" lymphotoxins, such as perforin or granzyme, that will kill the infected T helper cell. However, if T helper cells are nearby, the gp41 HIV receptors displayed on the

Campaign for Unmetered Telecommunications

The Campaign for Unmetered Telecommunications was a United Kingdom political pressure group that operated between 1998 and 2001. CUT campaigned for a fairer choice of telecommunications tariffs for consumers—in particular, unmetered local telephone calls that the organisation said would allow the "full potential" of the Internet to be realised. CUT pressured regulatory bodies and Government; the campaign was cited as "a major driving force" behind the introduction of unmetered Internet access in the United Kingdom. Before the introduction of broadband Internet to the telecommunications market, access to the Internet was most achieved through a dial-up connection that limited speeds to a bitrate of less than 56 kilobits per second. In the 1990s, telecommunications companies in Europe and the United States offered "local call" telephone numbers for this purpose. In Europe, these calls were billed based on the length of time a user was connected, whereas US companies offered free local calls for a flat rate fee.

As a result, Internet use in the UK was at a much lower rate than in the US. This in turn held back the growth of e-commerce and Internet gaming in the UK. In January 1998, the European Union had opened to telecommunications competition, but by the end of the year costs still remained high, little movement had been made on the provision of unmetered Internet access. In Spain, former state operator Telefónica de España was forced to reduce costs after protests from users, Germany's former state operator, Deutsche Telekom, was reported to the European Commission by AOL for perceived anti-competitive pricing. Marketing analysts supported the view; the International Data Corporation reported that 10% of the population of Europe was active on the web in 1998–1999, that 11% of these bought products or services via the web in the last three months of 1998. AOL was one of the few companies that supported a similar business model in Europe as it did in the US, whereas companies such as British Telecom claimed that offering unmetered local calls was not cost-effective.

Founded in April 1998, the not-for-profit Campaign for Unmetered Telecommunications was set up with the primary aim of seeing the introduction of unmetered Internet access in the UK. In its mission statement, CUT argued the case for unmetered telecommunications: "Why: The full potential of the Internet can only be realised through it It will enrich local community life Traditional and electronic commerce will be enhanced by its availability It is done elsewhere, profitably The majority of costs of telecommunications provision are fixedHow: Educating ourselves Putting pressure on telecommunications operators, regulatory bodies and Government Countering misinformation Encouraging others" CUT said that people on lower-incomes would benefit from unmetered access, as they were unable to exploit the Internet's potential—its social and commercial benefits—when faced with the high call charges of the existing system. CUT was financed through paid yearly membership. CUT claimed to have other corporate supporters.

CUT organised the United Kingdom's involvement in a pan-European boycott of the World Wide Web that took place on 6 June 1999. Users in 14 countries participated in the 24-hour boycott; the united European campaign aimed for: "Costs of all telephone calls to more mirror the independently audited cost to telecommunications operators of providing these calls, as mandated by EU law." "Introduction of flat-rate charges for—in the first instance—local calls, so that anyone can talk to friends and relatives, Internet users can dial up to Internet Service Providers using a telephone modem, without worrying about the clock ticking and charges ratcheting up." "For any remaining metered calls, abolition of the minimum call charge so that calls are paid for by the time spent connected." "For Internet users, quicker introduction of modern access methods such as xDSL, cable modems and satellite access, which do not use the telephone modem and are a great improvement on it for users." The boycott was supported by AOL.

In the days leading up to the boycott, AOL UK contacted its subscribers and gave them background information about CUT's campaign, including an open letter, written jointly by CUT and AOL UK's then-president and managing director, David Wendell Phillips. AOL UK users were given details on how to contact their Member of Parliament and Member of the European Parliament, were asked to write to them about Internet costs in the UK. AOL UK surveyed its users on the issue of unmetered Internet access. All of the respondents said local call costs were the largest barrier to Internet use. AOL Europe had backed calls for unmetered access. AOL Europe's then-president and chief executive officer, Andreas Schmidt, said that unmetered access would "fuel job creation and provide consumers and businesses with an unprecedented array of new choices"; the German Institute for Economic Rese

Roderick L. Ireland

Roderick L. Ireland is a former Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, the first African American to serve that position, he was nominated for Chief Justice by Governor Deval Patrick on November 4, 2010, sworn in on December 20. He retired from service on the court on July 25, 2014. Ireland was born on December 3, 1944, in Springfield, Massachusetts to Helen Garner Ireland, an elementary school teacher from Spartanburg, South Carolina, George Lovelace Ireland, a house painter from Springfield, he grew up on Terrence Street in the Old Hill neighborhood, attended Springfield public schools – The William N. DeBerry Elementary School, Buckingham Junior High School, Classical High School. Ireland was an active member of Third Baptist Church, where his family had worshiped for years, singing in the choir and teaching Sunday School. In addition, he was a respected contender at the Dunbar Community Center, where he pursued his love of, talent at, playing basketball. Ireland is married to Alice Alexander.

The now adult children from their previous marriages are Elizabeth and Michael, Melanee. Ireland is a member of the Elliot Congregational Church in Massachusetts. Ireland received his B. A. from Lincoln University, the first degree-granting HBCU in the nation. D. from Columbia Law School. M. from Harvard Law School. D. in Law and Society from Northeastern University. Ireland was admitted to practice in New York State, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the U. S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, the U. S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts. In 1971, alongside Wallace Sherwood, Ireland formed the Roxbury Defenders Committee. At the time, while the Massachusetts Defenders Committee did exist and Ireland felt there needed to be a site more local to Roxbury, a low income, black neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts. However, as the committee was linked to the Massachusetts Defenders Committee, it received its funding from the same place: Massachusetts Committee for Law Enforcement and Administration of Criminal Justice.

The mission of the Roxbury Defenders Committee was broken into three parts: 1. To provide vigorous and comprehensive service to the client population 2. To provide legal services without first being appointed by the court 3. To provide, on a referral basis, related social services. In order to create more awareness of the services that they were offering and Ireland created the Legal Line, a weekly, one hour program on the radio station WILD, where they fielded questions from listeners as well as speaking on legal problems that arose during their proceedings. Ireland left the Roxbury Defenders Committee in 1974. In 1977, Ireland was nominated to the Boston Juvenile Court, in 1990, to the Massachusetts Court of Appeals, he was appointed to both courts by Governor Michael Dukakis. In 1997, he was appointed Associate Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court by Governor William Weld, he is the first African-American associate justice and the first African-American chief justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Court.

He resigned from the high court in 2014, was replaced by Associate Justice Ralph Gants. Chief Justice Ireland has served on the faculty of both Northeastern University School of Law and Northeastern University's College of Criminal Justice, he is Distinguished Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice in the College of Social Sciences and Humanities at Northeastern University. In 2015, the town of Springfield, Massachusetts renamed the street Ireland grew up on, Terence Street, to Chief Justice Roderick L. Ireland Way in honor of Ireland. In 2017, the Hampden County Hall of Justice was renamed the Roderick L. Ireland Courthouse in honor of Ireland. Ireland has received honorary degrees from Excelsior College, University of Massachusetts Boston He is the author of Massachusetts Juvenile Law, a volume of the Massachusetts Practice Series

Pheasant pigeon

The pheasant pigeon is a species of large terrestrial pigeon. It is the only species of the monotypic genus Otidiphaps; the pheasant pigeon is found in the primary rainforests of nearby islands. It ranges over hilly and lower mountain areas, but can be found in lowlands; the genus name makes reference to its similarities to the bustard family. Its common name reflects its adaptation to living on the forest floor in the fashion of a South East Asian pheasant. There are four subspecies recognized that differ in the presence or absence of a small crest and in the colour of the nape: White-naped pheasant pigeon – Rothschild, 1928: Found on the Aru Islands, Vulnerable Green-naped pheasant pigeon – Gould, 1870: Found on western New Guinea and Waigeo Islands, Least concern. Grey-naped pheasant pigeon – Ramsay, EP, 1880: Found on eastern and south-eastern New Guinea, Least concern. Black-naped pheasant pigeon – Salvin & Godman, 1883: Found on Fergusson Island, Endangered; some authors however recognize the 4 subspecies as 4 different species, a classification scheme followed by the IUCN.

The pheasant pigeon resembles a pheasant in external morphology in its laterally compressed tail and the rounded wings. No galliform birds occur in New Guinea, the pheasant pigeon has filled the ecological niche of a partridge or small pheasant, it is a secretive species, feeding on seeds and fallen fruits. It nests on the ground below trees and bushes, laying one egg that it incubates for around four weeks; the green-naped pheasant pigeon and the grey-naped pheasant pigeon are not considered threatened, although the black-naped pheasant pigeon is considered endangered and the white-naped pheasant pigeon is vulnerable. Because it is tied to primary forests, is unique within the pigeon family, it is considered a genus that requires further investigation and monitoring. Del Hoyo and Sargatal. ISBN 84-87334-22-9

Ernst Thälmann (film)

Ernst Thälmann is an East German film in two parts about the life of Ernst Thälmann, leader of the Communist Party of Germany during much of the Weimar Republic, directed by Kurt Maetzig and starring Günther Simon in the title role. The first part, Ernst Thälmann - Sohn seiner Klasse, was released in 1954, it was followed by the 1955 sequel. Ernst Thälmann - Führer seiner Klasse. After fellow soldier Johannes Harms reports that a revolution has broken out at home, Thälmann - who leads a revolutionary cell on the Western Front - and his friend Fiete Jansen rebel against their officers and Quadde, desert. Harms dies in a shelling. In Berlin, the American capitalist Mr. McFuller demands to crush the Spartacists. Zinker, now a member of the Freikorps, murders Rosa Luxemburg. Thälmann promises their sacrifice will not be in vain. Jansen falls in love with Änne; when Hamburg faces an attack by Zinker's forces, as part of the Kapp Putsch, the workers organize a general strike. The Social Democrat Police Senator Höhn frees them after they lightheartedly promise not to use violence.

Thälmann makes a speech in the USPD congress, calling to unite with the KPD, when the Soviet steamship Karl Liebknecht, loaded with wheat for the city's unemployed, reaches the port. Höhn sends Quadde, now a police captain, to prevent the distribution of the cargo, but after a stand-off the police retreat. Thälmann visits Vladimir Joseph Stalin in Moscow with other German communists. Thälmann and his friends organize a communist uprising in Hamburg, manage to hold out against the Reichswehr and the police. Fiete killes Zinker. A delegate from the Central Committee announces that armed struggle is no longer the policy of the party, the weapons promised to them by the leadership will not arrive; the communists are forced to flee. Jansen is sentenced to death, but his life is spared. Thälmann promises not to abandon the struggle. In 1930, Fiete Jansen is reunited with his wife, Änne. Thälmann, now a member of the Reichstag and chief of the KPD, assists the coal miners in the Ruhr to organize a massive strike after their wages are cut.

When the presidential elections take place, veteran SPD member Robert Dirhagen is reluctant to support Paul von Hindenburg, although this is the party line. Thälmann calls for class unity against the Nazis, but the SPD leaders do not want to collaborate with him. In the elections for parliament the KPD gains many seats and the Nazis lose two million votes. However, the Ruhr industrialists and Mr. McFuller support Adolf Hitler. Dirhagen is enraged to hear that the SPD will not oppose Franz von Papen's decision to allow Hitler into the government and tears his party card; the Nazis seize power. The Nazis burn the Reichstag and accuse the communists, arresting many, including Thälmann and Dirhagen. Wilhelm Pieck and Jansen plan to rescue their leader with the aid of an Orpo jailer, but the SS guards - commanded by Quadde, now a SS Sturmbannführer - foil the plot. Fiete escapes abroad, joining the Thälmann Battalion in Spain, - after the Second World War begins - the Red Army's 143rd Guards Tank Division'Ernst Thälmann'.

Änne is arrested by the Gestapo. Hamburg is bombed, she dies in her cell. In August 1944, a German corps is encircled by the Red Army. Hitler orders its commanders to fight to the end; the Soviets send in Jansen with a group of German communists to convince the soldiers to defy the SS and surrender. The Ernst Thälmann Division soldiers break through the German lines, liberate the local concentration camp - in which Dirwagen was held - and accept the German surrender after the SS were overpowered by Jansen's men; the communist Jansen and the Social Democrat Dirhagen shake hands. In Berlin, Thälmann leaves his cell to be executed, while contemplating on Pavel Korchagin's words from How the Steel Was Tempered: "... All my life, all my strength were given to the finest cause in all the world - the fight for the liberation of mankind." Ernst Thälmann, the Communist Party of Germany's chief, executed by the Nazi regime in 1944 after spending 11 years in prison, was revered as a national hero and a martyr in the nascent East Germany.

Thälmann's character combined communist convictions with an uncompromising struggle against Fascism. Thälmann became the center of; this veneration required all controversial aspects of his political career be repressed from mass consciousness. Journalist Erich Wollenberg wrote that in the Ernst Thälmann films, "the Thälmann cult reached its apotheosis." The film was conceived in 1948, after the Soviet Occupation Zone's provisional authorities and the leadership of the SED commissioned it. Willi Bredel and Michael Tschesno-Hell, both political functionaries, were exempted from all their other duties to concentrate on writing the script. A'Thälmann Committee' was convened to direct the production of the film; the committee held its first meeting on 8 October 1948. A


The comma is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in different languages. It has the same shape as an apostrophe or single closing quotation mark in many typefaces, but it differs from them in being placed on the baseline of the text; some typefaces render it as a small line curved or straight but inclined from the vertical, or with the appearance of a small, filled-in figure 9. The comma is used in many contexts and languages to separate parts of a sentence such as clauses, items in lists when there are three or more items listed; the word comma comes from the Greek κόμμα, which meant a cut-off piece. A comma-shaped mark is used as a diacritic in several writing systems, is considered distinct from the cedilla; the rough and smooth breathings appear above the letter in Ancient Greek, the comma diacritic appears below the letter in Latvian and Livonian. Punctuation is much more recent than the alphabet. In the 3rd century BC, Aristophanes of Byzantium invented a system of single dots that separated verses and indicated the amount of breath needed to complete each fragment of the text when reading aloud.

The different lengths were signified by a dot at the middle, or top of the line. For a short passage, a media distinctio dot was placed mid-level; this is the origin of the concept of a comma, although the name came to be used for the mark itself instead of the clause it separated. The mark used today is descended from a diagonal slash, or virgula suspensiva, used from the 13th to 17th centuries to represent a pause; the modern comma was first used by Aldus Manutius. Moreover, the mark is used to separate words and clauses in a sentence to help it to be understood: to divide a sentence into assimilated bite-sized pieces. However, there are many other functions of the comma, such as "setting of questions", "emphasizing point of view", etc. In general, the comma shows that the words before the comma are less or linked grammatically to those after the comma than they might be otherwise; the comma performs a number of functions in English writing. It is used in similar ways in other languages European ones, although the rules on comma usage – and their rigidity – vary from language to language.

Commas are placed between items in lists, as in They own a cat, a dog, two rabbits, seven mice. Whether the final conjunction, most and, should be preceded by a comma, called the serial comma, is one of the most disputed linguistic or stylistic questions in English, they served apples and bananas. We cleaned up cores and skins; the serial comma is used much more usually in the United States. A majority of American style guides mandate its use, including The Chicago Manual of Style and White's classic The Elements of Style, the U. S. Government Printing Office Style Manual; the AP Stylebook for journalistic writing advises against it. The serial comma is known as the Oxford comma, Harvard comma, or series comma, it is sometimes perceived as overly careful or an Americanism, but its usage occurs within both American and British English. It is called the Oxford comma because of its long history of use by Oxford University Press, it is used less in British English, but some British style guides require it, including the Oxford University Press style manual and Fowler's Modern English Usage.

Some writers of British English use it only where necessary to avoid ambiguity. According to New Hart's Rules, "house style will dictate" whether to use the serial comma, "The general rule is that one style or the other should be used consistently." No association with region or dialect is suggested, other than that its use has been advocated by Oxford University Press. Is more frequent in the United States than in England, it is recommended by the United States Government Printing Office, Harvard University Press, the classic Elements of Style of Strunk and White. Use of a comma may prevent ambiguity: The sentence I spoke to the boys and Tom could mean either I spoke to the boys and Sam and Tom or I spoke to the boys, who are Sam and Tom; the serial comma does not eliminate all confusion. Consider the following sentence: I thank my mother, Anne Smith, Thomas; this could mean either my mother and Anne Smith and Thomas or my mother, Anne Smith. This sentence might be recast as "Thomas" for clarity.

I thank Anne Smith and Thomas. Because the comma after "mother" is conventionally used to prepare the reader for an apposite phrase – that is, a renaming of or further information about a noun – this construction suggests that my mother's name is "Anne Smith and Thomas". Compare "I thank my friend and Wesson", in which the ambiguity is obvious; as a rule of thumb, The Guardian Style Guide suggests that straightforward lists do not need a comma before the final "and", but sometimes it can help the reader. The Chicago Manual of Style, other academic writing guides, require the serial comma: all lists must have a comma before the "and" prefacing the last item in a series. I