Syndicalism is a radical current in the labor movement, most active in the early 20th century. Its main idea is the establishment of local worker-based organizations and the advancement of the demands and rights of workers through strikes. According to the Marxist historian Eric Hobsbawm, it was predominant in the revolutionary left in the decade which preceded the outbreak of World War I because Marxism was reformist at that time. Major syndicalist organizations included the General Confederation of Labor in France, the National Confederation of Labor in Spain, the Italian Syndicalist Union, the Free Workers' Union of Germany, the Argentine Regional Workers' Federation. Although they did not regard themselves as syndicalists, the Industrial Workers of the World, the Irish Transport and General Workers' Union and the Canadian One Big Union are considered by most historians to belong to this current. A number of syndicalist organizations were and still are to this day linked in the International Workers' Association, but some of its member organizations left for the International Confederation of Labor, formed in 2018.
The term syndicalism has French origins. In French, a syndicat is a trade union a local union; the corresponding words in Spanish and Portuguese and Italian, are similar. By extension, the French syndicalisme refers to trade unionism in general; the concept syndicalisme révolutionnaire or revolutionary syndicalism emerged in French socialist journals in 1903 and the French General Confederation of Labor came to use the term to describe its brand of unionism. Revolutionary syndicalism, or more syndicalism with the revolutionary implied, was adapted to a number of languages by unionists following the French model. Many scholars, including Ralph Darlington, Marcel van der Linden, Wayne Thorpe, apply the term syndicalism to a number of organizations or currents within the labor movement that did not identify as syndicalist, they apply the label to one big unionists or industrial unionists in North America and Australia, Larkinists in Ireland, groups that identify as revolutionary industrialists, revolutionary unionists, anarcho-syndicalists, or councilists.
This includes the Industrial Workers of the World in the United States, for example, which claimed its industrial unionism was "a higher type of revolutionary labor organization than that proposed by the syndicalists". Van der Linden and Thorpe use syndicalism to refer to "all revolutionary, direct-actionist organizations". Darlington proposes that syndicalism be defined as "revolutionary trade unionism", he and van der Linden argue that it is justified to group together such a wide range of organizations because their similar modes of action or practice outweigh their ideological differences. Others, like Erik Olssen, disagree with this broad definition. According to Olssen, this understanding has a "tendency to blur the distinctions between industrial unionism and revolutionary socialism". Peterson gives a more restrictive definition of syndicalism based on five criteria: A preference for federalism over centralism. Opposition to political parties. Seeing the general strike as the supreme revolutionary weapon.
Favoring the replacement of the state by "a federal, economic organization of society". Seeing unions as the basic building blocks of a post-capitalist society; this definition excludes the Canadian One Big Union. Peterson proposes the broader category revolutionary industrial unionism to encompass syndicalism, groups like the IWW and the OBU, others; the defining commonality between these groups is that they sought to unite all workers in a general organization. Syndicalism spread from there; the French CGT was the inspiration for syndicalist groups throughout Europe and the world. Revolutionary industrial unionism, part of syndicalism in the broader sense, originated with the IWW in the United States and caught on in other countries. In a number of countries, certain syndicalist practices and ideas predate the coining of the term in France or the founding of the IWW. In Bert Altena's view, a number of movements in Europe can be called syndicalist before 1900. According to the English social historian E.
P. Thompson and the anarcho-syndicalist theorist Rudolf Rocker, there were syndicalist tendencies in Britain's labor movement as early as the 1830s. Syndicalists saw themselves as the heirs of the First International, the international socialist organization formed in 1864 its anti-authoritarian wing led by Mikhail Bakunin. Bakunin and his followers advocated the general strike, rejected electoral politics, anticipated workers' organizations replacing rule by the state. According to Lucien van der Walt, the Spanish section of the First International, formed in 1870, was in fact syndicalist. Kenyon Zimmer sees a "proto-syndicalism" in the influence the anarchist-led International Working People's Association and Central Labor Union, which originated in the American section of the First International, had in the Chicago labor movement of the 1880s, they were involved in the nationwide struggle for an eight-hour day. On May 3, 1886, the police killed three striking workers at a demonstration in Chicago.
Seven policemen and four workers were killed the following day when someone a police member, threw a bomb into the crowd. Four anarchists were executed for conspiring to the events; the Haymarket Affair, as these events become known, led anarchists and labor organizers, including syndicalists, in both the United States and Europe to re-evaluate the revolutionary meaning of the general strike. According to Émile Pouget, a French anarchist and CG
In general, the United States alone experiences 1 million cases of salmonellosis per year. In Europe, although there are around 100,000 incidents of salmonellosis reported annually, there has been a steady decrease in cases over the past four years; the exact number of those infected is impossible to know. Of these reported cases, some can be classified as foodborne disease outbreaks by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention if "two or more people get the same illness from the same contaminated food or drink" or zoonotic outbreaks if "two or more people get the same illness from the same pet or other animal". In 2012, the various strains or serotypes of the Salmonella bacteria, related to the outbreaks in the United States, infected over 1800 people and killed seven. In Europe, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control reported 91,034 cases of Salmonella infection with 65,317 cases related to the 2012 outbreaks. Of those 65,317 cases, there were 61 deaths. Salmonella bacteria can be found in any product or animal, exposed to fecal matter.
These exposures can occur from crops grown from waste-based fertilizers or from food items handled by infected humans. Salmonellosis is an intestinal disease, meaning that the bacteria must be ingested and processed through the intestines in order for infection to occur. Thus, salmonellosis is spread to humans through ingestion of contaminated food items, it can be spread through contact with reptiles and birds after the person handles the animal or its environment and touches their mouth or food items. Those infected develop symptoms anywhere from 12–72 hours after first contact with Salmonella bacteria, most do not require serious medical attention; this salmonellosis displays itself in humans with fever, abdominal pain, and, most diarrhea for a period of up to 7 days. Those requiring hospitalization are dehydrated or have extreme diarrhea, which can turn deadly if the salmonella bacteria reaches the bloodstream; the elderly, young children, those with weakened immune systems are most at risk for developing salmonellosis and suffering severe reactions.
The most common serotypes of Salmonella in the United States and Europe are Enteritidis and Typhimurium. The 2012 outbreak did not have one start and end date due to the multivariate origination sites and stages of investigation; each outbreak followed its own pattern of contamination, spread and containment throughout the course of 2012. Worldwide, there were 15 different foodborne and zoonotic origins of the Salmonella outbreaks. Eighteen of the over 2,300 strains of Salmonella were found in infected humans and contaminated products in Europe and the U. S; as with all diseases, there were certain places and serotypes that contributed more to the magnitude of the 2012 outbreak. As such, the origins listed below had the greatest frequency of occurrence and overall impact on society. S. Typhimurium has traditionally been an uncommon serotype of Salmonella; the infection caused four hospitalizations. These infections stem from contact with the animals' surroundings. No one pet provider was linked to the infected hedgehogs.
One epidemic of Salmonella enterica I 4,5,12:i:- in the United States in February 2012 affected 46 people across 22 states. The outbreak seemed to be linked to the handling of live or frozen feeder mice and rats for reptile and amphibian pets. A similar outbreak occurred in the United States and United Kingdom in 2009 and 2010 from the same two breeders implicated in this 2012 occurrence. More than a third of those infected were young children, highlighting their propensity for infection; the outbreaks in 2012 that occurred due to contact with live poultry were of five different serotypes of Salmonella bacteria originating in three distinct locations. The first infections were reported in February 2012. Spanning 23 states, there were 93 humans infected with the Montevideo serotype of Salmonella. All were infected with this strain from contact with baby ducklings or chicks from the Estes Hatchery located in Springfield, Missouri; this outbreak resulted in one casualty. One month 46 people in the United States were infected with Salmonella Hadar through contact with live poultry.
There were no deaths, the infected humans were located in 11 different states. The specific hatchery name is withheld, but it was concluded by the CDC that this strain of Salmonella originated in one unnamed hatchery in Idaho. In the same month, one of three strains of Salmonella – Infantis, Newport, or Lille – were contracted by 195 people from contact with live poultry. Of those infected, two died from infection; this particular outbreak, though stemming from only the Mt. Healthy Hatchery in Ohio, expanded across 27 states. First investigated at the end of March 2012, there were a total of 84 cases of infected humans across 15 states of the United States by November 2012; these people's salmonellosis stemmed from contact with their habitats. Some of these turtles were purchased from street merchants. No one source of the Salmonella contaminations was identified, no human deaths occurred. Due to past outbreaks, there is a law in place making it illegal to sell or own a turtle with a shell length less than four inches, as these seem to be the sources of most Salmonella bacteria in small turtles.
First reported in April 2012, an outbr
Jean-Marie Straub and Danièle Huillet were a duo of filmmakers who made two dozen films between 1963 and 2006. Their films are noted for their rigorous, intellectually stimulating style and radical, communist politics. Though both were French, they worked in Germany and Italy. From the Clouds to the Resistance and Sicilia! are among the duo's best regarded works. Straub, born in Metz, met Paris-born Huillet as a student in 1954. Straub was involved in the Parisian cinephile community at the time, he was friends with Francois Truffaut and contributed to his publication Cahiers du Cinéma, although Truffaut refused to publish Straub's more inflammatory writings. He worked as an assistant to the film director Jacques Rivette on the 1956 film A Fool's Mate; the pair emigrated to Germany so that Straub could avoid military service in Algeria. In 1963, they made Machorka-Muff, an 18-minute short based on a Heinrich Böll story and their first collaboration, their next film, the 55-minute Not Reconciled, was a Böll adaptation.
They did not make a full-length feature until 1968's Chronicle of Anna Magdalena Bach, after which they made films at a even rate, completing a feature every 2–3 years. In 1968, they made a short film starring Rainer Werner Fassbinder and his theatre troupe called The Bridegroom, the Actress and the Pimp. In the mid 1970s, they began producing films in Italy, they began splitting their time between Germany and Italy, as well as collaborating with French and British producers. Straub and Huillet lived together for most of their lives, they had no children. Huillet died of cancer in Cholet on 9 October 2006, aged 70. All of the films of Straub and Huillet are based on other works: novels, operas and less conventional source materials, such as political writings, their sources include writings by Franz Kafka, Elio Vittorini and Bertolt Brecht. S. Bach. Many of their films, such as Klassenverhältnisse, stress the relationship between the original text and the film. Due to his more extroverted nature, Jean-Marie Straub served as the public face of the couple: this has contributed to the widespread assumption that Huillet's role in their filmmaking process was secondary.
In reality, the two split their work with Straub responsible for mise en scène, Huillet controlling much of the production design and editing process, the two being responsible for the pre-production and rehearsals. This method can be seen in Pedro Costa's documentary Where Does Your Hidden Smile Lie?, filmed during the editing of Sicilia!, one of their last features. Machorka-Muff Nicht versöhnt oder Es hilft nur Gewalt wo Gewalt herrscht Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach Der Bräutigam, die Komödiantin und der Zuhälter Les Yeux ne veulent pas en tout temps se fermer, ou Peut-être qu'un jour Rome se permettra de choisir à son tour Geschichtsunterricht Einleitung zu Arnold Schoenbergs Begleitmusik zu einer Lichtspielscene Moses und Aron Fortini/Cani Toute révolution est un coup de dés Dalla nube alla resistenza En rachâchant Trop tot/trop tard Klassenverhältnisse Der Tod des Empedokles Schwarze Sünde Paul Cézanne im Gespräch mit Joachim Gasquet Die Antigone des Sophokles nach der Hölderlinschen Übertragung für die Bühne bearbeitet von Brecht 1948 Lothringen!
Von heute auf morgen Sicilia! Operai, contadini Il Ritorno del figlio prodigo - Umiliati Une visite au Louvre Quei loro incontri Europa 2005 - 27 octobre Dialogue d'ombres Landscapes of Resistance: The German Films of Daniele Huillet and Jean-Marie Straub by Barton Byg The Art of Seeing, the Art of Listening: The Politics of Representation in the Work of Jean-Marie Straub and Daniele Huillet by Ursula Boser'The Invention of Place: Danièle Huillet and Jean-Marie Straub's Moses and Aaron.' by Jacques Aumont In: M. Lefebvre: Landscape and Film, London & New York: Routledge Danièle Huillet et Jean-Marie Straub « objectivistes » en cinéma, by Benoît Tuquety, Lausanne, L’Âge d’homme. Ted Fendt, Jean-Marie Straub & Danièle Huillet, FilmmuseumSynemaPublikationen Vol. 26, Vienna 2016, ISBN 978-3-901644-64-1 Jean-Marie Straub on IMDb Jean-Marie Straub at Filmportal.de Danièle Huillet at Filmportal.de Too Early, Too Late - by Serge Daney Portrait de groupe avec Straub: Vidéo